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To investigate effects of warming and fertilization on soil enzyme activities in alpine meadows, a simulation study was conducted in situ with OTCs (opentop chambers) method. Results revealed that with warming, activities of soil cellulase and phosphatase increased by 12.4%, 29.1% respectively; urease activity decreased by 18.0%, which suggested that warming could accelerate the C and P cycles in the ecosystem. Under unchanged temperatures, fertilization reduced the activities of soil cellulase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase but NPK fertilizer applied raised the activities of soil urease and phosphatase. Reversely, there was no significant effect of fertilization on the activities of soil cellulase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase with warming; soluble carbon （Glu） fertilizer applied increased soil urease activity but NPK declined phosphatase activity. In addition, the interaction between warming and fertilization had a significant effect on many kinds of soil enzyme activities. In conclusion, compared with unchanged temperatures, simulated warming did not induce significant differences in the activities of soil cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and urease with fertilization. Amidst the background of climatic warming in the future the response of many kinds of soil enzyme activities to different fertilizers would become inertia in the alpine ecosystem.
Abstract: Soil organic carbon, soil active organic carbon, soil alkalihydrolysable nitrogen, soil available phosphorus, soil available potassium, soil water content and soil bulk density were determined to study the distribution of soil organic carbon and soil physical and chemical properties on degraded alpine meadows in Dangxiong,Tibet. Results showed that the change orders of soil organic carbon content and its density both in the 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers were normal meadowslightly degraded meadowserious degraded meadow; soil organic carbon content and its density in the 0－10 cm soil layer were higher than those in the 10-20 cm soil layer. There were correlations between soil organic carbon and other soil nutrients. The regression analysis showed that there were significantly positive linear relationships between soil organic carbon and soil active organic carbon (y=0.074 3x-0.026 1, R2=0.913 9), soil alkalihydrolysable nitrogen （y=2.676 8 x+14.425 0, R2=0.977 1）, soil available P (y=0.245 9x+3.347 9, R2=0.931 4）, soil available K (y=4.296 5x+71.667 0, R2=0.665 3） and soil water content (y=0.790 8x + 5.424 5, R2=0.715 6），respectively. A significant negative linear correlation existed between soil organic carbon and soil bulk density (y=-0.016 7x+1.553 1, R2=0.773 5). The loss of soil organic carbon resulted in reduction of soil nutrients and moisture and increasing soil bulk density. Path analysis indicated that the change of soil organic carbon had the most significant effect on the soil alkalihydrolysable nitrogen.
Abstract: The influence of shortterm fencing on soil nutrients was discussed by comparatively analyzing the change of nutrients in the 0－20 cm soil layer inside and outside of fences at the degenerated desert grassland of Xinjiang. The results showed that the soil OlsenP content was depressed inside fences. The topsoil available N contents of fenced moderate degraded and fenced severe degraded grassland were depressed; while that of fenced extreme degraded grassland was increased. After fencing, soil organic matter content of moderate degraded and extreme degraded grassland were increased. It can be seen due to the local harsh natural conditions and levels of grassland degradation were different. The effect of shortterm fences on restoration of soil nutrients except OlsenP content was depressed consistently. The changes of the soil organic matter, available N and available K were not obvious. For that reason, only through longterm monitoring, the effect of fencing on soil nutrients will be evaluated objectively.
Northwest China is located in the hinterland of Eurasia and is one of the most arid place in China. Drought has been one of the major blocking factors to local economic development. The soil moisture of every 16 days from June to September 2007 in Northwest China was specially discussed by using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and surface temperature (TS) obtained from the MODIS synthetic products (MOD11A2 and MOD13A2) and using temperature vegetation drought index (TVDI) as a indicator for monitoring soil moisture. The results showed that from June to September 2007 there was not serious or large scaled drought in Northwest China, but there was a wide range of mild to medium drought for long periods of time with only a few areas appearing to be normal. Through the validation of soil moisture data, TVDI largely reflects the conditions of surface soil moisture and is possible to do dynamic monitoring for summers drought in Northwest China.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to extract and purify total flavonoids from Cynomorium songaricum. AB8 macroporous resin was used in the experiment. The result showed that the purity of total flavonoids was 97.278%; the adsorption ratio and elution ratio were 81.933 mg/g and 53.164 mg/g respectively. The study indicates that the AB8 type of macroporous adsorption resin has high adsorption and elution ratio for separation and purification of the total flavonoids from C. songaricum.
