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2011 Vol.28(7)

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Retrieving of near land surface temperature in the source region of Yellow River with remote sensing
2011, 5(7): 1229-1233.
[Abstract](1630) [PDF 422KB](603)
Two equations were established during daytime and nighttime by using the MODIS data in the study area for describing the feasibility of getting the LST (land surface temperature). The MODIS LST product and ground based temperature data from HOBO climate stations were collected to analyze the LST for four different grassland in Yellow river watershed. This study showed that it was feasibility to use the MODIS LST product to acquire the land surface temperature. The retrieval equations of daytime and nighttime were also validated, and the mean error in daytime and nighttime are 3.47 K and 2.12 K, respectively. The accuracy of the equation in nighttime was higher, but the effect of different grasslands was inconspicuous.
Spatial heterogeneity of soil physical factors in karst warmtemperate tussock type of grassland in Guizhou
2011, 5(7): 1234-1238.
[Abstract](1583) [PDF 442KB](684)
Spatial heterogeneity of soil is one of the important properties of soil. The semivariance analysis and the fractal analysis were used to examine the spatial heterogeneity of soil physical factors in karst grassland in Guizhou. This study showed that soil moisture content, bulk density and porosity had a significant spatial heterogeneity. The spatial heterogeneity scale was 4 m to 15 m at 15~20 cm soil layer and was 12 m to 30 m at 15~20 cm layer. Degree of spatial heterogeneity changed with scale, and the spatial heterogeneity of the soil upper layer was bigger than that of the lower soil layer. The spatial heterogeneity of soil porosity at the upper layer was mainly consisted of spatial autocorrelation, accounting for 68.0%, while the soil water content and bulk density were part of a relatively large spatial heterogeneity. Soil physical properties of the underlying spatial heterogeneity were all caused by the spatial autocorrelation. Soil moisture content, bulk density and porosity of the fractal dimension were large (greater than or close to 1.8), indicating a smaller scale ecological process of each variable factor played a control role in the development of spatial pattern.
CO2 flux of alfalfa pasture with different ages
2011, 5(7): 1239-1245.
[Abstract](1643) [PDF 541KB](552)
Alfalfa pasture with 1, 2, 3, and 5 years was used to determine the effect of ages on CO2 flux of alfalfa pastures by measuring photosynthetic characteristics, soil respiration and net flux of soil organic carbon in the agropastoral ecotone of Northern China. This study indicated that the photosynthetic rate of alfalfa with different ages presented a single peaked curve, and the maximum of which was observed at the flowing stage in the first and the fifth year with the value of 50 and 69 mol/(m2s), respectively, while it was observed at the podding stage in the second and the third year with the value of 60 and 72 mol/(m2s), respectively. The photosynthetic rate had no significant correlation to chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. The soil respiration of alfalfa pasture showed a irregular peak curve, with the minimum value at June and the maximum at July, and followed the pattern with the fifththe thirdthe secondthe first year. The soil respiration of alfalfa pasture was not significantly correlated to soil temperature; however, was significantly correlated the soil moisture (P0.05) except the first year. The net fluxes of soil organic carbon of alfalfa pasture were 3.71, -1.71, 12.17 and 12.53 g/kg in the first, the second, the third, and the fifth year.
Evaluation of football turf quality in the Guangzhou Asian Games
2011, 5(7): 1246-1252.
[Abstract](1738) [PDF 500KB](913)
The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy mathematics were used to evaluate the turf quality of 16 football fields in the Guangzhou Asian Games by measuring the evenness, traction, rolling friction, ball rebounce, hardness, density, coverage, grass height, and texture of turf. Based on the site conditions, the weight of each index was determined, and weight matrix for each index was constructed by AHP method. And then the fuzzy mathematics was applied to calculate the comprehensive evaluation value which determined the turf quality grade. This study showed that the turf quality of the 16 football turfs were suitable for football games, and three fields of which fell into excellent grade; 12 fields and 1 field fell into good grade and intermediate grade, respectively. This study implied that AHP and fuzzy mathematics could be successfully and accurately used to comprehensively evaluate the turf quality of football field.
Wild resource of Carex genus in the Qinling areas and their turf charateristics
2011, 5(7): 1253-1258.
