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Based on the hypothesized community conditions, this study compared the characteristics of Simpson index and the ShannonWiener index, which were used to analyze the species diversity of community, to improve the understanding, application and interpretation of these two diversity indexes. At the hypothesized community conditions and scenario, this study proved that Simpson index was more sensitive to the evenness change than ShannonWiener index, and ShannonWiener index was more sensitive to the richness change than Simpson index. This study also showed that the relative important value of 0.72 could be considered as a criterion for enrichment species approximately. The dilution effect was found for ShannonWiener index and Simpson index, in which a community biodiversity index decreased when the relative abundance of a new immigrated species exceeded the threshold value, which was 0.67 for Simpson index and 0.77 for ShannonWiener index.
The relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning is an important field in ecological science. A general review on the factors influencing relationship between species diversity and ecosystem function can provide useful reference for relevant researchers. This review indicated that the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning was affected by many factors, such as experimental types, spatial-temporal scale and disturbance regimes. Difference in the experimental types caused different conclusions of the relationships. Results and explanations from the small spatial-temporal manipulated experiment did not reflect the situation of large-scale observational results. The disturbances in the natural grassland, such as grazing and fertilization, also affected the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. The effects of potential energy flow and information transfer along with their interactions in the ecosystem on the relationship was a major challenge in the insight into biodiversity in the future.
Maduo County is a typical grassland degradation area in the sources region of Yellow River or even in the sources region of the Sanjiangyuan (the Yangtze River, the Yellow River, and the Lancang River). In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) of the grassland was derived from the Landsat TM data and the relative auxiliary data in 2008 based on CASA model. Furthermore, taking the reduced percentage of the NPP as measurement index, grassland degradation information was obtained. Compared the grassland degradation information in 2008 to those in 1997, this study showed that the area of severely degraded grassland decreased by 5 944 km2; and distributing in the north region of Maduo County. The monitoring results also showed that grassland degradation level was related to grassland type. Alione steppe was severe degradation, and alpine meadow was middle degradation, wetland was light degradation.
The soil organic carbon density was applied to determine the effect of land restoration patterns, including fruitgrass, fruitcrop, forest land, artificial pasture, natural grassland and cropland pattern, on the soil carbon accumulation in this study. This study showed that the organic carbon density of soil in the cropland pattern was significantly higher than that in the other restoration patterns within 1 meter depth soil (P0.01). Soil carbon accumulation among six land restoration pattern showed three characteristics as following; Firstly, the organic carbon accumulation among fruitgrass and forest restoration pattern was not significant difference when soil depth was below 60 cm and it decreased when soil depth was over 60 cm; secondly, the organic carbon accumulation of soil among fruitcrop and artificial pasture restoration pattern reduced slowly with the increase of soil depth; thirdly, organic carbon density increased gradually with the increase of soil depth among natural grassland restoration pattern. Except for the natural grassland restoration pattern, more than 80% organic carbon accumulation among other five restoration patterns was deposited within 60cm soil layer.
This study reviewed the progresses, problems and future fields in the grassland ecosystem health, emphasizing on indicator system and its establishment methods. This study compared structural function indicator system and integrated indicator system, and pointed out the characteristics of ten establishment methods and its application. And then this study put forward some advice for indicator selection, weight assignment of indicator, and criterion. This study suggested that different methods were used to evaluate the same grassland ecosystem, which benefited the comparison and rectification deviation, and more comprehensive and interdisciplinary evaluation would be core of future field of grassland ecosystem health evaluation based on nature, economy, society, and human health.
The AccuPAR Plant Canopy Analyzer was used to measure the alfalfa pasture canopy PAR during the flowering period in the Hulunbeier regions, including the incident PAR, the reflective PAR of the canopy, the transmittance of PAR through the canopy, the reflectance of land surface. Based on the PAR data, this study analyzed the temporal Variation of FPAR in the Alfalfa pasture, and showed that the incident PAR and the transmittance PAR diurnal variation was a curve of sine, and the diurnal FPAR variation was a double peak curve in clear day. FPAR was found to be highest in 2:30 am, and the lowest near to 11:30 pm. The daily average of FPAR may be approximated the incident FPAR values when the solar zenith angle was 80 at 7:30.
