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2011 Vol.28(6)

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2011, 5(6): 879-881.
[Abstract](984) [PDF 465KB](1431)
The evaluation of soil properties under conservation tillage in amaize-wheat-soybean rotation on the Loess Plateau
2011, 5(6): 882-886.
[Abstract](1385) [PDF 404KB](743)
The aim of this study was to determine how soil properties changed when conservation tillage was used in a maizewheatsoybean rotation on the Loess Plateau, China. The four tillage treatments were: t (conventional tillage), ts (conventional tillage with stubble retention), nt (no tillage) and nts (no tillage with stubble retention). Soil total C, organic C, total N and microbial biomass C and N in the 0-5 cm and the 5-10 cm layer was measured over a seven year period in each treatment. Soil organic C was significantly higher in the ts, nt and nts treatments, compared with that in the t treatment. Soil microbial biomass C and N in 0-5 cm layer was highest in the nts treatment among the treatment..Notill enhanced soil organic C accumulation in the top layer, tillage incorporated stubble distribution along the soil profile. The results showed that soil microbial biomass C was an indicator for short term run effects of conservation tillage, and soil organic C was an indicator for mid term run conservation tillage.
Effects of enclosure on species diversity and soil organic matter of typical steppe
2011, 5(6): 887-891.
[Abstract](2275) [PDF 460KB](855)
Abstract: The species diversity and soil organic content of typical steppe with different enclosure years in Yunwushan nature reserve of Ningxia were studied. The results showed that:as enclosure years increasing, species richness and diversity index increased first and then decreased, but for evenness index, an opposite trends was observed. Soil organic matter showed a significant difference among different enclosure years in which enclosed 15 years and 25 years attained the highest soil organic matter, followed by enclosed 5 and 20 years, and the lowest appeared in the steppe without enclosure.Soil organic matter content was negatively correlated with species diversity, but positively correlated with evenness index.
Response of soil respiration rate of alfalfa grassland to cutting treatment
2011, 5(6): 892-897.
[Abstract](1621) [PDF 443KB](775)
Abstract: Present study measured the diurnal dynamics of soil respiration in alfalfa grassland with different cutting treatment in the Loess Plateau by using closed chamber infrared CO2 gas analyzer, and further analyzed the relationships between soil respiration and soil temperature, atmospheric humidity, air temperature. The results showed that cutting treatment significantly decreased diurnal CO2 emission(P0.01) compared to no cutting treatment, and cut two times exhibited the lowest diurnal CO2 emission, this implied reasonable cutting treatment could reduce the diurnal emission of CO2. Diurnal soil respiration for all treatments attained the lowest value at 06:00, but the peak value time varied with cutting treatments. The relationships of soil respiration rate and 5 cm soil temperature、soil respiration rate and air temperature、soil respiration rate and atmospheric humidity could be described as an exponential function、unary quadratic equation or a negative linear equation, respectively.
The relationship between litter and soil and hydrothermal conditions of typical communities of grassland in Yanchi, Ningxia
2011, 5(6): 898-901.
[Abstract](1304) [PDF 455KB](757)
Abstract: The litter in typical communities of grassland in Yanchi, Ningxia were studied by using set sample in situ and litterbags method,the results showed: (1) Monthly litterfall of Agropyron cristatum, Glycyrrhiza uralensi, Artemisia desertorum and Leymus secalinus showed no significant correlation with monthly precipitation and mean temperature. The litterfall amount varied much among months and the variation coefficient ranged from 71.77% to 107.91%. For 4 species, litter amount all peaked at October. (2) There was a positive significant relationship between litters water content and soil water content in the four typical communities. (3) Litter decomposition changed soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available P and K content to some extent, but showed less effects for totalP and totalK content.
Effects of Halogeton arachnoideus on saline soil improvement
2011, 5(6): 902-904.
[Abstract](1359) [PDF 407KB](802)
Abstract:The effect of Halogeton arachnoideus on improving saline soil was studied with two treatments (T1, naturally grown H. arachnoideus and T2, planted H. arachnoideus) and bare land as CK. The results indicated that the salt content of saline soil (soluble salt content was 0.49%) was significantly reduced by H. arachnoideus. The salt contents of T1 and T2 were reduced by 28.57% and 32.65 % after one year in the soil layer from 0 to 20 cm, respectively, but showed less change in the soil layer from 20 to 40 cm. After one growing season, the total soil salt content was reduced from11.172 t/ha to 8.738 t/ha. Accordingly, the soil pH value in the soil layer from 0 to 20 cm was reduced by 0.13 to 0.14 units. These results suggested that planting H. arachnoideus could be an effective method to improve saline soil.
Determination of soil nitrogen availability in alfalfa pasture by chemical and bioassay test
2011, 5(6): 905-909.
[Abstract](1313) [PDF 521KB](634)
Abstract: The supply of soil available nitrogen in the 5year and 9year alfalfa pasture soils in a rainfed region was determined by three chemical extractants (0.01 mol/L CaCl2, hot water and 1 mol/L KCl) in combination with biological tests on ryegrass.This study showed that the CaCl2 extracted more NO3-N than hot water and KCl did. The extraction capacity of the three extractants for soil ammonium was hot water 1 mol/L KCl 0.01 mol/L CaCl2. N uptake by ryegrass in 5year and 9year alfalfa pasture soils was 2 100 mg/m2 and 3 100 mg/m2, respectively, and N uptake by ryegrass was a significantly positive correlation with the amount of NO3-N extracted by hot water, KCl and CaCl2, implying that the amounts of NO3-N extracted by hot water, KCl and CaCl2 was used to indicate the nitrogen supply of soil. However, the relationship between the amounts of NH4+N extracted by hot water, KCl and CaCl2 and nitrogen uptake by plants is not certain, indicating that and the amounts of NH4+N was not good indicator to describe the nitrogen supply of soil.
Dynamics of vegetation characteristics and soil physical properties of Poa pratensis cv.Qinghai
2011, 5(6): 910-914.
[Abstract](1940) [PDF 394KB](765)
Abstract: A field survey was conducted on the pasture of Poa pratensis cv. Qinghai with the different growing years to find the changeable law of community characteristics and its species composition, diversity index, and soil physical properties in the source region of Three Rivers. This study showed that the community cover, plant height and aboveground biomass decreased with the increase of growing years. The richness index and ShannonWiener index were not significantly different, but the pielou index was different among different growing year pastures. The soil moisture and soil bulk density in the pasture with 9 years were higher than that in the pasture with 2 years, however, the soil water content was not significant between 2 year pasture and 9 year pasture (P0.05).
Seasonal dynamics of carbon,nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry in Stipa bungeana
2011, 5(6): 915-920.
[Abstract](1296) [PDF 447KB](1462)
Abstract: Less is known about whether the Homeostasis Theory and Growth Rate Hypothesis work in higher plants. Our objective was to study the seasonal dynamics of carbon (C)、nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents and test the Growth Rate Hypothesis in wild higher plants. Additionally, we tried to explore the influence of grazing on plants homeostasis traits. This study was conducted at SemiArid Climate and Environment Obwervatory of Lanzhou University in Loess Plateau (3557 N,10409 E). We collected the aboveground biomass of Stipa bungeana in the grazed and exclosure treatments in different seasons and quantified the C, N and P contents in the leaf tissue. The specific growth rates of plant S. bungeana were calculated and seasonal dynamics of C∶N, C∶P and N∶P ratios were described. In the exclosure (1) the aboveground biomass of S. bungeana accumulated gradually, and the maximum specific growth rate occurred during the period from March to May. Meanwhile, during this period, plant grew with higher C∶N, C∶P, N∶P ratios. Combined, these results did not support the Growth Rate Hypothesis; (2) the C content in S. bungeana increased significantly from March to May, but there were no differences among the C contents from May to September. The maximum values of N and P contents occurred in March, but the N and P contents decreased gradually from May to September. From March to September, the C∶N and C∶P ratios increased gradually, but N∶P ratio increased firstly and then decreased. Finally, there were small variations in C content and N∶P ratios (3.65% and 6.60%, respectively) during these four seasons, which showed strong homeostasis in both above parameters. However, there were huge variations in N、P contents and C∶N、C∶P ratios, and all of these values were bigger than 30%. In the grazed treatment (1) the dynamics of C and N contents in S. bungeana were similar to those in the exclosure, but the P content in September was bigger than that in July. Additionally, grazing resulted in higher N and P contents compared to those in the exclosure, and lower C∶N and C∶P ratios in the grazed site. While, N∶P ratios were bigger in grazed site than those in the excosure in both May and July. (2) there were also small variations in C content and N∶P ratios during these four seasons in the grazed treatment, but the variation of N∶P ratios (21.30%) is markedly bigger than that in the exclosure (6.60%).
Carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry at different growth stages in legumes and grasses
2011, 5(6): 921-925.
[Abstract](1303) [PDF 502KB](953)
Abstract: This study was aimed to investigate carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry at different stages in legumes and grasses by comparing 4 different species under a field trial. For the content of organic carbon (OC), it changed little at different growth stages. Total nitrogen (TN) content showed a decreasing tendency with growth stage or was less at the booting stage. Leaf TN content was greater than those in stem and root. With the changes in OC and TN contents, C/N showed an increasing tendency with growth stage or was greater at the booting stage. Leaf C/N was less than those in stem and root, and grass C/N was greater than that in legume. C/N of annual ryegrass in Yuzhong site was greater than that in Qingyang, while for legumes, it was less. The results suggested that the change in C/N with growth stage is closely correlated with carbon assimilation and nitrogen absorption of plants at different growth stages.
Effects of fertilization on characteristics of Maqu alpine meadow communities and production
2011, 5(6): 926-930.
[Abstract](1417) [PDF 492KB](986)
Abstract: For the purpose of verifying the effection of alpine meadows plant community characteristic and production of Maqu under organic fertilization, the reaserch compared four different fertilization treatments(S0 no fertilizer, S1 fertilization of 11.25 t/ha, S2 fertilization of 22.5 t/ha; S3 fertilization of 33.75 t/ha). The results showed that:(1) the vegetation cover degrees of S1 and S3 were significantly higher than that of S0, the vegetation heights of S1 and S2 were less than S0;(2) The total biomass of plant communities showed an increasing trend but with no significant difference, as far as the response of functional groups was different of Sedge biomass of S1, S2, and S3, and the proportion of total biomass were significantly different with the S0 in which Cyperaceae and Graminea biomass showed a decline trends.(3) The Pielou index of S1, S2, S3 decreased compared with that of S0, The Simpson index of S1 and S3 decreased significantly compared with that of S0.
Composition and accuracy assessment of snow cover product based on MODIS and AMSR-E data
2011, 5(6): 931-938.
[Abstract](1378) [PDF 881KB](661)
Abstract: The daily snow cover products of Terra/MOD10A1 and Aqua/MYD10A1 in Qinghai Province from October 1, 2002 to March 31, 2008 were used to composite the fiveday snow products (MOYD_5D), and then combing the MOYD_5D and the fivedays snow water equivalent product of AMSRE/Aqua further composited the new fiveday snow products (MDAE_5D) by userdefined algorithm. Based on snow depth data from climate stations, the accuracies of MOYD_5D, AE_5D and AEMD_5D were validated assessed in this study. The results of this study showed that the snow classification accuracies of MOYD_5D, AE_5D and AEMD_5D were 17.5%, 49.8%, and 23.2%, respectively when the snow depth (SD) was below 3 cm, and they were 46.2%, 55.1% and 56.9% when SD was between 4 cm and 6 cm; and the snow classification accuracies of MOYD_5D, AE_5D and AEMD_5D were 58.6%, 78.5% and 78.6%, respectively when SD was between 7 cm and 9 cm, and they were 66.7%, 82.2% and 84.1% when SD was over 10 cm. This study suggested that the MDAE_5D improved snow classification accuracies, which would be provide useful information for monitoring and evaluating the snow disaster in the pastoral areas.
Coupling of ecological health and ecological carrying capacity in the Gannan pastoral area based on the 3S technology
2011, 5(6): 939-945.
[Abstract](1782) [PDF 597KB](695)
Abstract: Ecological carrying capacity is one of the main features of overall level of ecosystem, and its quantification has become a decisionmaking requirement for ecological environment management and regionally sustainable development. The index system was established by using satellite imagery (TM, ETM+) and census data to evaluate the ecological carrying capacity with ecosystem health in the Gannan region. The main indicators were calculated by 3S (GIS, RS, GPS) technology which were used to analyze Spatial data and the AGAAHP was used to calculate the weight value of each index, and then these data were applied to determine the ecological carrying capacity of each county in the Gannan region with the help of State Space Method. This study indicated that the reduction of ecological carrying capacity resulted from the decline in environmental bearing capacity and ecological elastic force, as well as the increase in human social influence during 2000-2008. In the past decade, the environmental bearing capacity kept unhealthy status, and ecological elastic force decreased from subhealth status to sick status. The human social influence changed into unhealthy status. The comprehensive analysis showed that the ecological carrying capacity kept the subhealth status in the past decade.
The biological characteristics of Pseudopeziza medicaginis in alfalfa
2011, 5(6): 946-950.
[Abstract](1314) [PDF 520KB](640)
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of temperature, humidity, pH, light, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and inorganic salts on pathogenic biological characteristics of Pseudopeziza medicaginis in alfalfa Ningxia strains. This study showed that P. medicaginis of Ningxia strains grew well at the temperature ranging from 5 ℃ to 30 ℃ and the pH value ranging from 4.0 to 10.0, and the optimal temperature and pH value was 20~25 ℃ and 5.0~6.5, respectively. The growth of this fungus was inhibited by the increasing light intensity and it had ability to utilizing different carbon sources on solid medium, especially glucose and maltose. This fungus could use inorganic nitrogen and organic nitrogen source to some extent except for urea, indicating that colonies diameter and growth rate were in accord, but the number of colonies in inorganic nitrogen source was better used than that in organic nitrogen sources. The fungus in three kinds of saline solution shared in increasing common except for KH2PO4, however, apothecium was not observed in 4 saline solutions. Free water on leaf and its maintenance period directly influenced the germination of spore, indicating that the spores germinated when free water on leaf was over 3 hours.
Advances in nitrification and nitrifying bacteria in grassland soil
2011, 5(6): 951-958.
[Abstract](1295) [PDF 448KB](958)
Abstract: The research progress of nitrification and nitrifying bacteria in grassland soil were reviewed. Ammonium was converted to nitrate through the process known as nitrification. Nitrification is generally divided into autotrophic nitrification and heterotrophic nitrification. Autotrophic nitrification is performed by two physiologically distinct groups of Gramnegative chemoautotrophic bacteria belonging to the nitrobacteriaceae. The conversions of NH4+ to NO2- and of NO2- to NO3- were mediated by ammonium and nitrite oxidizing bacteria respectively. Urine returns by livestock grazing can result in addition of large quantities of urineN to soils. Urine patches could increase soil nitrifying activity and provide favorable conditions for the growth of nitrifying bacteria. Nitrification potential was significantly higher under legumes than under grasses. The impact of fire and soil pH on the nitrification has not yet draw an identical conclusion. Nitrification is an important way to produce N2O in addition to denitrification. Livestock grazing not only promote nitrification but also increase N2O emissions. With the intensive and specific research on grassland nitrification, the future directions on grassland ecosystem are suggested.
2011, 5(6): 959-961.
[Abstract](1008) [PDF 0KB](1156)
Effects of fungal endophytes from perennial ryegrass on the growth of plant pathogens
2011, 5(6): 962-968.