[Abstract](1752) [PDF 412KB](908)
The plant species of Carex genus widely distributes in China, and is always used as the forage, some of which are good turf grasses. A field survey was conducted to investigate the plant species of Carex genus in the Qinling areas of Shaanxi Province for selecting some plant species of Carex genus for turf application by estimating their turf characteristics. This study showed that 40 plant species of Carex genus were indentified, and 20 species of which were categorized and were estimated their turf characteristics. The estimation results showed that C. sclerocarpa, C. brevriculmis, C. ascocetra and C. nubigena would be utilized as turf material.
Turf characteristics of wild Poa poiphagorum and its application in Tibet
2011, 5(7): 1259-1262.
[Abstract](1726) [PDF 377KB](667)
The comprehensive evaluation system of turf quality was used to evaluate the turf characteristics of wild Poa poiphagorum under the natural and artificial environments for defining the usability of this turf grass. This study showed that the turf texture, height, persistence, intensity and speed of turf establishment performed well, and the turf color was not bad, but the turf density, uniformity, biomass was poor. Optimal cultivation and management measures or breeding methods would benefit the application of wild P. poiphagorum. This study also suggested that the P. poiphagorum was better used to establish the conservation erosion than to establish the landscape turf.
The relationship between turfgrass evapotranspiration andturf quality of Festuca arundinacea
2011, 5(7): 1263-1267.
[Abstract](1671) [PDF 394KB](745)
The trial was conducted to determine the relationship between evapotranspiration and turf quality of Festuca arundinacea in the growth moment by single random grouping design in Beijing. This study indicated that the turf quality was significantly influenced by the turfgrass ET under the different moisture conditions. The turfgrass ET changing the turf quality had a limit threshold value, indicating that the turf quality was increased with the increase of ET when the ET was less than the threshold value and the turf quality was not increased with the increase of ET while the ET was more than the threshold value. Under the Ⅳ (below 40% field capacity) moisture condition, the turf quality had linear relationship with the turfgrass evapotranspiration in the trial period. When the soil moisture content was between 60% field capacity to 100% field capacity, there had analogical relationship.
Preliminry analysis of turf research in the past decade based on the 10th and 11thInternational Turfgrass Society Research Journals
2011, 5(7): 1268-1271.
[Abstract](1409) [PDF 354KB](726)
Based on the 10 th and 11 th International Turfgrass Society Research Journals, the distribution of papers in different research fields and the frequency of keywords was compared and analyzed among two conferences. This study attempted to explore the research trends and focus of turfgrass technology in the past decade, which would provide reference for the turfgrass researchers.
Ji-Zhou LIN
2011, 5(7): 1272-1274.
[Abstract](1037) [PDF 583KB](1368)
Effects of artificial ageing treatment on vigor index of Elymus nutans seeds
2011, 5(7): 1275-1279.
[Abstract](1387) [PDF 422KB](660)
An experiment was conducted to determine the relationship between seed germination percentage and the seed vigor in the process of artificial ageing Elymus nutans seed, and the artificial ageing time was set 8 grads from 12 h to 96 h. The vigor indicators included germination energy, vigor index, seedling length, conductivity and soluble sugar content. This study showed that seed germination percentage, germination energy and vigor index sharply decreased and slowly decreased after 12 h as artificial ageing time increased. The conductivity in seed leachate did not significantly respond to the ageing time, while the soluble sugar content increased greatly before 12 h and then did not significantly changed when the ageing time continued. Germination percentage of E. nutans was significantly correlated with germination energy (r=0.987) and vigor index (r=0.989), respectively, and was not significantly correlated with conductivity in seed leachate, and negatively and significantly correlated with the soluble sugar content in seed leachate (r=-0.808).
Seed germination and seedling settlement by sowing seeds on soil surface
2011, 5(7): 1280-1283.