Abstract: Growth characteristics, winter survival and flowering characteristics of 8 wild centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) accessions, collected from hilly areas of Ningzhen, were observed. Their turf quality was also evaluated. The results showed that growth characteristics, winter survival and flowering characteristics were quite different among different accessions of centipedegrass. Pukou Laoshan centipedegrass (E10) was the most different from other types. It showed slower growth, fewer branches, later wilting， longer bluegreen period and stronger winter survival. Nanjing Zhongshan centipedegrass (E11) had the fastest growth rate of a single stolon. The centipedegrass (E12) collected from Yizheng Xinji of Jiangsu Province had the highest quality and score on the comprehensive evaluation. The centipedegrass (E10) collected from Pukou Laoshan in Nanjing showed yellow stems, white stigma and yellow anthers. However, other centipedegrass of the hilly areas of Ningzhen had purple stems, red stigma and anthers. All the materials reported here provide favorable germplasm resources for the breeding of centipedegrass in the area of Ningzhen.
Abstract: As a class of typical ornamental plants in gardens; ornamental grasses are increasingly being focused on by the landscape industry at home and abroad. Based on ornamental grass research papers published from 1989 to 2010, the publishing time period, authors and ornamental grass research highlights were summarized and analyzed using the bibliometric method in this paper. The results showed that the research of ornamental grasses mainly focused on physiology and biochemistry; occupying 39.10% of all the papers involved. The research were extensive and diversified with quite a few papers published in the last six years (61.80% in all the papers involved in the past 21 years). The specific research areas and authors of ornamental grasses are more concentrated but the research quality needs to be improved. This study could provide reference literature for researchers to identify research topics and discuss ornamental grass research as well as for librarians to collect and file the relevant journals.
Abstract： The seeds of transgenic perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with DREB1A gene were treated with various concentrations of NaCl (0, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, 1.2% and 1.5%) to study physiological responses of transgenic plants under salt stresses. The results showed that the seed relative germination potential, relative germination rate, seedling height, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf water content and relative water content (RWC) decreased when NaCl concentration increased. There were significant differences between the transgenic group and control group. Variation of root length was not obvious．The leaf relative conductivity had a positive relationship with the increase of salt concentration and with significant differences between transgenic plants and control plants. The salt tolerance of transgenic plants improved compared to nontransgenic plants. Transgenic T1 generation seeds of perennial ryegrass with DREB1A gene can be used as seed resources for salt soil improvement.
Abstract: Limonium gmelinii and L. otolepis are perennial herbaceous plants and belong to Limonium, Plumbaginaceae. They are the main edificatos of haloeremion areas in Xinjiang. Continual observation dedicated that seedling recruitment was very slow in the population of the two species. As it may be related to the germination of seeds; the experiment was hypothesized to study the two Limonium seed germination under different concentrations of NaCl, NaHCO3 and mixed solution of NaCl and NaHCO3. The results indicated that all of the salt solutions at different concentrations influenced seed germination significantly. With increasing concentration of the solution; the germination rate, germination power and germination index of Limonium seeds decreased gradually. The mixed solutions had stronger influence than others in restraining the seed germination. The salt tolerance of L. gmelinii seed was stronger than that of L. otolepis under different treatments. The experiment also showed that when seeds were transferred from salt solutions to distilled water they could have a high germination rate. The salinity inhibition of the seed germination of Limonium was through osmotic stress. In natural conditions, the soil salinity stress was one of the most important factors affecting seedling recruitment in the Limonium population.
