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The economic benefit of Golf course construction project is the lifeline, the longterm development basis, and the ultimate aim of Golf course construction enterprises. The project profits of Golf course construction enterprises mainly come from the cost control of construction project. With the further development of market economy, the competitions among Golf course construction enterprises become intense, which reduces the profit. What measures should be taken to control the construction cost of Golf course project has become the focus of gaining the maximum profit of construction enterprises. This study proposed some measures to gain relative high profit by reducing the cost of Golf course construction, which would provide useful information for Golf course construction enterprises.
Effects of leaf spray PP333, Cycocel, Gibberellin, Ethylene and Methyl etc. on turf quality of Bluegrass (Poa annua cv. Baisheng), Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea cv. Qiancao No.1) and Ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Shouxiang) were studied. The results showed that PP333 and Cygcocel played a role in restraining growth and regrowth of three grasses, and made the leaf become shorter and wider, the grass layer denser, chlorophyll content increase and the leaf color darker, and thus improved the turfgrass ornamental value. Gibberellin increased the growth period, made leaf become longer and thinner, increased the grass layer density, decreased chlorophyll content, turn the leaf color lighter, and promoted three turfgrasses to turn green in advance and extend their landscape effect. Methyl and ethylene showed less effect on turf quality.
Seeds of two forage species were coated with mixtures of algal powder and plantderived hygroscopic polysaccharide gums. The coated seeds were inoculated with spores of microorganism. Objectives of the study were to examine effects of seed coating and inoculation of spores on plant growth and sustainable effect of seed coating on plant growth and soil conditions. The results showed that dry weight（P0.01), nodule number (P0.05) and CO2 emission of soil (P0.05) of the coated seed plants were higher than those of the uncoated seed plants. The dry weight of Elymus nutans plant, of Vicia amoena plant and nodule number of V. amoena were positively correlated with CO2 emission of soil (P0.001). Dry weight, nodule number and CO2 emission of soil of plants from uncoated seeds sown in the soils,on which the coated seed plants were harvested previously, showed the same trends as those of the coated seed plants. It is suggested that activity of soil microbes has been enhanced due to nutrients provided by coating materials and algae. It may result in improvement of plant growth. Improvement of soil microbes and conditions can be sustained as well.
Grassland ecosystems are the main terrestrial ecosystems, and are intensively affected by human activities. Greenhouse gas emissions from grassland ecosystems have severely impacted on the global climate changes. This study gave a brief review of the mechanisms and controlling factors of CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from grassland ecosystems and indivated that the conjunction of environmental, biological and management factors played a key role in variations of greenhouse gas emissions from grassland ecosystems. The key issues and further tasks were discussed, which included mechanisms and the overall process of greenhouse gas emissions, and the comparative study of greenhouse gas emissions of grassland ecosystems in different regions. Developing and improving greenhouse gas emission inventories under different grassland types and utilization patterns, according to the methods recommended by IPCC, will also be the further study objectives.
Soil respiration in grassland ecosystems is affected by abiotic factors such as soil temperature, soil moisture, soil organic content and radio of carbon to nitrogen. Meanwhile, the effect of biological factors such as leaf area index, plant photosynthesis, vegetation litter, root biomass and soil microorganism, of human activities on grassland ecosystems also exist. Perhaps grazing is one of the main effects on soil respiration because the grazing can influence the soil physical structure and chemical composition seriously. The paper reviewed the influence of specific changes of these factors on grassland soil respiration and provided a certain reference value for studying soil respiration of grassland ecosystems.
Five factors（DNA polymerase, Mg2+, template DNA, dNTPs, primer) in ISSRPCR reaction system were carried on the optimized experiment by taking the genomic DNA of Elymus nutans as template. The optimum reaction system and reaction process of E. nutans ISSRPCR analysis were established. The results of this study showed that the volume of reaction system was 25 L. It included 2.5 L 10buffer (except Mg2+), 1.0 U TapDNA polymerase, 2.0 mmol/L Mg2+, 30－120 ng template DNA，0.25 mmol/L dNTP and 0.25 mol/L primer. Eleven primers with stable amplification and rich polymorphism were obatined based on the optimal PCR reaction system.The reaction program was devised for 2 min at 94℃ in the first circle， 1 min at 94℃, 51℃ for 1 min (depended on different primer), 72℃ for 1.5 min for 41 cycles, and 72℃ for 10 min for extending，which was obatined across the gradient PCR experiments, including temperature gradient,cycle gradient and extending time gradient experiments. Validation of the optimistic ISSRPCR reaction system and amplification program showed that the reaction system and amplification program had high stability and good reproducibility.