Energy Plant Functional Groups (Energy PFGs) is a kind of functional classification method based on plant energy properties. The sun energy was transformed into chemical energy and stored in plants by plant photosynthesis. A field survey was conducted to determine the relationships between Energy PFGs and plant photosynthetic characteristics by measuring the leaf photosynthetic parameters of Leymus chinensis、Cleistogenes squarrosa、Potentilla acaulis using a LI6400 Portable Photosynthesis System in Typical Steppe of Xilingol from the end of July to mid August. The photosynthetic included the diurnal variations of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Sc), transpiration rate (Tr). This study showed that the diurnal variation of Pn of all the plants took on doublepeak curve with remarkable midday depression, peaking at 12 and 16 oclock and depressing at 12 to 14 oclock, respectively. The Pn, Sc and Tr of highenergy PFGs was lower than that of lowenergy PFGs, and this phenomenon was related to vigorous life activities and reproduction strategy of lowenergy PFGs.
Caragana microphylia not only plays important roles in wind prevention and sandfixation, conservation soil erosion, but also provide highquality feed for livestock due to its strongly cold and drought resistance. A pot and a field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of water extraction of Nostoc commune and rhizobial inoculants on seedling growth of C. microphylia in this study by individually and jointly ways. This study showed that the extraction of N. commune and rhizobial inoculants remarkably encouraged the seedling growth of C. microphylia. The field experiment showed that the rate of seed emergence was 91.1% when seeds were inoculated by the rhizobial inoculants HBU037001. The seedling biomass of C. microphylia increased by 11.5% and 17.7% when seeds were treated by 1/20 concentration of N. commune and HBU037002, respectively. The combined treatment (1/10 concentration of N. commune rhizobial inoculants HBU037001) were the best one, which increased the seedling biomass by 28.2%.
The pot experiment was carried out to deal with leaf physiological characteristics and water use efficiency of Zygophyllum xanthoxylum seedlings under different water stress. Meanwhile, the correlation between leaf physiological characteristics and water use efficiency were also analyzed.The results of this study showed that， 1) the total leaf area and single leaf area activity decreased with the decrease of soil water content. Total number of leafs on severe drought was sharply reduced by 51.2% compared with that on moderate drought; 2) leaf water potential and leaf relative water content reduced with the decrease of soil water content significantly, but leaf relative water content changed a little; 3) the chlorophyll content increased with the decrease of soil water content, but there was no difference among treatments; 4) when soil water content decreased, stomatal density increased significantly，whereas stomatal length and width decreased significantly; 5) water stress increased the longterm water use efficiency. The water use efficiency had significant positive correlation (P0.01) to stomatal density, significant negative correlation (P0.05) to leaf water potential, but had no correlation with specific leaf area and chlorophyll content. In summary, droughtresistance of Z. xanthoxylum seedlings could be increased through changing leaf physiological characteristics.
The 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mmol/L salicylic acid (SA) were used to soak seeds of Lolium perenne for determining the effects of soaking seeds on seed germination and drought resistance of seedlings. This study showed that the seeds of L. perenne treated by 0.25~0.75 mmol/L SA increased the germination percentage, germination energy of the seeds and the fresh and dry weights of seedlings, and seed germination was the biggest when seeds were treated by 0.5 mmol/L SA. Under water stress, 0.5 mmol/L SA inhibited the permeability of plasma membrane, increased the accumulation of Malondiald Ehyde (MDA) and proline content, encouraged the activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Peroxidase (POD) to increase in the L. perenne, and kept the activity of Catase (CAT) stable. This study suggested that SA could mitigate the water stress.
Seeds of two forage species were coated with mixtures of hygroscopic and plantderived polysaccharide gums. Seedling emergence of the coated seeds was examined in a growth chamber to simulate climate in the Plateau. The water conserving capacities of the coating mixtures were tested. This study showed that the emergence of the uncoated seeds of two species were 86% and 88% at the optimal conditions and were 38% and 24% at the simulated conditions, respectively. The emergences of the coated seeds of two species were 60%-80% and 48%-82% at the simulated conditions. The speed of emergences and the rate of emergence of the coated seeds were related to water conserving capacities of the coating mixtures. The emergence were positively and linearly correlated to water conserving capacities of the coating mixtures, R2=0.954** and R2=0.915*, and the rate of emergence were also positively and linearly correlated to the water conserving capacity, R2=0.715(P0.01) and R2=0.753(P0.05).