[Abstract](1848) [PDF 656KB](934)
Abstract: In this paper, we evaluated the effects of 4 strains of endophytic fungi and their fermented products on the growth of 4 plant pathogens. The four strains of endophytic fungi were NA1, NM2, NP2 and NF1 which were isolated from 4 cultivars of perennial ryegrass, Accent, Medary, Pinnacle and Fairway respectively. The 4 plant pathogens were Alternaria alternata, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Curvularia lunata and Drechslera sp.. The 4 strains of endophytic fungi were incubated with the pathogens by the dualculture. The spores germination and colonies growth speed of plant pathogen were measured under dualculture test and with and without the apply of endophytic fungi fermented products. The results showed that the growth of four pathogenic fungi were inhibited by endophytic fungi and the inhabitation of the endophyte were different to different pathogenic fungi. The inhibition of endophytic fungi to the pathogens were between 42.51%~46.25%, 31.45%~43.97%, 34.51%~46.55% and 40.19%~46.62% respectively. The fermented products of four endophytic fungi obviously inhibited all pathogenic fungi colonies growth and spores germination, of which, NF1 had the strongest inhibiting activity than that of the other endophytes (P<0.05), and also, the fermented products of NF1 showed strong inhibition on colonies growth and spores germination of Bipolaris sorokiniana, the rate of inhibition were 57.20% and 86.60% respectively.
Cloning and sequence analysis of HKT1;4 gene fragment fromhalophyte Puccinellia tenuiflora
2011, 5(6): 969-973.
[Abstract](1410) [PDF 1152KB](670)
Abstract: In order to investigate Na+ exclusion mechanism of HKT1;4(HKT7) in Puccinellia tenuiflora, a pair of degenerate primers were designed based on the conserved sequences of the HKT1;4 genes registered in GenBank from other higher plants and reverse transcription was performed immediately after total RNA was extracted from the root. The partial cDNA fragment was amplified by PCR and the PCR product was subcloned into pMD19T Simple vector and sequenced after PCR detection. Sequencing results indicated that the length of the amplified cDNA fragment was 629 bp encoding 209 amino acid. Sequence analysis suggested that the nucleotide sequence and the translated amino acid sequence shared over 74% and 60% of homology to HKT1;4 gene sequences from other higher plants, respectively. It was confirmed that the fragment that we cloned belongs to the HKT1;4 gene family, therefore, we named it as PutHKT1;4.
The pollen dispersal characteristics of Hemarthria compressa
2011, 5(6): 974-976.
[Abstract](1372) [PDF 394KB](773)
Abstract: The daily changes of pollen density and the dispersal patterns of Hemarthria compressa were measured by air pollen trapping method. The results showed that there were two peaks of flowering time during 6:00-8:00 and 15:30-19:00, and the highest amounts of pollen grains collected was during 16:00-18:00. We found that wind speed affected the distances of the pollen grains distributions. The pollen grains distributed within the circle of 5 m from the pollen grain originate place,when the wind speed was lower thatn 1 km/h (0 grade) or between 1-5 km/h (1 grade), and within the circle 21 m when the wind speed was between 12-19 km/h (3 grade). The plant stands comes from the same mother plant in the areas of pollen distributed, so the crosspollination in the same plant stand was common. The dilemma between pollen distribution pattern and cross pollination reproduction system was one of the reason of low seed set.
Introduction of high soluble sugar ryegrass in Longzhong Loess plateau and Hexi Oasis
2011, 5(6): 978-982.
[Abstract](1406) [PDF 367KB](660)
Abstract: Three varieties of high sugar ryegrass (HSR) were introduced to Longzhong Loess plateau and Hexi oasis respectively. The results showed that the contents of watersoluble carbohydrate (WSC) of these 3 varieties were all significant higher than those of control variety (CK) in two areas at first cutting (P0.05). The contents of WSC of 3 varieties were significant higher than those of CK in Longzhong Loess plateau at second cutting and contents of WSC of AberMagic and AberAvon were significant higher than those of CK in Hexi oasis (P0.05). There were no differences between these HSR varieties and control variety (CK) in the contents of NDF, ADF and crude protein (CP), while the yield is lower. The tiller numbers and the contents of CP, NDF, and ADF increased but contents of WSC decreased under cutting treatment in Longzhong Loess plateau, while the opposite tendency were observed in Hexi Oasis.
The base temperature and the thermal time requirement for seed germination of 10 grass species on the eastern QinghaiTibet plateau
2011, 5(6): 983-987.
[Abstract](1496) [PDF 377KB](763)
Abstract: Temperature is an important environmental factor influencing seed germination. In this study, we used the thermal time model to analyze the thermal time requirement and base temperature for germination of 10 grass species under five constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 ℃) on the eastern QinghaiTibet plateau. We found that the base temperatures ranged from 0 to 4 ℃,and thermal time ranged from 26.65 to 139.92 ℃d. The base temperature was lower and the thermal time was higher for germination compared with other researchers' findings, which adapted to their special lived temperature environment of the QinghaiTibet plateau. There was a significant negative correlation between altitude and base temperature for germination(P0.05), which reflected that the base temperatures of these seeds' germination were adapted to their specific temperature environment in this region. Two annual Bromus species had lower thermal time for seed germination than other 8 perennial species. Therefore, the annuals germinated earlier and occupied the priority of space resources and benefited from the community competition than the perennial species.
Research on seed germination optimum temperature and temperaturethreshold of Elymus nutans
2011, 5(6): 988-992.
[Abstract](2043) [PDF 447KB](755)
Abstract: The germination appropriate temperature and temperature threshold of Elymus nutans seeds for eight populations which were collected from Gansu Province and Qinghai Province were studied. The germination tests were subjected to 8 temperature treatments which were 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ℃. The results showed that the seeds could germinate from 5 to 35 ℃, and was inhibited by 40 ℃. The germination and germination index had no significant differences (P>0.05) under 20, 25 and 30 ℃. According to the seed germination thermal model (T, ℃), the seed germination temperature threshold was calculated. Tb, To and Tc of all E. nutans germplasm had no significant differences (P>0.05), their average were 4, 24 and 38 ℃. We suggested that the temperature which was suitable for inspectioning of E. nutans were 20, 25 and 30 ℃, and the germination count time of the first time and the last time were the third day and the eleventh day, separately.
Drought resistance evaluation of three grass species at germination stage from the Northwest Plateau of Sichuan Province
2011, 5(6): 993-997.
[Abstract](1322) [PDF 381KB](657)
Abstract: To determine the drought resistance of grass species at germination stage, seeds germination of three grass species (Kengyili rigidula cv.Aba,Elymus sibiricus cv.chuancao No.2 and Elymus nutans) which collected at Northwest Plateau of Sichuan Province, were tested under PEG6000 solution with different concentration of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 g/L. The relative germination rate, relative germination potential, relative germination index, relative vigor index and drought resistance index were synthetically evaluated by applying membership function method. The results showed: 5% concentration of PEG6000 favored seed germination; relative germination index and drought index were better indicators for drought resistance identification of three kinds of grass species at germination stage; the drought resistance ability for studied species sequenced as K. rigidula E. nutans E. sibiricus cv.chuancao No.2.
The characteristics of germination and seedling emergence of several grasses seeds with different vigor
2011, 5(6): 998-1003.
[Abstract](1301) [PDF 418KB](719)
Abstract: Present study investigated the seed germination, seedling emergence and relative parameters of several grasses seeds with different aging treatment, and further analyzed their relationships. The results indicated that: 1) In addition to Leymus chinensis, as the aging duration prolonging, germination percentage, seed germination index, vigor index, radicle length, plumule length, sprout length, emergence percentage, seedling emergence rate of the other species decreased; 2) Seed antiaging ability varied with species, seed dormancy might improve seed antiaging, such as L. chinensis; 3) Except L. chinensis, sprout tendency, germination percentage, germination index, vigor index, radicle length, plumule length, sprout length showed a significant correlation with seed emergence percentage and seedling emergence rate (P0.01); 4) Germination percentage was a better indicator used to seed vigor batch division compared with the other germination parameters.
Effects of drought stress on physiological characteristics ofwild Dichondra repens in the Southwest China
2011, 5(6): 1004-1008.