[Abstract](1456) [PDF 459KB](571)
It is important to choose appropriate seeds whether aerial seeding is successful because of different germination rates of seeds on the soil surface. In this study, the seed germination of Onobrychis viciifolia cv. mengnong, Astragalus adsurgens, Psammochloa villosa and Bromus ircutensis on the soil surface and their seedling settlement at 25 ℃ and 20% soil moisture was measured to provide the theoretical basis for the selection of suitable grass seeds, which is suitable for sowing on soil surface. This study showed that the germination rates of P. villosa of completely sessile type (Ⅰ type) was the highest (60%) and the others were about 35%; In three germination behavior, germination index and vigor index of O. viciifolia cv. mengnong (Ⅰ type) were higher than that of others and had significantly difference, except P. villosa; Except A. adsurgens, the young root development of four plants of Ⅰ type almost completely inserted into the soil during growth stage, indicating that the O. viciifolia cv. mengnong spent shorter time to insert into the soil than B. ircutensis and P. villosa did. Comprehensive comparison showed that the seeds of O. viciifolia cv. mengnong were bigger than that of others and inserted into the soil quickly when they germinated fast to avoid adverse environmental conditions. This study suggested that O. viciifolia cv. mengnong was suitable for sowing its seeds on soil surface.
Effect of high temperature stress on physiological indexes of six lines of tall fescue
2011, 5(7): 1284-1290.
[Abstract](1426) [PDF 520KB](619)
A experiment was conducted to monitor the effect of high temperature stress on physiological indexes of the original lines and six lines and five better offsping from irradiated mutants of tall fescue in the artificial climate chamber for comparing the heat tolerance of six lines and providing the reliable theory basis for selecting coolseason turfgrasses with strong heat tolerance. This study showed that the injury rate of all lines, the MDA and proline content increased, and that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), chlorophyll and soluble protein content firstly increased, and then decreased, and that the soluble sugar content decreased as the high temperature stress time continued. Based on subordinate function analysis, a comprehensive evaluation indicated that the order of heat resistance of six lines followed the pattern with HN001HN005 HN002HN006HN003HN004.
The effects of irrigation and PP333 on the growth and seed yield of Agropyron smithii
2011, 5(7): 1291-1295.
[Abstract](1563) [PDF 472KB](573)
The paper studied the effects of irrigation and PP333 on the seed yield and yield components in Jiuquan of Gansu province. The results indicated that there were optimal seed yield, fertile tillers/m2 and spikelets/fertille tiller for western wheatgrass, when at five times of irrigation, in turn green period, jointing period, earing period, filled period and flowering period, respectively, in the season of growth. The irrigation have been cautious not to bring on lodging. Jointing stage irrigation was in favor of fertile tiller and seed number, fertile tillers/m2 and seed number, the most productive factors in all the yield components, were significantly correlative with the yield; Sprinkling with oneoff 0.3 kg/hm2 PP333 of 0.022 5% in green period, which were remarkable effects on increasing the fertile tillers/m2,spikelets/fertille tiller, florets/spikelets tiller, seed/spikelets tiller and the seed yield; Irrigation with PP333 improved effectively seed/spikelets tiller and the seed yield. The effects of sprinkling with PP333 were better than irrigation with PP333.
The effects of shading on morphological and physiological indexes offive legume forages species
2011, 5(7): 1296-1300.
[Abstract](1449) [PDF 379KB](750)
A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different shading conditions on morphological and physiological indexes of Medicago sativa, Melilotus suaveolens, Trifolium repens, Astragalus adsurgens, and Lotus cornioulatus for providing the basis for sowing these legumes under the forest. This study showed that the height, tiller number, the longest section between the degree, root length and chlorophyll content of five kinds of legume forages decreased as light intensity declined, in which T. repens had the minimum amplitude and L. cornioulatus followed. At 23% light transmission, the soluble sugar content of T. repens was significantly higher than other legumes and the MDA of L. cornioulatuss increased significantly, but those of T. repens showed a smaller changes and A. adsurgens was death. The shade tolerance of five forage legumes showed that T. repens was the strongest, and L. cornioulatus followed, and then M. sativa and M. suaveolens were poor, and A. adsurgens was the worst.
Evaluation on resistance to pathogenic fungus Embellisia astragali of 10 germplasms of Astragalus adsurgens at seedling stages
2011, 5(7): 1301-1306.