Abstract: Seed hardness is a big problem for Chamaecrista rotundifolia cultivation. A experiment was conducted to determine the impact of seed soaking treatments (hot water and H2SO4) on germination of two varieties of C. rotundifolia (cv. Minyin and cv. Minyin NO.2) for finding a technique to break seed dormancy of C. rotundifolia seed. This study showed that seeds hardness rate of two varieties reached 56.3% and 76.0%, respectively; however, the hardness rate of Minyin treated by 100 ℃ water for 3 min decreased to 11.7%, and its germination rate and germination index increased to 42.7% and 32.1 respectively. The hot water treatments did not work on the seed hardness rate of Minyin NO.2. Seeds of Minyin and Minyin NO.2 treated by 98% H2SO4 for 10 min performed better, and indicating that their germination indexes were 58.9 and 37.0 and their germination rates were 64.7% and 80.0%, respectively.
Abstract： A pot experiment was conducted to study physiological response of Dendrathema indicum seedlings, collected in Benxi of Liaoning Province, to natural drought stress. The experiment included three treatments which were normal watering (Ⅰ, CK), rewatering after 10 days drought stress (Ⅱ) and 20 days drought stress without watering (Ⅲ). The results showed that contents of soluble protein (osmotic adjustment substances) in Ⅱ and Ⅲ were lower than that of CK treatment during the initial processing, but later they were up and closed to the CK gradually. However, change of soluble sugar contents was opposite compared with the soluble protein contents. At early stage, soluble sugar contents raised sharply, but then they began to decline. The relative conductivity and MDA contents were higher than those of CK during the processing; but the contents in Ⅱ were close to the CK along with the progress of drought stress. Trends of antioxidant enzyme levels were more consistent; and increased and then decreased, but increased again finally. This paper argues that this change is a plant selfprotection mechanism at beginning, the late rise in antioxidant enzyme levels may be a plant and environment adaptability. In summary, D. indicum seedlings have better endurance capacity, resilience and adaptive capacity. It has good drought resistance and is a potential landscape plant material.
The volatile components of Eupatorium adenophorum fresh leaves, both in vitro leaves and leaves of in vitro plants intimidated by toxins from Lecanosticta acicola were analyzed by GCMS. Results showed that 1) thirtynine volatile organic compounds were isolated and identified from fresh leaves, sixty volatile compounds from in vitro leaves intimidated by toxins, and fiftythree volatile compounds from leaves of in vitro plants intimidated by toxins. 2) Components and numbers of volatile organic compounds from different methods were different. When E. adenophorum was intimidated by toxins, leaves gave off more compounds which had antibacterial and insecticidal activity. It implies that toxins can induce E.adenophorum enhancing chemical defence. 3) The toxins may influence other aspects of chemical defense of E. adenophorum. So more attention should be paid to the effect of pathogen toxins on inducing weed chemical defence. It may be beneficial to seek out efficient pathway to control alien invasive weeds.
Abstract: The Shannonwiener index, richness index, Pielou evenness index, Jaccard index, and Sorenson index were used to investigate communities of Trollius chinensis grown in five different habitats in Chengde of Hebei Province. The results showed that 182 plants species in 93 genera of 36 families were found in five different habitats; including forest open space, wetlands, valleys, slope lands and understory. There were the highest number of species in the forest open space and the lowest number in the understory. The hygrophytes were more than the xerophytes in the different habitats reflecting the hygrophilous characteristics of T.chinensis communities. The ShannonWiener index of different habitats showed forest open spacevalleywetlandslope landunderstory. The richness index of different habitats from large to small manifested as forest open spacewetlandvalleyslope landunderstory. The order of evenness index of different habitats was valleyforest open spaceslope landwetlandunderstory. The results from the comparison of community similarity showed that the difference between wetland and forest open space was the smallest; the difference between understory and valley was the biggest. In addition, the results of ANOVA of community diversity were more consistent with community similarity analysis. Soil moisture and light are the main factors affecting species diversity and community similarity of the T.chinensis community.