[Abstract](1703) [PDF 408KB](823)
Abstract: Five wild Dichondra repens from Sichuan and Guizhou province and an introduced D. repens from USA were selected to determine the effects of drought stress on physiological characteristics of D. repens by a pot experiment. This study indicated that the increasing drought stress reduced the relative water content and chlorophyll content of leaves and increased the content of malondialdehye and free proline. The drought resistant materials showed a higher leaf water retention capacity, Chl content and a lower content of MDA, free proline.
Effects of silicon on Kentucky bluegrass under drought stress
2011, 5(6): 1009-1013.
[Abstract](1574) [PDF 387KB](939)
Abstract: A simulated drought resistant experiment was conducted to understand the effect of different silicon supplies on morphology and physiology of Kentucky bluegrass Sapphire (Poa pratensis) by measuring the total evapotranspiration (ET), leaf relative water content (RWC), leaf electrolyte leakage(EL), turf quality(TQ), root dry weight(RDW) and root activity (RACT). This study indicated that ET,RWC,TQ,RDW,RACT of Kentucky bluegrass markedly decreased and EL markedly increased under the drought stress. The silicon supplies did not affect the ET,RWC,TQ,RDW,RACT,EL of Kentucky bluegrass in higher irrigation condition; however, silicon increased the ET,RWC,TQ,RDW,RACT and decreasing EL in lower irrigation conditions, especially Si2.14 treatment.
Effects of drought and heat stress on physiological characteristics in alfalfa leaves
2011, 5(6): 1014-1018.
[Abstract](1320) [PDF 370KB](801)
Abstract: Leaf chlorophyll content, relative conductivity and water saturation deficit were determined in six gernplasms of alfalfa when subjected to heat stress and rehydrated condition. The results showed that as heat stress prolonged: 1) the water saturation deficit increased in all gernplasms; 2) the relative conductivity increased except accession 16 and 15 decreased in the eighth day; 3) leaf chlorophyll content decreased except accession 15 increased in the eighth day. Based on the results, present study suggested that accession 28 performed better than the other varieties in heat resistance, while accession 26 was relative worse. Correlation analysis showed that water saturation deficit significantly negatively correlated with chlorophyll content but positively correlated with relative conductivity. This implied that water deficit severely affected the integrity of cell membrane and lead to chlorophyll content inhibition.
Study on cultivating highdrought resistant Nitraria tangutorum plants with Na compound fertilizer application
2011, 5(6): 1019-1024.
[Abstract](1291) [PDF 458KB](645)
Abstract: In this study, the morphological indexes, biomass and Na+ and K+ contents of potted Nitraria tangutorum with Na compound fertilizer application were determined to investigate the effects of Na compound fertilizer on drought resistance of N. tangutorum. The results indicated that compared with control (no fertilizer) and diammonium phosphate, Na compound fertilizer improved significantly plant height by 109% and 45%, root length by 95% and 57%, main stem diameter by 88% and 43%, main root diameter by 85% and 22%, fresh weight by 236% and 68%, shoot Na+ content by 49% and 24%, and root Na+ content by 14% and 11%, respectively (P0.05). At the end of growth period, 11% of Na+ contents in Na compound fertilizer was absorbed by N. tangutorum, 67% left in the potted soil, which could be absorbed by N. tangutorum in the following years. The leached Na+ contents only accounted for only 6% of soil Na+ content. Our results indicated that Na compound fertilizer could not only promote the growth also improve droughttolerance of N. tangutorum and had nonsignificant effects on soil environment.
Sodium compound fertilizer improved drought resistance of Haloxylon ammodendron in desert area
2011, 5(6): 1025-1029.
[Abstract](1223) [PDF 422KB](667)
Abstract: In this paper, the effects of sodium compound fertilizer on growth and drought tolerance of Haloxylon ammodendron seedlings in Alxa desert region, China, were investigated. Compared with control and N, P fertilizer, Na compound fertilizer increased plant height by 55% and 77%, crown diameter by 345% and 229%, main stem diameter by 57% and 72%, main root diameter by 63% and 57%, main root length by 89% and 51%, branch quantities by 83% and 99%, dry matter weight by 343% and 307%, shoot Na+ content by 107% and 110%, whole plant Na+ content by 80% and 85% and whole plant Na+/K+ by 79% and 89%, respectively; however, K+ content maintained stable. Above interesting findings suggested that abundant Na+ absorbed by root contributes to osmotic regulation and improved water uptake capability, hence growth and drought tolerance of H. ammodendron were improved by applying Na compound fertilizer.
Effects of tomato nutritional traits on its fruit yield
2011, 5(6): 1030-1034.
[Abstract](1185) [PDF 379KB](615)
Abstract:Three kinds of tomatoes varieties was conducted to investigate effects of tomato nutritional traits, including relative growth rate, specific leaf area, leaf dry mass content, plant height and root mass per unit leaf area, on its fruit yields by a pot experiment. The results of this study showed that three kinds of tomatoes significantly differed in their measured nutritional traits. General linear correlation analysis indicated that fruit yields was significantly correlated with relative growth rate and specific leaf area, respectively, but not correlated with plant height, and negatively correlated with leaf dry mass content and root mass per unit leaf area. The stepwise multiple regression further analysis showed that the fruit yields was only positively correlated with relative growth rate and specific leaf area. This study suggested that it was better to consider multiple growth characteristics for determining the relationship between tomato functional traits and fruit yields.
Effects of planting ryegrass on farmland weeds and seedbank in winter
2011, 5(6): 1035-1040.
[Abstract](1356) [PDF 457KB](763)
Abstract: The seed germination and growth of weed in farmland rely on the active seedbank obviously. To identify if planting ryegrass in fallow farmland in winter can reduce the active seedbank of the soil, present study investigated the number and species of weed and weed seedbank in the field of a rotation system with ryegrass and vegetables in Guangzhou City from 2009 to 2010. The results showed that planting ryegrass in the winter fallow land significantly reduced the weed seeds in the soil. The amount of weeds in the field originally planted with ryegrass was only 25.00% and 23.28% of that in the field originally planted with cabbage and the fallow land on average; and the active weed seedbank in the soil after planting ryegrass was only 67.85% of the original land. In addition, planting ryegrass in the winter fallow land could also affect the dominant species of weeds in the farmland; it could decline the larger weeds. Generally, planting ryegrass in the winter fallow land not only produced good quality forages, but also reduced the harm to crops by the weeds.
Effects of overseeding legumes on the forage yield and quality of whipgrass
2011, 5(6): 1041-1043.
[Abstract](1510) [PDF 398KB](730)
Abstract: An experiment was carried out to determine the effects of overseeding legumes on the forage yield and quality of whipgrass by overseeding smooth vetch (Vicia villosa), common vetch (V. sativa) and pea (Pisum sativum) into whipgrass pasture during autumn. This study showed that the overseeding legumes increased the yield of dry matter and the nutrient value, indicating that the yield of whipgrass pasture overseeded by smooth vetch, common vetch and pea was 12.397,12.341 and 13.138 t/ha respectively, which increase by 60.46%,59.73% and 70.05% when compared with the control. There was main legume in spring and whipgrass in summer, and the crude protein content decreased and the crude fiber increased with the increase of harvest times. In generally, overseeding smooth vetch performed better, and pea and common vetch came to second
Effects of fertilization levels on yield and quality of Chiccory
2011, 5(6): 1044-1047.
[Abstract](1282) [PDF 433KB](722)
Abstract:The effect of combination of different N, P and K supplies on yield and quality in Chiccory was observed by a field experiment to provide practical information for planting and the comprehensive use this chicory. This study showed that the N, P and K treatments had a significant effect on the yields of herbage and crude protein, and the contents of crude protein, calcium and crude ash of chicory (P>0.05), and the corresponding order was N>P>K, N>P>K, N>K>P, K>P>N and N>K>P, respectively., however, the contents of crude fiber and crude fat among different fertilization were not significant. The yields of herbage and crude protein increased significantly with the increase of N or P supplies. The N3P3K2 had significant higher herbage and crude protein yields than that of the other treatments, while the N2P2K3 had a highest crude protein and calcium contents, and the N3P1K3 had a highest crude ash value. In summary, N3P3K2 treatment with (NH2)2CO 825 kg/ha+Ca(H2PO4)2H2O 600 kg/ha+ K2SO4 150 kg/ha showed a higher yield and better quality of chicory, which could be used for chicory production.