[Abstract](1475) [PDF 520KB](640)
Yellow stunt and root rot of standing milkvetch (Astragalus adsurgens) caused by Embellisia astragali is the main factor reducing the perennial forages biomass. In this study, the resistance to pathogenic fungus of 10 germplasms of A. adsurgens was evaluated by measuring the seed germination rate, shoot and root length, plant dry weight, mycelium distribution, and mycelium invasion extent, incidence, mortality and disease severity index under very sterile conditions. This study showed that the inoculated treatments significantly increased the germination energy and root length of 10 germplasms (P0.05); did not affect germination rate; and significantly reduced the dry biomass and seedling length of 10 germplasms. The mycelium distribution and mycelium invasion extent showed a difference among varieties, indicating that the infection rate of Neimeng and Ningxia germplasms was higher than that of Shaxiyulin and Zhongsha No.1 germplasms. Based on disease incidence, mortality and disease severity index, the comprehensive evaluation on disease showed that the Shaxiyulin and Zhongsha No.1 germplasms performed well at seedling stage, that Neimeng and Ningxia germplasms followed, and other germplasms were in between.
Variations of important morphological features of Erianthus arundinaceum germplasms
2011, 5(7): 1307-1314.
[Abstract](1536) [PDF 504KB](628)
An experiment was conducted to select the potential energy Erianthus arundinaceum germplasm resource by the variations of 11 morphologic features of Erianthus arundinaceum. This study showed that there were great variations in morphologic indicators, indicating that the range of internode diameter variation was biggest and from 8.86 to 37.36 with 49.66% variance coefficient. The range of boot leaf length and width of the second leaf from the inflorescence variation came to the second and their variance coefficients were 45.10% and 44.20%, respectively. The higher plant height showed a significantly positive correlation with fertile tillers and inflorescence number. Clustering analysis showed that those accessions could be divided into 3 groups, indicating that accessions from different regions with similar characteristics were clustered into one group.
Analysis of chromosome karyotypes of Elytrigia intermedia and Elytrigia elongate
2011, 5(7): 1315-1319.
[Abstract](1358) [PDF 645KB](694)
The chromosome karyotypes of Elytrigia intermedia and E.elongata were determined by the root tip squash method. This study showed that the chromosome type of E. intermedia was K (2n)=6x=42=34m+8sm, and the composition of relative length chromosomes was 10L+10M2+12M1+10S, belonging to 2B type. The chromosome type of E. elongata was K(2n)=10x=70=38m+22sm+8st+2t, and the composition of relative length chromosomes was 10L+22M2+30M1+8S, belonging to 2B type. These results would provide theoretical basis for their cytological characteristics and genetic mechanism research.
Construction of suppression subtractive hybridization library of Leymus secalinus exposed to drought stress
2011, 5(7): 1320-1325.
[Abstract](1282) [PDF 612KB](578)
The drought stress method of root without water was used to construct the subtracted cDNA library of Leymus secalinus containing 576 clone by the method of suppression subtractive hybridization. In this study, the leaves under drought stress were considered as a tester and the leaves under normal condition were considered as a driver. The dot blot hybridization and sequencing was applied to discover the 16 EST with length 100-310 bp. The searching against GenBank with blast algorithm showed that these sequences were high homologous to the gene sequence of wheat and barley under drought stress, the gene sequence of LcBADH2, the gene sequence of hsp70 of Oryza sativa, the gene sequence of RubisCO of Hordeum vulgare, the amino acid sequence of Ubiquitinconjugating enzyme of Zea mays, the amino acid sequence of L20 of 50S Ribosomal protein of plant. This study suggested that these known genes and proteins play an important role in controlling plant osmotic pressure, heat adjustment, photosynthesis and hydrolysis, and had established a basis for disclose the mechanism of drought resistance and cloning stressresistance genes of Leymus secalinus.
Extraction methods of total RNA from Stylosanthes guianensis
2011, 5(7): 1326-1330.
[Abstract](2553) [PDF 481KB](665)
The modified SDS phenol extraction method, Modified CTAB method, common Trizol and Column Plant RNAout were used to extract total RNA in leaf of Stylosanthes guianensis Reyan No.2, respectively. The quality and quantity of total RNA from abovementioned methods were compared to select the better methods by UV spectrometer and gel electrophoresis. This study indicated that the value of OD260 nm/OD230 nm of RNA extracted by modified CTAB method and Column Plant RNAout method were higher than 2.0 and the value of OD260 nm/OD280 nm of RNA extracted by modified CTAB method and Column Plant RNAout were 1.85 and 1.93, respectively. Gel electrophoresis showed that RNA extracted by modified CTAB had clearer bands of 28S rRNA and18S rRNA and they did not degrade, and that RNA extracted by Column Plant RNAout had two clearer bands of 28S rRNA and18S rRNA and they did not degrade; however, RNA extracted by other two methods degraded and dispersed to some degrees. RNA extracted by modified CTAB method and Column Plant RNAout could be reversed to cDNA. The cDNA was amplified and one clear bands of actin gene fragment was observed in agarose gel. These results further demonstrated that the quality and purity of the total RNA extracted by modified CTAB and Column Plant RNAout could be applied into molecular biology experiment, and quality and purity of the total RNA by Column Plant RNAout method were better than that by modified CTAB method.