The testtube plantlets were obtained from young pedicels of the early flowering Phalaenopsis amabilis, and their shoot tips were used as explants. The best culture medium formula was selected by adding different concentration of 6BA, NAA, TDZ and 2, 4D into MS and 1/2 MS, and then the regeneration and tissue culture system of P. amabilis was developed. This study showed that sterilizing effectiveness of pedicels with 0.1% corrosive sublimate for 15 minutes was the best. The initial medium of pedicel axillary buds was the 1/2 MS appended with 2 mg/L of 6BA and 0.2 mg/L of NAA (the former culture medium), while the differentiation medium induced shoot tips was the 1/2 MS added with 6 mg/L of 6BA and 0.2 mg/L of NAA or the 1/2 MS added with 5 mg/L of 6BA and 0.01 mg/L of 2,4D (the latter culture medium) and the differentiation rate of shoot tips was 50%. The 16.7% and 33.3 of shoot tips were induced as protocormlike bodies and adventive buds in the former culture medium, while only protocormlike bodies were found in the latter culture medium. The enrichment culture medium of protocormlike bodies was the MS added with 3 mg/L of 6BA and 0.2 mg/L of NAA, and The enrichment times of protocormlike bodies was 4.7. The induced rooting culture medium was the 1/2 MS added with 0.5 mg/L of NAA, and the rooting rate and survival rate after transplanting was 98% and 89.3%, respectively.
Cooksfoot （Dactylis glomerata） is an important forage grass and is widely cultivated in the world due to high forage yield, good quality, and stresses tolerance. The objectives of this study were to collect the necessary data on morphological and phonological traits in order to engage in genetic analysis and breeding program in cooksfoot materials with various chromosome ploidy levels. This study indicated that the growth period of tetraploid accessions was shorter than that of diploid accessions. Among 14 morphological traits, the thousand seed weight, width of inflorescence, length of flag leaf, length of leaf and length of internode showed the relatively high variations among 16 accessions with over 20% of coefficient of variation. The width and length of seed showed a low variation. Exception of PI237601, which would not produce seed in Beijing, other 15 accessions could be classified into 4 groups, indicating all three diploid accessions were in a group, and these diploid accessions were obvious difference with tetraploid accessions.
An experiment with random complete block design was conducted to compare the yield and resistance of new tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) strains which was bred during 2007 to 2010. This study showed that the fresh and dry yield of DaFang strain was much higher than that of the control, and were up to 87 825 kg/ha and 15360kg/ha at the second year when plant height was 30 to 40 cm. They increased by 14.37% and 26.88% when compared with the control trains of Fawn. Seed yield of DaFang strain was 856.5 kg/ha, and increased by 94.2% when compared with the control strain of Fawn. The survival rate in summer of DaFang strain was 95.95%, and increased by 24.4% when compared to those of the control strain. The heat tolerance and drought resistance of Dafang strain was better than that of the control strain of Fawn. The comprehensive assessment suggested that Dafang strain performed well in the Guizhou Province.
The improvement of technical points of the intercropping will benefit scientific production and application. A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of planting density on production performance of Italian ryegrass in the Mulberry and Grass intercropping. This study showed that the plant height of Haiwan increased with the increase of planting density, while the plant height of Jiewei decreased with the increase of planting density. During the growth period, stem/leaf ratio of Italian ryegrass increased, and then decreased, finally increased, and it increased with the increase of planting density. The yield of Haiwan was higher than that of Jiewei in the intercropping conditions，but Haiwan showed a weak density tolerance and showed a lower yield at the high density conditions, and its optimal density was 25.020 kg/ha.Jieweishowed a strong density tolerance, and its optimal density ranged from 25.020 kg/ha to 30.015 kg/ha.
The soil in the tropical region was generally short of Molybdenum and Boron, therefore, rational application of Molybdenum and Boron is important to increase the yield of forage production in the tropical regions. A field trial was conducted to determine the effects of Boron and Molybdenum on Stylosanthes guianensis by spraying way. This study showed that the application of Boron and Molybdenum with right amount increased the forage yield of S. guianensis when the soil was lack of Boron and molybdenum, and Molybdenum performed better than Boron, indicating that application of Molybdenum and Boron increased the forage by 2 475 kg/ha and 973 kg/ha with 16.4% and 6.0% increase rates, respectively. The spraying Boron and Molybdenum fertilizers increased the protein, phosphorus and potassium content of S. guianensis forage, and also increased the effective root nodules and the root activity of S. guianensis. Compared to Boron, S. guianensis treated by molybdenum showed the more effective root nodules and the higher oxidated anaphthylamines content in root. This study also indicated that application of right amount boron increased the crude ash content of S. guianensis.