Effects of phenophase differentiation on production of grassland community
2011, 5(6): 1048-1051.
[Abstract](1262) [PDF 373KB](706)
Abstract: Phenophase differentiation is common in grassland community and plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity. However, little attention was paid on the effects of phenophase differentiation on grassland production. The results from a 2year experiment conducted in Inner Mongolia showed that there was an obvious phenophase differentiation in Inner Mongolia grassland community. As the restoration time extending, the degree of phenophase differentiation increased, and the primary production of natural grassland community was promoted; also, a positive significant correlation between phenophase differentiation degree and species richness and species evenness was observed.
Effects of fire on the community characteristics of Stipa bungeana grassland
2011, 5(6): 1052-1058.
[Abstract](1525) [PDF 518KB](782)
Abstract: A field survey was conducted to determine the effects of different fire periods after 2 and 10 years on the importance value of different plants, average height, cover, abundance, aboveground biomass, diversity and litter accumulation of Stipa bungeana community in the Yunwu Mountain. This study showed that S. bungeana and Carex rigesaens were the codominant species in the three blocks, and Artemisia sacrorum had become subdominant species in the plot with 2 years after fire and control, while Leymus secalinus had become subdominant species in the plots with 10 years after fire. The mean height of the community was significantly decreased two years after fire (P0.01), and the mean coverage of the community was significantly decreased ten years after fire (P0.05), and both the mean density of the community were significantly increased two and ten years after fire (P0.01). This study also showed that fire did not affect the aboveground biomass, diversity index, richness index and evenness index. The litter accumulation was control ten years after fire two years after fire.
Structural characteristics of different grassland community type
2011, 5(6): 1058-1065.
[Abstract](1487) [PDF 706KB](770)
Abstract: The spatial distribution characteristics, composition and plant diversity of three typical grassland communities was quantified by applying betabinomial mode in the Shenmu City, Shaanxi Province. This study showed that the composition of Artemisia annua grassland, Leymus chinensis grassland and Thymus mongolicus grassland could be well simulated by the beta binomial distribution model via the chisquare test. The total umber of grassland community was A. annua grasslandL. chinensis grasslandT. mongolicus grassland, and the diversity index was L. chinensis grasslandA. annua grasslandT. mongolicus grassland, and the evenness index was L. chinensis grasslandT. mongolicus grasslandA. annua grassland. However, the average number of species and diversity index in plot with the size of 0.25 m2 followed the pattern with L. chinensis grasslandT. mongolicus grasslandA. annua grassland and L. chinensis grasslandT. mongolicus steppeA. annua steppe, respectively. The spatial heterogeneity index of the whole community was A. annua grasslandL. chinensis grasslandT. mongolicus grassland and the average biomass was T. mongolicus grasslandA. annua grasslandL. chinensis grassland.
Community characteristics of different types of grassland in the Loess Plateau
2011, 5(6): 1066-1069.
[Abstract](1488) [PDF 406KB](723)
Abstract: Based on climatevegetation characteristics, enclosed and grazed grassland within 3 different grassland types which were forest grassland, typical grassland and desert steppe were selected for community characteristics analysis. The results showed that, coverage, average height, individual number and species number in desert steppe were significantly lower than that of the other two types of grassland (P0.05). Individual number and average height in forest grassland were significantly higher than that of typical grassland, however, coverage and species number in the latter were superior to the former. Community biomass showed significant difference among three grasslands types, and ranged as typical grasslandforest grasslanddesert steppe (P0.05). For species diversity, rich index and evenness index, diversity index of desert steppe are obviously lower than that of the other two grassland types; In addition, enclosure has improved plant community structure in desert steppe to a certain extent; for typical grasslands and desert steppe, enclosure improved coverage and average height but not statistics significance.
Population characteristics of Poa pratensis cv. Qinghai
2011, 5(6): 1070-1074.
[Abstract](1512) [PDF 416KB](693)
Abstract: Poa pratensis cv. Qinghai is palatable forage with strongly cold resistance and drought resistance due to strong root system. An experiment was conducted to determine the dormiens module, root biomass, reproduction and intraspecific competition of population characteristics of Poa.pratensis cv. Qinghai. This study showed the root biomass increased with the increase of growing years, and peaked at the fourth year with 1 014 g/m2 and then subsequently decreased as the growing year increased. The dormiens seedlings and buds was the highest with the number of 185.825.34 and 137.6728.97, and then decreased as the growing year prolonged. The maximum of parent strains was 672.337.74 at the fourth year, indicating that the parent strain firstly increased and then decreased with the increase of growing year. The root biomass could be simulated by y=e7.355-1.939/t(P0.01)and showed a S curve, in which the first year was adaptive period, and the second year was logarithmic, and the periods from third year to fifth year were stable, and the sixth year was recessive. The asexual reproduction of P. pratensis cv. Qinghai was observed at the first and second year, and the sexual reproduction was observed at the third and fourth year. However, reproductive ability of asexual and sexual reproduction reduced when the growing years were over 5 due to pasture degradation.
Dynamic monitoring of the vegetation restoration in arid desert area
2011, 5(6): 1075-1078.
[Abstract](1742) [PDF 373KB](744)
Vegetation cover is an important parameter to estimate the regionally ecological environment. The NDVI of TM images in 1987, 2003 and 2008 was used to estimate the effectiveness of vegetation restoration of drought desert region in the Tenger Desert. This study showed that the high vegetation cover area increased and the low vegetation cover area decreased from 1987 to 2008, implying that the vegetation restoration was effective. This study also showed that the ratio of vegetation restoration area to totally regional area increased 18.86% during the period 2003-2008 from 13.51% during the period 1987-2003 by comparing the area changes among different vegetation cover, indicating that vegetation restoration showed a hysteretic nature and its ecological benefits was gradually increasing trend.
Effects of fencing and grazing on the biomass of typical steppe in the Loess Plateau
2011, 5(6): 1079-1084.
[Abstract](1571) [PDF 446KB](836)
Abstract: The excavating block and harvesting methods were used to investigate the effect of grazing and fencing on aboveground and belowground biomass of typical steppe in the Loess Plateau. This study indicated that the fencing significantly increased the cover, height, aboveground and belowground biomass of steppe community when compared to grazing. The vertical distribution of belowground biomass was a inverted typical pyramid or Tshape, indicating that the belowground biomass declined in the grazing and fencing areas with the increase of soil depth, which could be simulated by the exponential function. The belowground biomass at 0~10 cm soil layer was significantly bigger than that at 20~30, 30~40, 40~50 cm soil layer (P0.01) for grazing and fencing areas, and the belowground biomass at 0~50 cm soil layers in the fencing area was higher than that in the grazing area. The ratio of the belowground to aboveground biomass was relatively large because of the local arid climatic condition, and the ratio of the belowground to aboveground biomass in the fencing areas was greater than that in the grazing areas due to different soil contents.
Response of grassland climate productivity to climate change infarming pastoral area of Inner Mongolia
2011, 5(6): 1085-1090.
[Abstract](1455) [PDF 427KB](607)
Abstract: Based on the tendency of climate change including temperature and precipitation during the period 1979-2009 in Taipusi banner of Inner Mongolia, the Miami model and Thornthwaite Memorial model were used to determine the repines of Grassland Climate Productivity to Climate Change in FarmingPastoral Area. This study showed that the annual mean temperature of Taipusi Banner increased significantly by 0.62 ℃ per 10 years in the recent 30 years. In addition, seasonal temperature tended to rise clearly, in which winter temperature increased most significantly by 0.84 ℃ per 10 years. The annual precipitation showed a slight decreasing trend in by 5.3 mm per 10 years. Although there were different trend in seasonal precipitation, decreasing in spring precipitation and autumn precipitation and increasing in summer precipitation and winter precipitation, but all the trends were not clear. This study further showed that the Thornthwaite Memorial model could better coincides grassland climate productivity to the tendency of climate change in comparison with Miami model. The correlation analysis showed that the precipitation is the key factor limiting grassland climate productivity of farmingpastoral area in Inner Mongolia. It is calculated that warmwettype climate was beneficial to grassland climate productivity increasing with a yieldincreasing rate of 8.3% to 16.7%. In the future, if the climate tend to warmdrytype, grassland climate productivity would be affected from -4.8% to 3.5%.