Isozyme band analysis of Chinese Iris germplasms
2011, 5(7): 1331-1338.
[Abstract](1632) [PDF 641KB](624)
POD isozyme banding patterns of were identified for 23 wild Chinese Iris germplasms by means of vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This study showed that the relative mobility (Rf) located at 0.041 to 0.515 loci, and the band numbers ranged from 5 to 9, in which BJCYML004 and BJCYML020 band numbers were the most (9), BJCYML001、BJCYML018、BJCYML021、BJCYML029 band numbers were the least (5). The genetic similarity of POD ranged from 0.516 to 1.000, and the genetic similarity between BJCYML004 and BJCYML020 was the lowest (0.516) and those between BJCYML028 and BJCYML031 was the highest (1.000). The genetic similarity of other germplasms was from 0.548 to 0.968, indicating that there were close genetic similarity of all germplasms. Cluster analysis showed that the 23 wild Chinese Iris were classified into 4 firstclass groups when the genetic similarity was 0.71, suggesting that the Iris lactea var. chinensis communities were related to their geographical distribution and ecological habitats.
Characteristics of spring and autunm pasture plant community under different utilization modes in Xinjiang
2011, 5(7): 1339-1344.
[Abstract](1410) [PDF 440KB](524)
The plant community composition and quantity characteristics of spring and autumn pasture communities was surveyed during April, June and August under the mowing (M), freegrazing (FG), subsectiongrazing (SG) and rotationalgrazing (RG) modes. This study showed that the number of plant species decreased gradually from spring to autumn, and was biggest under the RG modes. Quantity characteristics of grassland community showed a similar trend, indicating that the height, coverage, density and aboveground biomass were the highest in April under the M modes, and were the highest in June and August under the RG modes. The total aboveground biomass was RG>M>FG>SG in all warm season. The RG modes performed a merit in maintaining the grassland stability of community structure and improving community quantity characteristics and productivity, and the SG showed a potential advantage. The M modes did not benefit the renewal and reproduction of spring and autumn pasture plant community and the FG modes did not benefit sustainable development of spring and autumn pasture.
The grassland biomass monitoring by remote sensing technology in theQinghaiTibet Plateau
2011, 5(7): 1345-1351.
[Abstract](1589) [PDF 1163KB](690)
The biomass data from field survey during August and September 2006 in Qinghai province and correspondingly MODIS image data was used to establish the model of biomass monitoring by using vegetation index EIV and NDVI, and the accuracy of this model was also assessed in this study. This study showed that: EVI has stronger correlation with above ground biomass than NDVI, and the correlation between EVI and biomass increased with the increase of grassland coverage for each grassland cover grade. The optimal models was calculated the grass biomass of different types of grassland from 2002 to 2008 in QinghaiTibet Plateau. The seasonal change of grassland biomass with higher productivity was more severe, implying that the grassland types would be influenced by climate change greatly. The seasonal change of grassland biomass with lower productivity was not sensitive to climate change.
Community characteristics and plant species diversity of meadow grassland in the northeast of Qinghai Lake
2011, 5(7): 1352-1356.
[Abstract](1537) [PDF 422KB](623)
A field survey was conducted to investigate the community characteristics and plant species diversity of meadow grassland in the northeast of Qinghai Lake during 2008. This study showed that 29 plant species were identified in the plot, which belongs to 9 families and 21 genera, indicating that species composition of meadow grassland was simple. The dominant specie was Stipa krylovii and the subdominant species were Kobresia humilis and Poa crymophila. The genus of the north temperate was absolutely dominant, and the life form of plant in the meadow grassland was mainly perennial plant. The vertical structure of the meadow grassland community was unapparent. The richness index (R), ShannonWiener index (H), Simpson index (D) and evenness index (E1, E2) showed a similar changeable trend without great differences.