New ESTSSRs markers by EST database of Medicago truncatula were developed and the distribution characteristic of ESTSSRs was analyzed. 6 688 of 285 285 EST sequences of M. truncatula from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) were detected by SSRIT software, which accounted for 2.28%. Among them, 2 301 dinucleotide repeat elements, accounting for 34.4%, had the highest frequency and followed by 1 982 trinucleotide repeats, which accounted for 29.6% of the total ESTSSRs. The ratio of four to six nucleotide repeat elements was comparatively lower. Selecting 100 primer pairs randomly, 85 primer pairs showed clear amplification belts, accounting for 85% of designed primers and 29 primer pairs showed polymorphisms, accounting for 34.1% of primers available. Besides, 85 new M. truncatula ESTSSR markers have been developed.
To provide molecular basis of highaltitude adaption, a partial sequence of glyceraldehyde3phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene was isolated from common vetch (Vicia sativa). In this study, a pair of primers was designed according to homologous GAPDH genes among closely related plants, and then the reverse transcription PCR (RTPCR) was performed. A nucleotide sequence of 1 141 bp with coding 381 animo acides was identified. Homological analysis showed that the similarity between this sequence and GAPDH gene sequences of other organisms was over 83% in nucleoride sequence level and over 95% in animo acid level. Therefore, the sequence was considered to be V. sativa GAPDH gene. It was named VsGAPDH, and was submited to GenBank with accession number HM117006.
Xylose as a selective agent is considered to be biosafe for plant genetic transformation. For investigating the possibility of xylose isomerase gene as a selective marker in genetic transformation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), the effect of xylose on the growth of calli which derived from mature embryos of perennial ryegrass was detected. Cultured on subcultivation medium （SM） with different proportions of sucrose, xylose and sucrose+xylose respectively，the calli were analyzed and their weight gain were determined after 5 week culture. The results of this study showed that the weight gain of calli increased with the enhancing of sugar content from 0 to 30 g/L. Calli grew much better on the media with sucrose than with xylose at the same concentration. At 30 g/L total amount of sugar in the mixed media, the weight gain of calli declined when the proportion of sucrose decreased in the meanwhile xylose increased. These results presented that xylose restricted the callus growth evidently. Moreover, on the media of SM+5 g/L sucrose+25 g/L xylose or SM+30 g/L xylose, the biomass increment was lower than others. It was suggested that xylose could be employed as a positive selective agent in perennial ryegrass genetic transformation at the selection pressure of 25 g/L xylose+5 g/L sucrose or 30 g/L xylose.
In order to establish the high efficiency alfalfa （Medicago sativa） regeneration system for callus induction of the 54Q53 lucerne, two different cytokinins, three explants, and four basic solidmedia were conducted and concentration combination of the auxin and cytokinin was optimized. The results of this study showed that the best protocol was the hypocotyls as the explants and MS medium with plant hormones, 2.0 mg/L 2,4D+0.5 mg/L 6BA, as the induction medium. Furthermore, preliminary alfalfa callus regeneration was studied by using the MS or B5 basic medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of KT, NAA. More and stronger adventitious roots were obtained on the MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L KT and the root development would be repressed by adding the NAA.
132 germplasms of Bromus inermis were employed for phenotypic diversity analysis using 31 agronomic traits. High polymorphism was detected among materials from different origins. Variation coefficient ranged from 9% to 105%. Agronomic traits with larger variation were ratio of stem biomass to leaves biomass, anther length, length of the first joint of panicle, yield per plant, seeds yield, length of spikelet, moisture content, hay yield, fresh yield, number of spikelet,etc. The results of principal component analysis showed that the 19 principal components, including plant height, hay yield, fresh yield, stalk diameter, moisture content, length and width of spikelet, 1 000seed weight, number of spikelet, number of stem of panicle, length of the second glume, length of the first joint of panicle, length and width of panicle, number of blade, number of culm joint, length of base branch, ratio of hay yield to fresh yield and yield per plant, were the main factors for agronomic variation, and the cumulation of first 14 principal components contributed 86.22% of variation. Cluster analysis based on the agronomic traits showed that all of these traits could be divided into four groups: width of seeds alone together for a group; the second group consisting of traits of anther length and ratio of stem biomass to leaves biomass; the third group comprising traits of length of the first glume, length of the second glume, length of panicle, and length of seeds; the rest clustered into the fourth group. Cluster analysis based on 132 germplasms were divided into nine groups: 1) higher fresh yield; 2) more number of blade and number of spikelet; 3) smaller ratio of stem biomass to leaves biomass; 4) and 5) more 1 000seed weight; 6) higher plant height; 7) and 8) poor agronomic traits; and 9) higher seeds yield per 10 m2. The results of this study have provided an important theory basis for B. inermis breeding and varietal improvement.