Composition and plant species diversity of plant community in theprocess of natural restoration of desert steppe
2011, 5(6): 1091-1094.
[Abstract](1271) [PDF 434KB](576)
Abstract: The plant composition and species diversity for desert steppes were identified and calculated to determine the effect of enclosure to desert steppe by field survey in the 3 years, 4 years, 5 years, 6 years and 7 years enclosure plots. This study showed that the enclosure changed the composition of plant community, indicating that the perennial species, especially some zone species such as Stipa breviliora, increased with the increase of enclosing time. The ShannonWiener indicator, Pielou indicator and Simpson indicator in the enclosure plots were higher than that in the noenclosure plots, peaking at the enclosure communities with 5 years.
Composition and plant species diversity of plant community in theprocess of natural restoration of desert steppe
2011, 5(6): 1091-1094.
[Abstract](1378) [PDF 434KB](602)
Abstract: The plant composition and species diversity for desert steppes were identified and calculated to determine the effect of enclosure to desert steppe by field survey in the 3 years, 4 years, 5 years, 6 years and 7 years enclosure plots. This study showed that the enclosure changed the composition of plant community, indicating that the perennial species, especially some zone species such as Stipa breviliora, increased with the increase of enclosing time. The ShannonWiener indicator, Pielou indicator and Simpson indicator in the enclosure plots were higher than that in the noenclosure plots, peaking at the enclosure communities with 5 years.
The response of temporal and spatial change of vegetation index to hydrothermal condition in the ThreeRivers Headwaters Region
2011, 5(6): 1095-1100.
[Abstract](1361) [PDF 559KB](663)
Abstract: The response of temporal and spatial change of vegetation index to hydrothermal conditions was discussed by analyzing the relationship between temperature and precipitation data from 18 meteorological stations and NDVI/EVI from MODIS product during the period 2000-2009 in the ThreeRivers Headwaters region. This study indicated that the vegetation index showed a increasing trend from 2000 to 2009 and its mean value of the vegetation index were uneven distributed among the 18 meteorological stations. The vegetation index was positively significant correlation with precipitation in most years but was not significant correlations with temperature in all years. Data from 7 and 5 meteorological stations among the 18 meteorological stations showed that precipitation and temperature had significant correlations with vegetation index. In generally, the distribution of vegetation index and its relationships between these indexes and hydrothermal conditions had significantly temporal and spatial differences. Meanwhile, the vegetation index had a more strong response to precipitation than to temperature, indicating that the precipitation played a leading role in vegetation growth in the ThreeRivers Headwaters region.
Comparison between the vegetation characteristics of alpine and subalpine meadow with different degradation degrees in Northwest of Sichuan province
2011, 5(6): 1101-1105.
[Abstract](1459) [PDF 407KB](597)
Abstract: To explore the similarity and dissimilarity of vegetation characteristics during degraded process between alpine and subalpine meadow, the vegetation characteristics of these two types meadow with different degradation degrees in Northwest of Sichuan province were investigated by using quadrates method. Results showed a highlowhigh trends in terms of species richness as grassland degradation degrees changed from nondegraded to heavy degradation in alpine meadow, but a contrary tendency was observed in the subalpine meadow (lowhighlow). The variation of species richness in alpine ranged from 9.56 to 15.00 species/m2 (the minimum was Light degradation 10.00 species/m2), but the subalpine meadow ranged from 11.80 to 25.08 species/m2 (the maximum was Light degradation 25 species/m2) . The variation of ShanonWiener index and Pielou index was relatively higher in subalpine meadows compared to alpine meadows. With the increase of grazing intensity, the vegetation coverage and height of alpine and subalpine meadows decreased except the heavy degradation of subalpine meadows. Percentage of unpalatable plants living aboveground biomass of alpine increased as meadow degraded but not statistic significant (P0.01); by contrast, a significant decrease trends in the percentage of unpalatable plants living aboveground biomass was observed from light degradation (16.86%), medium degradation (14.80%) to heavy degradation (8.33%) in subalpine meadow, in addition, in the nondegraded meadow of subalpine, it accounted for a less proportion, merely 0.37%.
Temporal and spatial change of grassland vegetation index in Tibetan Plateau
2011, 5(6): 1106-1116.
[Abstract](1414) [PDF 1601KB](610)
Abstract: The new generation of satellite remote sensing data of Terra/MODIS from 2002 to 2008 was applied to determine the temporal and spatial change characteristics of the EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) in the pastoral region of QinghaiTibetan Plateau. Based on field data in August 2006, the relationship between EVI and cover and height was discussed in this study. The results of this study indicated that the EVI was positively related to grassland cover and height, and those of different grassland types firstly increased, and then decreased, which were consistent with the natural changes of plant growth. The EVI showed a small difference between the different grassland types when these grassland types shared the similar characteristics, implying that different grassland types not only had the continuity and transitivity in different region, but also had the differences of different grassland types.
Changes of forage biomass of grasslands during the growing season in the QinghaiTibetan Plateau based on MODIS data
2011, 5(6): 1117-1123.
[Abstract](1364) [PDF 657KB](613)
Abstract: Grassland biomass is an important indicator to evaluate the ecological vulnerability and sensitivity, and is also an important indicator to assess the grassland degradation. In this study, the NDVI index and EVI index from MODIS data and the field data from 326 plots in the grassland were used to establish and optimize the prediction models of grassland biomass for different grassland types, and then established model was applied to estimate the annual and monthly grassland biomass during the period from 2002 to 2009. This study showed that the alpine meadow biomass retrieval model was y=6.202 5x2 -574.89x+14 586, here, x was NDVI; alpine steppe biomass retrieval model was y=0.1 665 5x17 732, here, x was EVI. The biomass of alpine steppe and meadow showed a fluctuant trend during the period 2002-2009, and the fluctuation range of alpine meadow was bigger than that of alpine steppe. The biomass of alpine steppe and meadow increased from June to August, and decreased from August to September, the fluctuation range of alpine steppe was bigger in July and smaller in August than that of alpine meadow, however, the fluctuation range in June and September was not obvious between alpine meadow and alpine steppe.
Vegetation coverage changes of alpine grassland based onremote sensing technology
2011, 5(6): 1124-1131.
[Abstract](1643) [PDF 1314KB](619)
Abstract: Based on the dimidiate pixel model and 3S technology (GIS, RS, GPS), an improved vegetation coverage simulated model was built by using NDVI vegetation index. The MOD09A1 of MODIS data was used to estimate the cover of alpine grassland in the Gannan region by 5 levels in 2000, 2004 and 2008. This study showed that the cover of alpine grassland in the Gannan region generally reduced from 2000 to 2008.The degradation of the first level vegetation is serious, and the main change of grassland vegetation cover indicated the better grassland with the first and second level cover turned into worse grassland with the fourth and fifth level cover. As a whole, this study showed that grassland in the Gannan region was in the status of degradation, which would provide valuable and effective advices for government for decision making.
Advances in the climate change influencing grassland ecosystems in Inner Mongolia
2011, 5(6): 1132-1139.
[Abstract](1328) [PDF 498KB](1351)
Abstract: Climate change and its impact on ecosystems have become one of the hot topics, and studing and understanding the impact of climate change on grassland ecosytems were important to adapt and respond to climate change. This study reviewed the advance in climate change influencing grassland ecosystems in Inner Mongolia from soil, vegetation, livestock and pastoral economy. And then this study proposed some issues in this field. Finally, the present study pointed out that it was necessary to strengthen understanding of grassland degradation and explain the problem of grassland carbon cycling and explore regulation of grazing optimization and implement adaptive management actively. The advices would provide some help for current and future research.