Abstract： In order to study the relationship between grass yield and morphological traits of hybrid giant napier (Pennisetum hydridum), some important morphological traits including fresh yield, plant height, tiller numbers, etc. were investigated in 2009. Relativity and multiple linear regressions of confirming the dominant morphological traits on impacting yield were also analyzed. The results showed that there were significantly positive correlations among yield and plant height, tillers, numbers of effectual stems；enhanced with the increase of growth years of the hybrid giant napier after planted. The correlation analysis and path analysis found that the greatest direct and indirect effects on fresh yield of hybrid giant napier were its effectual stem numbers, node and tiller numbers. A simple regression analysis showed that the fitting degree of numbers of nodes and fresh yield was the best among the single variables. Moreover, the five linear regression model, Y=-23.742+0.031X1+0.261X2+0.187X3+0.025X4+0.825X5, R2=0.822（P0.01）, was the optimal model for the fresh yield of hybrid giant napier with different growth years. The fresh yield of hybrid giant napier can be predicted by the regression equation. The numbers of tillers, effectual stems and nodes of hybrid giant napier have the most important contribution to its fresh yield.
Abstract: 12 introduced alfalfa (Medicago sativa) breeds, including Alfaking, Fields, Pyramid, Reward, Simplot 2000, Norva, Hopeland, Multifoliator, Leafking, Pick 3006, Pick 8925, Spreador3, from American and Canada compared with local breed (Zhonglan 1) were studied in breed introduction cultivation tests in semiaridity areas （Lanzhou） in 2003, and on adaptability in semihumidity area （Gangu） in 2008. The results indicated that 12 introduced alfalfa plants grew well and completed all the reproductive periodicity. The results did not indicate plant diseases and damage by insects in both the semiaridity and semihumidity areas. Reproductive periodicity, nutrition component, growth rapidity and ratio of stem and leaf of 12 introduced breeds were also analyzed. It also showed that Alfaking had the highest content of dissociative praline and soluble sugar and the lowest content of MDA. The fresh yields of Alfaking were the highest, which were 54 207.00 kg/ha in Lanzhou and 82 883.65 kg/ha in Gangu. The second better of agronomic traits was Pick3006. However, Spreador3 and Zhonglan 1 also had better performances compared with other breeds on adaptability. In conclusion, Alfaking, Pick3006, Spreador3 and Zhonglan 1 are recommended to be cultivated in semiaridity and semihumidity areas of the Loess Plateau in northern China.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to select the suibtable plant legume forages from 16 legume forages for the dry and hot valley in the Yuanmou region. This study showed that Centrosema pubescens, Flemingia macropylla, and Desmodium ovalifolium did not seed and the other 13 plant species grew well. Leucaena leucocephala showed the highest yield with a lange number of leaves and good palatability. The top yield was L. leucocephala K636, L. leucocephala, L. leucocephala cv.Reyan No.1 with 26 933.9 kg/ha, 24 882.6 kg/ha, 22 459.2 kg/ha, respectively. The sheep preference for these plants was 5. The Neotononis wightii cv.Tinarroo, Acacia farnesiana and Sesbania grandiflora came to the second due to higher yield and good palatability, and ratio of dry weight to fresh weight and stem/leaf ratio of N. wightii cv.Tinarroo was 0.27 and 0.73. The lowest yield forage was Desmodium ovalifolium with 920.8 kg/ha, and its DW/FW ratio was 1.96. This study suggested that D. ovalifolium was not suitable to be planted in Yuanmou region; and the pest control for Cratylia argentea should be taken during its blooming period to increase pod numbers.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted on assessing adaptability of four varieties of Lolium multiflorum (Jumbo, Jewitt, Tetragold and Diamond T) at Shaoyang areas in Hunan Province. The results of this study showed that four varieties performed well at Shaoyang area. Regeneration properties, plant heights and grass yields of four varieties were significant better than those of the CK variety. The growth period of four varieties were 32-37 days longer than that of the CK. However, when compared four varieties each other it was found that Jumbo and Jewitt had higher yields than Tetragold and Dimaond T. This study demonstrated that Jumbo and Jewitt performed well with high yield, rapid growth and regeneration than others at Shaoyang area. The difference between Jumbo and Jewitt was not significant (P0.05).