Present study investigated the effects of IBA on Scaevola crassifolia rooting and relevant oxidases. The dynamics of activity of peroxidase (POD), super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and indole acetic acid oxidase (IAAO) during rooting were studied with random block experiment. The results showed that rooting type of S. crassifolia was the phloem. When its cutting was treated by IBA at a suitable concentration, rooting rate and the quality of root system could be significantly enhanced. Activity of related oxidative enzyme of S. crassifolia varied regularly during the cutting. The activity of POD and SOD and PPO increased gradually after cutting and reached a peak during the formation of root system and then decreased gradually. The activity of CAT and IAAO showed a trend in which it decreased firstly and then increased and reached a minimum value during the formation of root system.
Seeds with different moisture contents (9%、11%、13%、15%、17%) of Medicago sativa cv. Zhongmu No.1 were boarded on the Shijian8 satellite. Using the age 3 of plants in SP1 as study materials, activities of leaf protective enzymes (SOD, CAT, POD) and MDA content were analyzed statistically. The results of the study showed that plant protective enzymes activities and MDA contents of alfalfa leaves from seeds with different moisture contents were different. The leaf protective enzyme activities with 13% and 15% seed moisture contents in control group were significant lower than that with 9% seed moisture content (P0.05); the leaf MDA content with 13% seed moisture content was significant higher than that with 9% seed moisture content (P0.05). In satellite carrying group, mutagenic efficiency of the seed with high moisture content could be increased. The leaf protective enzyme (SOD, CAT and POD) activities of satellite carried seed with 13% and 15% moisture content were significant higher than those of the seeds with same level of moisture content and 9% moisture content in control group (P0.05). The leaf MDA content of satellite carried seeds with 13% moisture content was dropped comparing with those of the seeds with same level of moisture content and 9% moisture content in control group significantly (P0.05). The results showed that the space mutagenesis enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and reduced the accumulation of MDA and level of lipid oxidation, but the antioxidant capacity of plants was enhanced.
In Horqin sandland, the maize (Zea mays) leaf transpiration rate, sap flow, and soil evaporation were measured by using Li6400 portable photosynthesis system, heat balance Dynamax packed sap flow measuring system, and microLysismeters, respectively. The results of this study showed that during measuring period, the leaf transpiration rate ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 mm, the sap flow was about 7.3-29.8 g/h, the average soil evaporation occupied 20% of the total water utilization, but could increase up to 30% after irrigation shortly. There was a significant correlation between the amount of sap flow and the leaf transpiration rate. The Pearsons correlation coefficients of the higher, middle and lower layer leaves transpiration rate to the sap flow were 0.667, 0.732 and 0.607 respectively. This implied that the plant water requirement might be reasonably estimated by measuring the leaf transpiration rate. Compared with evapotranspiration calculated by using water balance method, the experiment results showed that sapflow and micLysismeters could be used to measure evapotranspiration of maize.
In order to understand the behavior differences in germination of two seeds, grown in a single thorn wrap, of Cenchrus pauciflorus under same conditions, the germination rates of complete seeds, seeds with glumes, bare seeds were measured. The germination rate of complete seeds in dry conditions and the waterabsorbing rate of different packaging seeds, the germinating order of big and small seeds in the single thorn wrap were also tested. Results from the study showed that two seeds in the most single thorn wrap could germinate under suitable condition, and the big seeds germinated earlier than the small seeds, while the germination rates of big seeds and small seeds were 85.00% and 59.64%, respectively. Under the same conditions, the germination rate of the two sorts of naked seeds was same, 88.13%. The germination rate of the big seeds was almost not affected by the condition of watersupplying insufficiency, but the small seeds could germinate hardly. The rate of waterabsorption showed that waterabsorbing ability of the big seeds was stronger than that of the small seeds under different package (complete seeds or seeds with glumes). The difference of seed germination between the big and the small seeds was mainly caused by limited waterabsorption.