A experiment was conducted to determine the control effectiveness of the 9 combination treatments of three herbicides on Solanum rostratum at its preemergence, cotyledon, one leaf, two leaf, three leaf, four leaf period stages, and these herbicides included the 2,4D, butyl acetate with 72% of quality score, Maize herbicide suspending agent with 40% of quality score, and Paraquat aqueous solution agent with 40% of quality score. The results of this study showed that three treatments performed well the control effectiveness on S. rostratumis, and they were 72% 2,4D, butyl acetate and 40% Maize herbicide suspending agent, and 20% Paraquat aqueous solution agent, however, the control effectiveness of 72% 2,4D, butyl acetate and 20% Paraquat aqueous solution agent on S. rostratumis gradually decreased when seedling grew up.
The meteorological record data from 1961 to 2010 and the reproductive data of Stipa sareptana var. krylovii from 1999 to 2010 were used to determine the impacts of climatic warming on reproductive stages of S. sareptana var. krylovii in the standard weather station of Xinghai County, Qinghai Province. This study showed that the average temperature and precipitation during growth period (from April to September) significantly increased, and hours of sunshine lightly increased in the Xinhai regions in the past 50 years; the regreening, heading, maturity and withering stage of S. sareptana var. krylovii were in advance year by year, and flowering stage was delayed. The multistepwise regression results showed the average temperature of March and the accumulative temperature during the date with temperature above 0℃ to the date of regreening stage greatly impacted on the regreening stage; the average temperature of May and accumulative precipitation from regreening stage to heading stage significantly impacted the heading stage; the average temperature of May had the greatest impacts on flowering stage; the average temperature of April and July showed the greatest impacts on maturity stage; and the day with average temperature above 5℃, average temperature of July, and accumulative sunshine hours during maturity stage had greatest impacts on withering date.
This paper summarized the advances of climate change and vegetation growth in northern Tibet during the past few years. Results showed that the main tendency was becoming warmer and more humid in Nagqu area which is benefit to the improvement of vegetation growth and ecological environment, but Ali area is becoming warmer and drier which has opposite effect on vegetation growth. Previous studies indicated that many meteorological factors have affected vegetation growth to some extent such as minimum temperature, water vapor pressure, average temperature, maximum temperature and precipitation and so forth. The research of vegetation variation indicated that grassland presented degradation tendency in northern Tibet. Besides, the growth of human population and intensified urbanization are major factors that affecting vegetation change. Therefore, human activity could not be neglected except for the meteorological condition as one of main factors in grassland degradation.
The research progresses of drought, cold, disease and pest resistance, and salt tolerance of Medicago ruthenica were reviewed in this study in the view of botanical characteristic, seed characteristic, phenology and growth of root and shoot, utilization value and distribution. To solve the problems in the development of M. ruthenica, this study proposed some countermeasures, including that regional adaptation, resistance genes, pod cracking, and establishment pasture, which would provide the theoretical basis for collection, preservation, development, utilization, new breeding of M. ruthenica germplasm resources and ecological restoration in the north China.
The Saccharum spontaneum is important not only to develop the biomass energy plants but also to the genetic improvement of cultivated sugarcane. Recent advances in germplasm of S. spontaneum, including morphology, cytogenetics, protein markers and molecular markers, breeding, resistibility and anatomy, were reviewed in this paper. Based on the current problems, this study pointed out the further research field of germplasm resources of S. spontaneum, which would provide useful information for further germplasm resources researches of S. spontaneum.
Rotational grazing is a main utilization types in the Alxa desert grasslands. The live trap method was used to investigate the rodent population in the rotational grazing grassland area of Jiaergelesaihan town during 2002 to 2008. The field survey was carried out at the beginning of April, July, and October in every year. Four sample plots with the size of 10 ha were randomly chosen every time. 500 clips were put in the each plot with 100 clips in a line, and the distance between clips was 5 m and the distance between lines was 50 m. The grey correlative degree was applied to determine the relationship between the capture rate of main rodent species and annual precipitation. This study showed that total capture rate of rodent was significant positive correlation with annual precipitation (r=0.390 5, P0.05), and the order of correlative degree between main species and annual precipitation was Dipus sagitta＞Allactaga sibirica＞Phodopus roborovskii＞Spermophilus alaschanicus＞Meriones meridianus＞Cricetulus barabensis. The response of Jerboa to the precipitation was more obvious than other species. The grey incidence coefficient of D. sagitta and A. sibirica with precipitation was 0.855 6 and 0.818 9, respectively. The response of M. meridianus and C. barabensis to the precipitation was weak, indicating that the grey incidence coefficient of them was 0.706 7 and 0.706 4.