Abstract: Based on grassland biomass field investigation and synchronous meteorological data in 2004； we estimated grassland biomass and evaluated the relationships between grassland biomass and meteorological factors in the northern slopes of the Mountains Qilian. The results indicated that the total grassland biomass was estimated to be 490.4 g/m2. The average above ground and below ground biomass were estimated as 42.1 and 448.3 g/m2 respectively. The vegetation coverage had a prominently positive exponent correlation with biomass and soil moisture content of 0~20 cm (P＜0.05). It implied that biomass and soil moisture content of 0~20 cm significantly increased with the increase of vegetation coverage. Biomass was positively correlated with precipitation and relative humidity and negatively correlated with air temperature, soil temperature and aridity index. However, the relationships among all of them did not reach the level of significance (P＞0.05). The biomass was significantly positively correlated with soil moisture content (P＜0.05). Soil moisture content is the key factor influencing biomass in the northern slopes of the Mountains Qilian.
Abstract: On the basis of vegetation coverage monitor and indicator evaluation systems, using GIS software and pixel dichotomy model based on vegetation indices, this study reflected the grassland coverage images in 2000, 2005 and 2009 and analyzed the dynamic changes of grassland vegetation coverage in different periods at Yanchi County. The results showed that from 2000 to 2005, the areas of high, mediumhigh and medium coverage grassland at Yanchi County increased by 4.83, 907.03 and 714.67 km2, respectively. Meanwhile, the areas of low and extremely low coverage grassland decreased by 717.83 and 908.62 km2. From 2005 to 2009 the areas of high, mediumhigh and medium coverage grassland continuously increased by 228.47, 190.00 and 377.04 km2, respectively. Above analysis showed that the implementation of national ecological construction projects, such as Grassland Restoration Project ， Natural Grassland Grazing Prohibition and Natural Grassland Rodentfree Demonstration Area ， in 2000 have brought remarkable effects. The trend of grassland desertification has been controlled for the time being.
Abstract: According to local typical grazing patterns and sheep units per hectare, the stocking rates in mountain grasslands at Xinyuan County was divided into extremely heavy (E, 0.51 sheep unit/ha), heavy (H, 0.43 sheep unit/ha), moderate (M, 0.32 sheep unit/ha), light (L, 0.26 sheep unit/ha) and no grazing area (U, 0 sheep unit/ha). The study evaluated effects of above five stocking rates on vegetation characteristics and plant nutrient contents in mountain grasslands with Bothriochloa ischcemum and other forbs. The results showed that the highest yield of forages (1,008 g/m2) was obtained in 1st of June. With increasing grazing intensity, biotope was deteriorated; species diversity was decreased and productivity was reduced. CP content of the forages was the highest (10.6%), but the NDF (50%) was the lowest with extremely heavy grazing treatment; ADF (30.8%) contents with moderate grazing was the lowest among in all of treatments.
Abstract: In order to study the planting technique of mixed grassland, a series trials of combinations of different grass species (legume and gramaneae) at Sangke town, Xiahe County were conducted during 2004－2006. Results from the study showed that in the first planting year (2004), yield of hay and fresh grass of the combination Ⅱ (the mixture of Onobrychis viciaefolia cv.Gansu, Medicago sativa cv. Algonguin, Elymus nutans and Bromus inermis) was the highest, and significant (P0.05) higher than those from combination Ⅰ (the mixture of O.viciaefolia cv.Gansu, M. sativa cv.Algonguin and E. nutans), Ⅲ (the mixture of O. viciaefolia cv.Gansu, M.sativa cv. Algonguin and B. inermis) and Ⅳ (the mixture of O. viciaefolia cv.Gansu and M. sativa cv. Algonguin)； and the hay yield was higher by 379, 446 and 369 kg/ha, respectively. However, in the second planting year (2005) the yields of combinationⅠ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ were 2 489, 2 857, 2 715 and 2 977 kg/ha, respectively. There were no significant differences between the combination Ⅰ and Ⅲ； between combination Ⅱ and Ⅳ. In the third planting year (2006), the yield of hay and fresh grass of combination Ⅳ was the highest and significant (P0.05) higher than that of combination Ⅰ by 3 635 kg/ha. There were significant differences among the four combinations.
Abstract: Ceratoides arborescens is a xeric semishrub of monoecism different flower and endemic to China. It has rich nutrients and strong resistance and is an important plant species for ecological construction and grassland improvement. Up till today, wild C. arborescens population has degraded seriously and has high reproductive obstacles. Based on reproductive ecology and related research of wild C. arborescens, the reproductive ecology characteristics of C. arborescens population were analyzed. The reasons of C. arborescens population degradation were discussed. Finally, the principles and techniques of C. arborescens population restoration were proposed.