Present study investigated the effect of soaking time and different concentration of gibberellin on germination and seedling growth of Leymus chinensis cv. Jisheng (artificial breeding) and wild L. chinense (natural cultivar). The results of this study showed that the germination rate and the vigor index of both L. chinensis cv.Jisheng and wild L. chinense seeds were significantly increased by water soaking 48 h compared with the controls (no soaking, P0.05). The height of L. chinensis cv. Jisheng and wild L. chinense seedlings treated by 300 g/g GA3 for 48 h was the highest, which were 12.39 cm and 14.06 cm, respectively, and were significant different from that of the controls（P0.05）. The germination rate, germination index, germination potentiality and vigor index were promoted by lower concentration of GA3 treatments (soaked with GA3 for 48 h), but inhibited by high GA3 concentration in varying degrees. It was concluded that the best treatment for the germination of L. chinensis cv. Jisheng and wild L. chinense was 300 g/g GA3 soaking seeds for 48 h.
The growth dynamics of Sophora flavescens from different sources which were Chengde City, Hebei Province, Lushi County, Henan Province, Min County and Cheng County, Gansu Province, were studied. The results showed a similar growth dynamics of stem, leaves and root for different source germplasms. The highest number of leaf and leaf dry weight were observed in late August, and for the roots, it appeared in the late October. However, significant differences in terms of biomass among five source germplasms were observed. S. flavescens from Chengde City attained the lowest stem height but the highest root dry weight compared with the others. A relative higher leaf growth rate in the earlier stage and earlier defoliation in the late stage was also observed in Chengde City germplasm, which indicated its earlymaturing characteristics. The germplasms from Gansu provience attained the highest plant height with plenty leaves, intermediate production, later defoliation which indicated its latematuring characteritics. The germplasm from Lushi County, Henan Province attained the lowest production.
The modular populations on Leymus chinensis in different succession series in enclosed and cutting glassland in the Songnen Plains, Northeast China was studied. The experiment also analysed its age structure of tillers, rhizome length, bud bank and the composition of dormancy modules in different succession series by using statistical methods of ANOVA. The results of this study showed that the age structure of tillers in different succession series displayed an increasing age structure, representing 1 a2 a3 a. Rhizome total length was an important indicator which reflected the capacity of asexual reproduction and space to expand. It was constructed by four age classes. The greatest age class of rhizome total length was 2 a in different succession series and the structure of rhizome total length was related to age structure of tillers.The population had a vigorous vegetative reproduction during the late period of growing season. The age spectrum of bud bank in different plots in October was 0 a1 a2 a3 a, representing an increasing age structure.It could accurately be forecasted that the population in next year would still be an increasing age structure by the number of bud bank. During the late period of growing season, the L. chinensis populations produced two vegetative forms on dormancy module, the infinite buds and dormancy seedlings, which was considered as the potential population on the next year. The dormancy seedling stock in cutting glassland was significant higher than that in enclosed glassland because cutting glass could promote the formation of dormancy buds and seedlings. The capacity of vegetative propagation of L. chinensis rhizome was senior to that of tillering node. It could be forecasted that the populations in different succession series would represent an increasing age structure in next year. However, the proportion of winterness and springness stems in enclosed glassland would be different from that in cutting glassland. The characteristics of age structure of population modules could reflect the trend of population development.
In order to choose proper grassland establishment patterns in ecotone of pastures and farm lands in North China with quality forage planting watersaving irrigation demonstration project area at Maerzhuang of Yanchi County as the research object， the costbenefit comparison of four types of grasslands, including natural grasslands (NG), Medicago sativa grassland (ML), Glycyrrhiza uralensis grassland (GL) and M.sativaG.uralensis mixed grassland (M+G), on soil moisture, nutrient status and dynamics were studied by using grey correlation analysis methods. The results showed that the order of water contents in different land types was M+GMLGLNG; the pros and cons of the trend of water was GLM+GNGML; the order of soil nutrient status was GLMLNGM+G; and the trend of soil nutrient status was GLMLNGM+G. The soil nutrient trend of M+G became worse gradually, but that of other three treatments was similar, and the pattern of the change was following with increasing-decreasing-increasing. The order of economicbenefit of four kinds of grasslands was GLMLM+GNG. It could be concluded that GL was the best pattern in the four grassland establishment patterns from the comprehensive profit point view.