The effects of the climate change in the Qinghai Lake region on the growth and yield of Stipa krylovii
2011, 5(7): 1357-1363.
[Abstract](1856) [PDF 528KB](624)
The data from Haibei livestock meteorological experiment station in the northern region of Qinghai Lake were used to determine the influence of the climate change on the grass growth and yield of Stipa krylovii by stepwise regression, wavelet analysis, logistic curve fitting and MK test. This study showed that the average annual temperature had the obviously increasing trend with the extent of 0.529 ℃ per 10 a, and the mutations occurred in 1986 and 1997. The rainfall also has the increasing trend with the extent of 4.955 mm per 10 a and the annual rainfall oscillated every 9 years. The annual evaporation and sunshine hours also increased. The S. krylovii growth was affected by both the highest temperature during February and April and rainfall of the August in the previous year, but the climate change made it become green earlier, and climate warming postponed the time of grass wilting. The grass height was influenced by both the average lowest temperature in June and the evaporation from March to June. Climate change made the height increase. The grass yield had the positive correlation with the lowest temperature from June to July, and had the negative correlation with sunshine hours from June to August, and the changeable trends of the two factors encouraged grassland yield to increase.
Transcription sequencing and its application prospective on discovering the gene resources of forages
2011, 5(7): 1364-1369.
[Abstract](1257) [PDF 496KB](1269)
This study summarized the basic principle, experiment flow, data analysis and the current application situation of transcription sequencing, and then prospected the influence of transcription sequencing on the gene resources exploitation and germplasm enhancement and variety design breeding of forage germplasm based on previous advance in approach to transcription sequencing in drought resistant forage.
The effects of temperature on the behaviors of freeranging chicken in the alpine grassland
2011, 5(7): 1370-1373.
[Abstract](1326) [PDF 430KB](596)
An experiment was conducted to observe the effects of different temperature on the behaviors of freeranging chicken in the alpine grassland during June-July, 2009. This study showed that chicken began to walk when the temperatures (shaded air temperature 1 cm above soil surface) was 3-8 ℃, and started foraging behavior while temperatures was 10-37 ℃, and began to courtship once temperatures reached 15-38 ℃. Quiescence was often observed at the lowest temperature with the below 5 ℃ and highest site temperature with the over 38-42 ℃, and the highest frequency of foraging was often observed when temperature was of 15-27 ℃. Theres no significant difference between frequency of activities in morning and evening (P0.05). Males rested, courted, and groomed significantly more frequently than females did, and females foraged significantly more than that of males (P0.05). Activity patterns, especially quiescence and foraging, were influenced much more by environmental temperature than by time of day.
The occurrence and damage of main underground pests in Xiamen turf nursery and their control pesticides
2011, 5(7): 1374-1378.
[Abstract](1373) [PDF 457KB](763)
A field survey was conducted to evaluate the field control effect of 2.5% Lambdacyhalothrin FW on the main underground pests in the turf nursery in Guankou town, Xiameng for proposing a trial methods of introducing prevention and control pesticides. This study showed that the main underground pests were grubs and cutworms in the turf nurseries. The 2.5% Lambdacyhalothrin FW effectively controlled grubs and cutworms without phytotoxicity, and could be introduced as a prevention and control pesticide, which would provide useful information for pesticide control in the subtropical turf nursery.
The effects of adding lactic acid bacteria and cellulase on alfalfa silage quality
2011, 5(7): 1379-1383.
[Abstract](1331) [PDF 440KB](738)
Alfalfa in initial flowering stage was harvested and wilted for 0, 8, or 32 hours (DM content was 27.15%, 38.45%, and 50.87%, respectively), and was ensiled with lactic acid bacteria +enzyme at rates of 105 cfu/g+0.1 g/kg, 106 cfu/g+0.05 g/kg and 107 cfu/g+0.025 g/kg. This study indicated that alfalfa (DM 50.87%) without additives had lower ammonia nitrogen content, conserved more DM, CP and produced more lactic acid. The addition of lactic acid bacteria and enzyme greatly improved alfalfa silage fermentation. Alfalfa (DM 38.45%) ensiled with lactic acid bacteria +enzyme performed well, resulting in reduction of ammonia nitrogen content and increases of CP and more lactic acid. The silage quality of alfalfa (DM 38.45%) with the addition of 106 cfu/g lactic acid bacteria and 0.05 g/kg enzyme was better than other treats.