Abstract：From June to October 2008, the field investigation and surveys on the enclosed (for seven years) recovery grassland of natural grazing pastures were conducted to analyze production capacity, pasture resources and dynamic changes of vegetation community nutrition at Dalinuori Town, Keshiketeng Banner, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Furthermore, the feeding value and optimum carrying capacity of the pasture were also evaluated to provide a theoretical guidance for establishing scientifically a grazing management system of enclosed recovery pastures and promoting the sustainable development of grassland animal husbandry. The results showed that the grassland ecosystem had been recovered to Leymus chinensis and Stipa krylovii steppe communitybased from Artemisia frigida steppe after 7 years of enclosed restoration. The community characteristics of vegetation were improved; average coverage was 37.5%, density was 184.6 plants/m2, average height was 18.3 cm, fresh biomass was 154.3 g/m2 and the highest yield was 358.6 g/m2 in the whole growth period. The forage maintained high levels of CP, EE, TDN and ME; averaging 12.06%, 1.87%, 57.4% and 8.31 MJ/kg respectively. Based on forage yield in the warmseason yield carrying capacity was calculated to 0.656 hm2/sheepunit. However, according to forage and sheep nutrition indicators (CP, EE and TDN) supplydemand relation; the nutrients carrying capacity were estimated to 0.513， 0.802 and 0.774 hm2/sheepunit respectively. Therefore, the degraded grassland was resumed after 7 years of enclosed restoration; with higher grassland carrying capacity, excellent feed resources and better forage nutrition value compared with the control. The enclosure recovery grassland can be moderately grazed for sheep and cattle.
Abstract： The nutrient contents of autumn forages sampled from four pastures with different altitudes (3 400-3 800 m) at Aba County were determined separately. The results showed that the average contents of crude protein (CP), crude fat (EE), crude fibre (CF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), ash （Ash）, calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) were 10.30%, 2.92%, 29.24%, 35.47%, 57.21%, 6.86,% 0.71% and 0.14%, respectively. The contents of CP, EE, CF, ADF, NDF, Ash and Ca in forages from different pastures had no significant difference (P0.05). However, the difference of P content in the forages among different pastures was significant （P0.05). The contents of CP, EE, CF, ADF, NDF and Ash in the forages from different altitudes had no significant difference (P0.05). The contents of Ca and P were obviously different (P0.05) among different altitudes. The nutrient contents of autumn forages at Aba County are suitable for season grazing, but supplementary feeding is essential as well.
Abstract: According to the records from 107 meteorological stations in Inner Mongolia and using the gradient inverse square formula, the climatic grid data of 1 km 1 km were calculated by interpolating under the GIS environment. Based on the distribution characteristics of animal production structure in Inner Mongolia； the climatic regionalization indicators of five major grazing livestock, including horses, cattle, sheep, goat and camel, were identified.Using these climatic regionalization indicators the grades of the five major grazing livestock of each grid were classified and the regionalization thematic maps of the five major grazing livestock were also achieved. Each kind of region was remarked and suggestions for sustainable development of animal production were proposed. This study could provide scientific basis to the adjustment of agricultural structure and the optimal distribution of animal husbandry on grasslands in Inner Mongolia.
Abstract: Questionnaires and interviews were used to investigate factors that affected livestock slaughter rates based on ages of farmers, educational background, livestock structure, sales and the farmers wish in the four cities of Tibet Autonomous Region.The results showed that farmers and herders over the age of 31 had stronger ideological conflicts about improving slaughter rates due to the influence of the ideas of wealth and religious. Qthers farmers and herders under the age of 31 with a higher educational background hoped to improve slaughter rates and were able to accept ideas of planting artificial grass. University students had much different opinions on wealth and religious thought campared with the farmers and herders. The students could better accept the new ideas and have a much stronger willingness to improve the rate of livestock for sale which had important significance to promote the rate of domestic animals for sale in pastoral areas and reduce the pressure on natural grassland in the future.