Shannan Prefecture is located in the heart of Tibet, which is the cross area between cropping and animal grazing. The lands in the area are flat and well fertilized with irrigation system. The area is one of the major regions of cereal and forage production in Tibet. In order to increase forage hay reserve in winter in the area, agricultural structure has been adjusted in recent years. Consequently, the percentage of grassland area was expanded. Forage has been planted in Shannan Prefecture since 1970s. In 2009, the total area of artificial grassland in Tibet was 33 000 ha, including 8 400 ha in Shannan Prefecture (25.5% of total area). Furthermore, the artificial grassland in the area in 2010 had reached 10 740 ha, including 2 466.7 ha of the large sectorsconnecting lands. 81.4% of the grassland could be irrigated. The cropping forage in the area has shown a good economic benefit and become the conscious action of local farmers.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a phenomenon of posttranscription target gene silencing in organisms, in whcih the gene was silenced triggering by doublestranded RNA (dsRNA), and it is a new approach to conduct a research on gene function. The paper reviewed the discovery of RNAi phenomenon, its interference function and characters, induction methods and vector construction of the interference in plants, and research proceedings of gene functions and diseaseresistance by RNAi, and future development of its theory and application, which would provide some guidance for further studies.
The improved droppingmethod was used to make chromosome slides of male Locusta migratoria manilensis for studying the karyotypes of Cbanding and sliver staining of L. migratoria manilensis. The result of Cbanding showed that all chromomsomes of L. migratoria manilensis were telocentric chromosomes.Telomeric band was detected on chromosme 2. Karyotype of male L. migratoria manilensis was 2N=22+XO(♂). The genomestyle was 4L+4M+4S+XO. AgNOR was only observed on one of chromsome 2 and located on the secondary constriction near the telomere. Chromsome 2 had abundant bands and could be used as the genetic marker of L. migratoria manilensis.
The study was that using population density of plateau zokor（Myospalax baileyi）on behalf of habitat suitability analyzed the correlations between vegetation properties, such as cover, height, aboveground biomass and plant diversity, and five gradients of population densities of plateau zokor. The results of this study showed that all of vegetation property indices had significant correlations with population densities. The vegetation cover and height showed extremely significant linear correlation with population densities, whereas the aboveground biomass and species diversity showed nonlinear correlation (unimodal curve). However, the vegetation height and aboveground biomass were often disturbed by uncertain enviromental factors, but the vegetation cover and species diversity were relatively stable. Therefore, the latter are more accurate in conjecturing the suitability of plateau zoker habitat and predicting the trend of population development.
Experiments conducted to determine the effects of alfalfa hay meal on growth performance, antioxidant and immune values of Sichuan white geese. A total of 160 geese were randomly assigned to four treatment groups by equal sex (four replicates per treatment with ten geese per replicate). Four diets, including control feed (C), control feed plus 10% (T1), 20% (T2) and 30% (T3) of alfalfa hay meal, were fed to geese, respectively. Results of the study showed that 1) T1 significantly increased average daily gain of geese (P0.05) and decreased feed gain ratio (P0.05); there were no significant differences in average daily gain and feed gain ratio between T2 and control group (P0.05); comparing with control group, average daily gain in T3 was no difference (P0.05), but feed gain ratio were significant higher (P0.05). 2) Comparing with the control, T2 significantly increased SOD and GSHPx activity in liver and muscle of geese (P0.05), but markedly decreased MDA content (P0.05); there were significant differences in breast muscle SOD activity of T1 and T3 comparing with the control, and in liver MDA content of T1 (P0.05), and no differences in other antioxidant indices (P0.05). 3) T3 significantly increased thymus index, bursa of fabricius index and serum IgG level (P0.05) comparing with the control; there were no significant differences in immune indices between T1 and the control (P0.05); thymus index of geese in T2 was significant higher than that in the control (P0.05), but other immune indices had no difference (P0.05). The findings suggested that the addition of appropriate level of alfalfa hay meal could improve growth performance, as well as antioxidant and immunity of Sichuan white geese.