Determination of inorganic elements in formula feed by microwave digestion ICPAES
2011, 5(7): 1384-1386.
[Abstract](1419) [PDF 337KB](583)
The experiment was conducted to determine the contents of inorganic elements including Ca, S, P, K, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, and Mo in formula feed from Ningxia University by ICPAES using high pressure systemsealed microwave digestion. The sample of feed was digested with HNO3H2O2 acids system. The operation would be simplified, and the blank value would be decreased following the above measures. This study showed that the relative standard deviation was below 5% for all the elements. The recovery was between 94.7% and 114.3% by adding standard recovery experiment. This study found that the method of sealed microwave digestion ICPAES was sensitive, precise, easily operational and rapid on the determination of inorganic elements in animal formula feed, satisfying the sample examination requirement, which would provide useful technology for determining the contents of mineral elements in animal formula feed, and the application of mineral additive in animal production.
Optimizing the structure of the crop, grass and livestock in the semiarid loess hilly region of Southern Ningxia
2011, 5(7): 1387-1391.
[Abstract](1421) [PDF 400KB](556)
According to the coordinated development's principle among crop, grass, and livestock industry, the Zhongzhuang experiment of Pengyang County in the semiarid loess hilly region of Southern Ningxia was selected to optimize the structure of the crop, grass and livestock for obtaining the biggest benefit. This study showed that the ratio of wheat, buckwheat and Millet area on the unit area was 28%, 3% and 70%, respectively; The economic crops included the corn, the potato, the flax and the triangle bean and their planting percentage on the unit area was 79%, 16%, 4%, and 2%, respectively; and the ration of the cattle, the sheep and pig on the unit cropland area was 3.7, 4.3 and 1.7, respectively. The net income from cropland area was 16 116.84 Yuan per ha and increased by 54.41%. The optimal structure of the crop, grass and livestock would provide the useful information for other similar area.
The applicable rules of criminal law about grassland resource conservation in China
2011, 5(7): 1392-1395.
[Abstract](1189) [PDF 357KB](596)
The applicable rules of criminal law about grassland resource conservation in China were discussed in this study according to Grassland Law of the Peoples Republic of China. The charges against the destruction of grasslands included the crime of abuse dereliction of duty, corruption, embezzlement of public funds, illegal approval for requisition or occupation of land, illegal transference and scalp of landuse right, illegal occupation of agricultural land, etc. Although the independent accusation of grassland crime was lacked in the present criminal law of the Peoples Republic of China, the actually legal system in China could be used to fight against grassland crime for protecting grassland resource in China.
The antixidation responses of two ecotype leaves of diversifoliouspoplar (Populus euphratica) to pest
2011, 5(7): 1396-1399.
[Abstract](1337) [PDF 359KB](568)
The broadovate and lanceolate are two main ecotypes leaves of Populus euphratica. In the study, the release of reactive oxygen and activity of antioxidase (SOD, CAT and POD) of two leaves in P. euphratica were compared when they suffered from the pest. This study showed that the pest increased the content of O-2. and H2O2 and activities of SOD, CAT and POD in the leaves, and antixidation enzyme changes in the broadovate leaves was higher than that in the lanceolate leaves, especially for POD, implying that the broadovate leaves showed a more pest stress than lanceolate leaves.
Influence of planting density on grass yield and otherbiological properties of Medicago sativa
2011, 5(7): 1400-1402.
[Abstract](1702) [PDF 336KB](688)
To questioning the higher planting density leading to lower seedling rate and the difficulty of seedling maintenance of Medicago sativa in Hexi region of Gansu, the study investigates optimum planting density of M. sativa in Hexi region of Gansu. The results showed that grass yield depended on planting density of M. sativa. The optimum density was 6 millions grains per hectare. The density gave the highest grass and protein yields, of which were 24 776.66 and 4 924.5 kg/ha, respectively. However, with the planting density increasing, M. sativa showed advancing reviving in the spring, postponing florescence, decreasing plant height and dry matter, lower droughtresistance.