Abstract: The fused gene O21O14A21HBcAg that contained both type O and A of FMDV epitopes were introduced into alfalfa （Medicago sativa cv. Gannong No.1 ）leaf explants via Agrobacterium tumefaciensmediated transformation. After infection and coculture resistant plants were obtained from the resistant callus and the genetic transformation and regeneration system of alfalfa were established. The GUS reporter gene was transitorily expressed in transformed callus. 52 regenerated individual plants were acquired through Hygromycin screening test. After PCR tests for transgenic plants, four out of seven randomly selected plants were positive. The results of PCR indicated that the O21O14A21HBcAg gene was integrated into the genomes of transformed alfalfa plants.
Abstract: Pratacultural Science consists of production domain, management domain and market domain. The core of management domain is the operation and control processes of pratacultural information system. Information is the prerequisite for modern pratacultural construction and development. The information dimension is also the neuro net of pratacultural system. From the characteristics of the four dimensions in Pratacultural Science; this study describes the characteristics of the information dimension, the concept of Pratacultural informatics, the main structure and component relationships; as well as the major content and important roles of information dimension in pratacultural informatics in research and practice.
Abstracts: The transition zone from Qinghai Tibet Plateau to Loess Plateau, which also lies between the first ladder and the second ladder of China landform, is a traditional agropasturage ecotone and an ecological sensitive region. This paper analysed the agricultural structure along the transect belt of the Xiahe, Weiyuan and Tongwei County and found that from Qinghai Tibet Plateau to Loess Plateau, agricultural population, rural surplus labor, the total area of arable land, and the per capita area of cultivated land all increase while the per capita grassland area decreased. The proportion of food crops in the crop gradually increasd and the proportion of forage crops decreased. The per capita slaughter number of herbivore livestock such as cattle and sheep, wool production, meat production also decreased, while the slaughter number of foodtype animals such as pigs gradually increased. The gross agricultural production increased but per capita output declined. The proportion of farming and forestry in the composition of agricultural GDP tended to be increased, while that of animal husbandry gradually reduced. In the composition of the income of farmers and herdsmen, per capita GDP of Xiahe, Weiyuan and Tougwei County, per capita GDP of farmers and herdsmen, per capita net income and per capita net income of farmers and herdsmen gradually decreased, while per capita of net income of urban residents increased.
Abstract: Three mixture ratios of water hyacinth （Eichhornia crassipes） and maize (Zea mays) stalk at 9∶1, 8∶2 and 7∶3 （W9M1, W8M2 and W7M3） with the addition of noadditive, fermented green juice (FGJ), formic acid and foraform (FOR), were designed to investigate the effects of mixing ensilage of water hyacinth and maize stalk on the fermentation quality in this study. The nutritional compositions were measured for each treatment after ensiling for 60 days at ambient temperature. This study showed that three kinds of additives significantly improved the fermentation quality of mixing silages of water hyacinth and maize straw (P0.01). W9M1 was the best and had higher DM recovery than W8M2 and W7M3 did (P0.05). The WSC contents of noadditive and FGJ in W7M3 was significantly higher than those in W9M1 and W8M2 (P0.01).
Abstract: Based on the needs of Gansu agricultural development, guided by outsourcing, the future, supply chain, ecommerce and design of information platform for Gansu agricultural service outsourcing is introduced in this paper. The platform used a technology of ASP.NET and C# combination and Microsoft SQL Server 2005 as a backend database support; which could provide the functions of user registration, login, account recharge, information dissemination, contracting and access package, spot trading, futures trading, expert information display, outsourcing status inquiries, outsourcing management and display of manufactures, etc. With the implementation of the platform problems such as lack of agricultural investment, spread of resources of agricultural land, sale price fluctuations of agricultural products and serious pollution, the development of agriculture should be managed through a complete marketoriented approach.
Abstract: Based on the characteristics of fragile environment regions, this study established a tourism environmental protection pattern, which included active protection, developing protection and rebuilding protection. The inference and contrast analysis methods were applied to expose the disadvantage of traditional tourism environmental protection, in which environmental protection was separated with tourism development. A new pattern was proposed by better combining environmental protection and tourism development in this study to emphasize protection, improve and rebuild environment with tourism.