In order to observe influences of the eight factors, including ethanol content, ratio of solidtosolvent, impregnating time and replications, ultrasonic temperature and time, input power, and ultrasonic replications, on Chicory root (Cichorium intybus) extractive rate, L16(4326) mixed orthogonal design was applied in the study. To determine herbicidal activity of Chicory root extracts, Echinochloa crusgalli and Amaranthus retroflexus seeds were geminated in different concentrations of aqueous extracts of Chicory roots. Results of the study revealed that the eight factors influenced the extracting process (P0.05) significantly. The optimal conditions of the extracting process consisted of that zero of ethanol content, 1∶8 of the ratio of solidtosolvent, 65℃ of ultrasonic temperature, 24 h of impregnating time, 2 times of impregnating replications, 30 min of ultrasonic time, 400 W of ultrasonic input power and 2 times of ultrasonic replications. Besides, the importance of the eight factors were displayed with gradual decrease as ethanol content, impregnating replications, ultrasonic input power, ultrasonic temperature, ultrasonic replications, the ratio of solidtosolvent, impregnating time and ultrasonic time. The effect of sixteen treatments of Chicory root crude extracts on E. crusgalli and A. retroflexus seed gemination proved that the Chicory root extracts had herbicidal activity and the inhibitory activity was significant (P0.05). Compared with 2,4dichlorophenoxyacetic acid of positive control, some treatments had equivalent function (P0.05). The present study demonstrates that the eight factors have been optimized by L16(4326) mixed orthogonal design accurately and selected by the orders according to their importance. Moreover, Chicory root crude extracts can be future potential as botanical herbicides.
Characteristics of serine endopeptidases in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and its role in protein degradation of silage were investigated by using the previously fermented alfalfa juice (PFJ) in this paper. The role of serine protease on the formation of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) during proteolysis of fermented alfalfa juice was determined by adding the serine protease inhibitors PMSF in PFJ. The results of this study indicated that the optimum pH and temperature of alfalfa serine endopeptidases were 6.6 and 45℃ respectively; adding 5 mmol/L PMSF could completely inhibit the activity of serine protease. In alfalfa silage fermentation process, compared with control (no PMSF), PMSF significantly (P0.01) increased the soluble protein content and decreased (P0.01) NPN content of each component in the fermented alfalfa juice(FJ). The study suggested that serine endopeptidases did not play a main role on the formation of NPN during proteolysis process of ensiled forages.
The adenylate kinase (ADK) gene was amplified from an isolated strain Pseudomonas stutzeri 75 with ability to degrade organophosphorus pesticides, chlorpyrifos. The sequence of ADK75 gene was 810 bp in length and contained completed open reading frame (ORF) of 648 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 215 amino acids. After comparing with known sequences deposited in the GenBank, the highest homology of ADK75 gene was 99.5 %. Furthermore, the secondary and tertiary structures of ADK75 protein were analyzed. A typical ADK structure was found in the P. stutzeri strain 75 with three subdomains, that was AMPbinding subdomain (AMPbd), ATPbinding subdomain (LID), and the core subdomain. There were 3-13 and 5-16 amino acids substitution in AMPbd and LID, respectively. These changes might infer to be correlated with the characteristics of P. stutzeri strain 75 taking the chlorpyrifos as exclusive carbohydrate sources.
Based on data obtained from the annual precipitation and temperature at Tianzhu County during past 30 years from 1961 to 1990, the IDW, Spline, Kriging and Natural Neighbor methods in ArcGIS software package were used for generating spatial interpolation and overlay analysis of the classification indices of annual accumulated temperature 0℃（） and humidity （K） in accordance with the standard of the comprehensive and ordered scheme of grassland classification (COSGC），respectively. Nine distribution images of grassland types at Tianzhu were regenerated. The results of this study indicated that the comprehensive and ordered scheme of grassland classification images generated by using the interpolated by Natural Neighbor and K by Kriging methods were more similar with the real situation at Tianzhu based on comparison of the vegetation landscape types between the comprehensive and ordered scheme of grassland classification images and the remote sensing vegetation classification images.
The types, distribution, characteristics and productivities of rangelands at Tianzhu County were analyzed and summarized. There are five types of rangelands at Tianzhu. They are mountain steppe, mountain meadow, alpine meadow, alpine shrubby tussock meadow and sparse forest meadow, respectively. The results from the study showed that productivities and nutritional contents of the rangelands were varieties in different areas， interannual and seasons. The species of forage plants of rangelands at Tianzhu County were very abundant, but their yield and quality were very poor. The study suggested that Tianzhu should utilize comprehensively measures of cultivating rangelands and take the method of combining grazing with drylot feeding to manage the system of pasture and livestock, so as to recover vegetation of rangelands and develop rangeland animal industry.
To improve degraded grassland, a fenced experiment from 2004 to 2006 was conducted in southern edge of Tengger Desert in Gulang County. The results showed that the plant height, coverage, abundance, crown width of vegetation, the total biomass aboveground and yield of edible forage were significantly improved. The vegetation structure also changed with a increasing sedge and grass, but decreasing weeds. The regional ecological environment was improved and the ability of sandfixing from vegetation was enhanced. The enclosure was significant on restoration of degraded grassland.