The Gannan Pastoral Area is not only an important animal husbandry production base, but also an important water conservation of the upper reaches of the Yellow River in China. Overgrazing causes the degradation of natural grassland, which seriously affects the sustainable development of this pastoral area. Taken the Animal Husbandry Experiment Area of Maqu County as an example, the changes of natural grassland production and carrying capacity of grazing livestock from 2008 to 2009 were discussed in this study. This study indicated that the average month grassland yield in 2009 increased the 185.0 kg/ha when compared to those in 2008 and the carrying capacity of grassland in 2009 was 6 616.4 sheep unit and decreased the 2 109.5 sheep unit when compared to those in 2008. This study showed that the relationship between forage supplies and animal requirements was out of balance with 33% overgrazing in the study area. Some effective measures were proposed in this study to balance the relationship between forage supplies and animal requirements, including livestock quantity control, increased of fodder, storage forage with cutting.
A series of experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the combinations of different control measures on plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) in the Northern Tibetan plateau, and these control measure included perches treatment, the combination of Zhaoyingling rodenticide and perches treatment, and the combination of botulinum D toxin and perches treatment. The optimal concentration of botulinum D toxin for control plateau pika was selected by different concentration treatments, and the control effectiveness of 0.10% botulinum D toxin and Zhaoyingling rodenticide on plateau pika was compared in this study. This study showed that the control effectivenesses of 0.10% and 0.15% of botulinum D toxin were not significant differences but significant higher than that of 0.05% of botulinum D toxin. The control effectiveness of 0.10% botulinum D toxin was better than that of Zhaoyingling rodenticide. The control effectiveness of the combination of 0.10% botulinum D toxin and perches was the best, and this study suggested that the combination of 0.10% botulinum D toxin and perches could be applied into control plateau pika in the future.
The species and damage of insect pests on ancient and famous trees was investigated at Wu Quan mountain Park of Lanzhou, Gansu province, China, based on reconnaissance and insect pests specimen of identification method. The results indicated that pests species was plenty mainly composited of Orthoptera and Lepidoptera species which accounted for 80% of total pest species, such as Phenacoccus fraxinus, Aphis gossypii, Holeocerus insulanis and so on. In addition, hazard of Dipteras Rhabdophaga Saliciperda Duf and Acariformess Eotetranychus populi were also very serious.The occurrence of insect pest exhibited seasonal characteristics, species and stages of pests and larval density varied with months, and the highest larval density was observed in August. Comprehensive control methods that combined physical, chemical and biological method were proposed to control the pests, especially physical and biological control should be strengthened.
The species of Bombus were studied by a field investigation in the northern slopes of Qilian Mountains during 2004-2007，accordig to the collected samples and specimens in the Institute of Zoology, CAS. Fourteen species of Bombus in the northern slopes of Qilian Mountains were identified. In addition, the fauna of Bombus in studied region was preliminary analysed. The results showed that Bombus in the northern slopes of Qilian Mountains mainly composited of species of the Palaearctic in terms of the world fauna, followed by Oriental and Palaearctic species. Among 7 distribution types of Chinese animals geographical division. Qinghai-Tibet and Mongo-Sinkiang species accounted for the first in the studied region, and for singlezone kind, Mongo-Sinkiang and Qinghai-Tibet especially Mongo-Sinkiang existed only. For crossspecies, crossMongo-Sinkiang types accounted for 88.89% of the total species, followed by crossQinghai-Tibet, southwestern China, North China, while across central and southern China were limited.
Grassland animal husbandry influences the ecological restoration and plays an effective role in the regional economic development. A field survey was carried out to investigate the impact of grassland animal husbandry on land use, farming, animal husbandry, and output value of farming, forestry and animal husbandry in Qinglong County of Guizhou Province. This study showed that grassland animal husbandry effectively promoted the adjustment of agricultural structure. Firstly, grassland animal husbandry encouraged land use structure to change from sloping cropland to pasture. Secondly, grassland animal husbandry reduced the land area of crop production and increased the land area of feed production, and the area ratio of crop land, cash crop land and feed land changed from 166∶29∶1 in 2000 to 3.6∶1∶1.2 in 2008. Thirdly, animal feeding systems were found to have moved from consumption of grainbased feedstuffs to grainsaving, indicating that the average annual growth rate of sheep was 3.38 times greater than pigs, and the pasture increased from 0.5 thousand ha in 2001 to 14.7 thousand ha in 2009, and improved grassland increased from zero to 10 thousand ha. Lastly, obvious output value changes of farming, forestry and animal husbandry were founded in this study, and livestock production accounted for 43.53 % of agricultural GDP, which increased by 12.5% when compared to it in 2000.