Plant tissue culture and its research advances and application in the forage plants
2011, 5(6): 1140-1148.
[Abstract](1349) [PDF 555KB](1004)
Abstract: This study reviewed the factors affecting plant tissue culture, main problems among plant tissue culture (e.g., as browning, pollution and vitrification) and the solutions for solving these problems, emphasizing on the application and research advances of rapid propagation of clones, genetic transformation, anther culture and haploid breeding, somatic mutagenesis and mutant screening, and secondary substance production in the forage plants.
Effects of nutritional conditions on growth of Beauveria bassiana
2011, 5(6): 1149-1155.
[Abstract](1182) [PDF 416KB](476)
Abstract: The effects of different carbon sources, nitrogen sources and trace elements on the growth and spore production of three kinds of Beauveria bassiana on meadow moth were studied. The results showed that organic carbon sources were suitable for three kinds of B. bassiana. The best organic carbon source was glucose and followed by sucrose. For inorganic carbon source, a few of which were taken only by BbS05. The best nitrogen source was yeast powder. The highest growth and spore production of three B. bassiana were obtained when C∶N=40∶8. For BbD01, the mixture of Fe、Mn addition showed the best facilitation. For BbS05, the most efficient mixture was the group of Fe、Zn、Mn and followed by the group of Fe、Zn. However, none of single trace elements or their mixture was useful to BbY03.
Resources of cellulose decomposition function microbes and its utilizationpotential in grassland system interfaces
2011, 5(6): 1156-1161.
[Abstract](1187) [PDF 477KB](652)
Abstract: The grassland system interface theory provided a new methodology to analyze system coupling and discordance in the grassland agroecosystem, and made the theory system of grass science more perfect. This paper reviewed the research advances in the cellulose decomposition function microbes from three aspects which included species resources, enzyme resources and gene resources, according to relevant reports. Based on the system theory and the grassland system interface theory, the utilization potential of cellulose decomposition function microbe resources in grassland system was analyzed from three major interfaces of grassland agroecosystem, namely, plantsite interface (A), grasslandanimal interface (B) and grassland and livestockmanagement interface (C). Present study concluded that cellulose decomposition function microbe may have good prospects to apply in areas of soil organic matter decomposition, resources cyclic utilization, environmental protection and relieve contradiction of grassland and livestock. Some suggestions for further research were given as follows: 1) The diversity and ecological functions of cellulose decomposition microbes on the foundation of ecological research should be further studied; 2) To solve the forage sources of livestock breeding through nontraditional method, isolation and screening of straw cellulosedecomposing microbes strains is necessary; 3) Maintain the grassland agroecosystem sustainable development by further promoting livestockcrops system coupling.
Preliminary understanding of animal welfare
2011, 5(6): 1162-1167.
[Abstract](1558) [PDF 432KB](766)
Abstract: Safety of animal products is another aspect concerned for animal welfare, but most people ignored or even denied the existent necessity of animal welfare due to onesidedly pursuing the rising of GDP and human wellbeing in the domestic market, which must endanger human health, Animal welfare can improve the quality of animal products and further ensure food safety, and the grassland agricultural system also provided a foundation for the development of animal welfare. The development of animal welfare was influenced by many factors, and there was difference between domestic and foreign about animal welfare research because of the era limitation and synchronism. For this reason, while talking about animal welfare, we should control the degree of this issue according to its actual conditions. Fortunately, we can improve the degree of social recognition of animal welfare, to fully realized animal welfare via forage and livestock coupling, improving the grassland agricultural systems. In a word, there was no time to delay developing legislation about animal welfare in China.
Application study of vitamin E in forage grass and livestock products
2011, 5(6): 1167-1172.
[Abstract](1183) [PDF 429KB](634)
Abstract: Vitamin E, an antioxidant and safety food additive, is widely used in various processed products. The paper explained the antioxidant mechanisms of vitamin E, compared the effectiveness of antioxidant vitamin E from vitamin E content of forage and the influencing factors, vitamin E in forage improving the lipid oxidation stability of meat and milk, the relationship between extending the shelf life of animal fats and the antioxidant activity of vitamin E. It also compared the antioxidant capacity of various tocopherol at different temperature and concentrations. The final purpose of the paper is to make us have a better understanding and use the antioxidant capacity of vitamin E under different conditions.
Effects of religion on peoples cognition of grassland function and management pattern in the Gannan region
2011, 5(6): 1173-1180.
[Abstract](1533) [PDF 563KB](506)
Abstract: The religion affects the ability of people to recognize the natural things by specific religious rites and activities. Questionnaires were used to determine the effect of religion on people's cognition of grassland Function and Management pattern in the Gannan region. This study showed that the religious believers showed an obvious difference in importance of grassland, agreement between productive function and ecological function of grassland, and relationship between human and grassland; however, all religious believers considered anthropic factor as main driver causing grassland degradation. This study also showed that the effect of religion on management pattern of grassland showed a complicated trend, indicating that the Buddhist believers paid a highest attention to management pattern of grassland, while the Christian believers showed the lowest attention; the Taoism believers were most satisfactory with current life under present grassland management, while the Catholic believers showed the lowest satisfaction; Most Buddhist believers agreed to reform the present management pattern of grassland. Reforming of present management pattern of grassland was encouraged by protecting environment for Christian believers and by increasing income and good education of children for Buddhism, Islam, Taoism believers. This study suggested that religion believers not only shared in a common for cognition of grassland Function and Management pattern, but also showed a difference.
Research on professional cooperatives working with animal husbandry production and operation of alpine ecosystems in Gonghe County,Qinghai Province
2011, 5(6): 1181-1186.
[Abstract](1585) [PDF 491KB](719)
Abstract: The tragedy of common has been produced, because the extensive operation forms of animal husbandry which pursuited the quantity of live stocks excessive. Therefore, government has established development strategies to develop ecological animal husbandry based on animal husbandry cooperatives, and to reach the targets of three decreasing by the implements of settling nomadic herdsmen and fencing grasslands. This study took the professional animal husbandry production and operation cooperative in Hayihai, Hainan State, Qinghai province as an example, analyzed the development process, operating form, and existing problems in this cooperative, and studied development strategies to improve the development of ecological animal husbandry based on cooperatives. The results showed, the establishing and development of animal husbandry cooperatives were significantly different from what of agricultural cooperatives, since they were influenced by particularity of production and living style in alpine regions, uniqueness of cultural and consuetude of Zang Nationality, setting of nomadic, and so forth. Beside, the study indicated there were still some concrete issues in animal husbandry cooperatives improving the development of ecological animal husbandry. Furthermore, this study has raised some suggestions on employment of some nomadic, degeneration of live stock brand, epidemic prevention of live stock, according to the actual situation.
Effects of organic fertilizer application on silage quality of forage sorghum
2011, 5(6): 1187-1189.
[Abstract](1426) [PDF 340KB](597)
Abstract: A field experiment was designed to determine the effect of organic fertilizer application on silage quality of forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). The results showed that under the same nitrogen application amount, as organic fertilizer addition increasing, the fermentation quality of silage decreased after initial increase, the best fermentation quality was obtained at the organic fertilizer rates of 75 t/ha and 150 t/ha. Meanwhile, the contents of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber increased,while the content of crude protein and in vitro dry matter digestibility decreased with increasing organic fertilizer addition. In order to obtain both good fermentation quality and feeding value of silage, application of 75-150 t/ha organic fertilizer as the base fertilizer is suitable in forage sorghum growing for silage.
Study on fatty acid of Vicia sativa and Elymus nutans inalpine grassland region
2011, 5(6): 1190-1193.