The repeated orthogonal trial is an important method in the agricultural science research, and is widely used in multilevel regression collocation optimization and important factor analysis of agricultural disciplines due to its advantages of typicality and comprehensive comparability. However, the great deviation in optimization analysis was found in the orthogonal trial of significant interaction. Taking multifactors orthogonal design of nonquantitative and mixedquantitative as an example, This study developed the higher polynomial regression model to improve the orthogonal trial optimization method, and this method not only solved the possible interaction among factors and the disturbance of the fixed level limiting for excellent selection, but also explained accurately the model deviation and disclosed the relationship between the research factors and trial indicators.
In this study, the total flavonoids of Oxytropis kansuensis, O. ochrocephala, O. glabra, O.glocialis and O. deflixa were determined through qualitative analysis of colour reaction and quantitative analysis of ultraviolet spectrophotometry, with rutin as control. The results showed that flavonoids existed in 5 crazyweed herbs. A maximum absorption peak appeared at wave length 274 nm and completely overlaped for both testing and control sample. In addition, there was a significant difference of total flavonoids among different species of crazyweed herbs, the total flavonoids content was from 9.7 mg/g to 33.85 mg/g, the order of total flavonoids from high to low is as followed: O. kansuensis, O. glabra, O. deflixa, O. ochrocephala and O.glocialis. Extracted with petroleum ether made the result of determination more accurate.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of biogas slurry of Eichhornia crassipes on the seedling quality of Chinese cabbage by measuring the biomass, the root activity, the protein, the nitrite, the soluble sugar content and vitamin C in this study. This study showed that the measured parameters (including the root activity, biomass, protein, soluble sugar and vitamin C) of Chinese cabbage significantly increased when the Chinese cabbage seeds were soaked by biogas slurry. The fresh weight, dry weight and root activity of Chinese cabbage increased with the increase of biogas slurry concentration, and were higher than those treated by purified biogas slurry, which were higher that of control. The protein, soluble sugar and vitamin C Chinese cabbage was the best when treatment consisted of distilled water and biogas slurry with ratio of 1∶2. The nitrite content of Chinese cabbage significant decreased when compared to the control in the medium ratio and high ratio treatments, whereas it was no significant difference in the low ratio and full biogas slurry treatments. This study suggested that the quality of Chinese cabbage could be improved when the seeds were soaked by the right concentration biogas slurry of Water hyacinth.
To guarantee the feeding security of livestock and poultry, the amount of chlorpyrifos remain in leaves of apple trees and white clover collected from the garden of Northwest AF University was measured by gas chromatography (GC). This study showed that the halflife periods of chlorpyrifos in leaves of apple trees and the clover were 1.8 d and 2.2 d respectively when the normal concentration of chlorpyrifos was sprayed, and they were 1.8 d and 3.4 d when the double concentration of chlorpyrifos was sprayed. The adjustable scope of chlorpyrifos concentration of leaves in CK treatment was 0.5 mg/kg, however, the chlorpyrifos concentration in leaves sprayed by chlorpyrifos showed a fast degradation in the earlier stage and then showed a slow degradation in the later stage. The remains in the apple leaves was lower than that in the white clover when the tow kind leaves were sprayed by chlorpyrifos, indicating that the chlorpyrifos concentration in leaves of apple trees sprayed by the normal concentration was lower than that in the white clover sprayed by double normal concentration. On the 21std, the chlorpyrifos remain was higher than remain standard presented by Chinese government and EU when chlorpyrifos was sprayed, at this time, the leaves of apple trees and white clover was dangerous to livestock and poultry due to high chlorpyrifos remain.
The plant height, dry weight per plant, leaf dry weight, grain dry weight, fresh weight per plant, ear leaf area, initial moisture content of plant, feeding coefficient and economic coefficient with the different ages of silage maize （Zea mays） were measured to choose the suitable harvesting time for improving feeding quality and reducing production cost in this study. Ten days age (plant age) was considered as independent variable and the correlation relationships between plant age and quantitative traits were determined by the regression and correlation analysis. The results of this study showed that the probit of the initial moisture content of plants showed a significantly negative correlation relationship with the ten days age; however, and frequency of other seven quantitative traits or probit of cumulative frequency of other seven quantitative traits showed a significantly positive correlation relationship with the ten days age. The regression equation was used to simulate the major growth period of seven quantitative traits.