[Abstract](1402) [PDF 419KB](502)
Abstract:The GCMS method was employed to detect the fatty acid contents of Vicia sativa and Elymus nutans, which were planted in alpine grassland. Twelve kinds of fatty acids were detected in V. sativa while eleven in E. nutans. Total fatty acid contents were 4.84 g/kg and 4.46 g/kg in V. sativa and E. nutans, respectively. Four unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) were detected in both of the grasses and the order of contents was  Linolenic acid>Linoleic acid>Oleic acid>Palmitoleic acid. For the saturated fatty acids (SFA), the content of Palmitic acid was the highest compared to other kinds. The UFA/SFA ratio was 1.34 and 2.21 in V. sativa and E. nutans, respectively. Compared to V. sativa, E. nutans attained 11% higher UFA content but 33% lower SFA, as a result, UFA/SFA ratio of E. nutans was 1.65 time as high as V. sativa. The GC/MS method was proved to be a good method to dectect fatty acid with a good separation of the different components and high repeatability.
Isolation and detection of swainsonine from Oxytropis glabra in the southern Xinjiang region
2011, 5(6): 1194-1197.
[Abstract](1535) [PDF 447KB](671)
Abstract: The thin hydrochloric acid was used to extract the filtration from Oxytropis glabra, and this filtration was applied to get the crude alkaloids by eluting with 1 mol/L ammonia water on 732 strong eationexchange resins. White crystal was obtained from the crude alkaloids by the following steps, extracted by methanol, then applied to silica gel stele (180 m), eluted with chloroform∶methanol∶ammonia∶water (70∶26∶2∶2). The crude alkaloids was monitored by thinlayer chromatography,incorporated and evaporated the same fraction, finally, the white crystal was obtained under vacuum (-0.094 MPa) at 90 ℃. The white crystal was possibly considered as swainsonine, the chemical structures of which were identified to further confirm that this white crystal was swainsonine by means of TLC, MP, UV, IR, MS and NMR. The extraction of swainsonine in O. glabra was 19.95 mg/kg.
Analysis on nutritional quality of Elymus nutans among different populations onQinghai-Tibet Plateau
2011, 5(6): 1198-1202.
[Abstract](1412) [PDF 397KB](601)
Abstract:The content of water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and crude protein(CP) of six Elymus nutans populations from QinghaiTibet Plateau were investigated in the study. The results indicated that:There were significant differences in WSC and CP content among different populations in different growth stages. The highest content of WSC was observed in the population from Gonghe, Qinghai, The highest content of CP was observed in the population from Maqu.The WSC and CP contents varied significantly in different growth stages, the highest value appeared in early blooming stage, ranging between 1.58% and 6.91% for the six populations. The CP content decreased as the plant grew, the Lowest values was observed in the full ripe stage. The content of WSC and CP showed determinate variabilities, the coefficient of variabilities ranged from 36.47%~51.29% and 4.76%~20.29%, respectively. In the whole growing stage, the WSC contents were significantly and negatively correlated with the CP contents (P0.01)。
Several metal elements content analysis of Elaeagnus angustifolia
2011, 5(6): 1203-1206.
[Abstract](1209) [PDF 398KB](578)
Abstract: After ashing and digesting samples, contents of nine metal elements (Na, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Cd) in Elaeagnus angustifolia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). Optimum working conditions, accuracy and precision of the methods for determining different elements were investigated. The results indicated the contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Mg, Ni, Ca and Na were 4.06, 6.21, 0.02, 1.87, 88.40, 2.50, 137.60 and 48.25 g/g with Cd not detected. The recovery percentage of standard addition was between 98.5% and 105.5%, and the relative standard deviation was between 0.54% and 1.78%. In conclusion, the determining method is quick and simple to operate, and it has good precision and accuracy to meet analyzing requirements.
The research progress of organic acids metabolism in leguminousplant under phosphorus deficiency
2011, 5(6): 1207-1213.
[Abstract](1218) [PDF 443KB](863)
Abstract: Under phosphorus deficiency, large amounts of organic acids were secreted by leguminous plants to promote phosphorus efficiency in the soil. This paper summarized the time course, levels and types of the organic acid in the secretion process. The efficiency of different organic acid in phosphorus activation was also compared. It is pointed out that organic acid secretion induced, but was not the only inducer, rhizosphere acidification. The organic acids were mainly synthesized in root system, and their synthesis had a tight relationship with carbon metabolism. Finally, the research direction of organic metabolism in future was discussed.
Citation analysis of master thesis on College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University
2011, 5(6): 1214-1217.
[Abstract](1057) [PDF 335KB](507)
Abstract: Forty eight mastersdissertations from 8 fields in College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology during 2007-2009 were selected as the source of statistics. Applying bibliometrics method, this paper makes a preliminary statistic analysis of the quantities and types of citation as well as the chronological distributions of the quoted passages. The rules and characteristics of the references demanded by the postgraduates were discussed, and some suggestions for enhancing the acquisition and cataloging construction of the library were also presented. The problems need to be improved immediately were proposed in this paper.
Primary studies on suitable planting density and fertilization for hybrid maize Longdan No.7
2011, 5(6): 1218-1220.
[Abstract](1445) [PDF 332KB](518)
Abstract: Effects of planting density, nitrogen and phosphorous application rates and schedule on the grain yield of maize hybrid Longdan No.7 were studied under field conditions. The results showed that the suitable planting density was 60 000 plants/ha and the grain yield reached 14 460.05 kg/ha. The grain yield reduced significantly as planting density was higher or lower than 60 000 plants/ha. The proper nitrogen and phosphorous application rates were 400 kg/ha and 300 kg/ha respectively, and the highest yield reached 12 785.8 kg/ha under this fertilization level. The comparisons of different N and P application schedule showed that the best one was to apply N and P in tow ways, in which the highest yield (13 485.8 kg/ha) achieved as fertilization was three times, then it was 13 442.0 kg/ha as fertilization was twice, and the lowest yield was 11 261.5 kg/ha as fertilization was only one time. Therefore, the suitable fertilization schedule was to apply fertilizer (N 400 kg/ha and P2O5 300 kg/ha) at the ratio of 33.3% three times: before planting, the rest at growth stage of prophase shooting and huge bellbottom period.
Analysis and evaluation of available Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe contents of topsoil in Gulang Irrigation Region
2011, 5(6): 1221-1225.
[Abstract](1478) [PDF 392KB](581)
Abstract: To provide a scientific basis for rational fertilization, the available Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe contents of top soils in 326 different sampling points that belonged to well irrigation areas, river irrigation areas and Yellow River irrigation areas were detected and analyzed from 2009 to 2010. The results showed that the available Zn contents in 81.6% of the well irrigation area soils, 67.1% of the river irrigation area soils and 41% of Yellow River irrigation area soils were lower than the critical value of the plant Zn demand, and this indicated the lacking of Zn was very serious in those regions. In river irrigation areas and Yellow River irrigation areas, the available soil Mn contents were 5.64-10.12, 6.46-14.68 and 7.22-15.17 mg/kg, respectively, which were higher than the critical value of the crop Mn demand(5.0 mg/kg), and the available soil Cu contents were 0.42-1.12,0.90-2.00,0.81-2.47 mg/kg respectively, which were also higher than the critical value of crop Cu demand(0.2 mg/kg). Therefore, the available soil Mn and Cu contents in those areas were at relatively high levels. Meanwhile, the available soil Fe in those three different kinds of irrigation areas were 2.88-8.08, 2.42-13.19 and 14.22 mg/kg, and the average values were 5.40, 10.20 and 12.30 mg/kg respectively. Although the available soil Fe contents in those areas were a little higher than the critical value of crop Fe demand (4.50 mg/kg), there were still 18.5% of the well irrigation area soils, 6.4% river irrigation area soils and 3.7% Yellow River irrigation area soils with low available soil Fe which did not reach the critical value of crop Fe demand. Generally speaking, available soil Zn were seriously lacking in those three irrigation areas, and available soil Mn and Cu contents were relatively high in most areas. Thus, those three irrigation areas needed Zn fertilizers and appropriate amounts of Fe fertilizers, and did not need Mn and Cu fertilizers, when crops were planted. Besides, the amount of fertilizer application should adapt to the crop species and the situations of soils.