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Fractional vegetation cover (FVC) is an important factor in researches of hydrology, ecology, and meteorology. Nevertheless, the principal way of getting FVC is to estimate visually in situ or from digital picture. In this study, we applied multispectral camera to take pictures of alpine grassland, and then analyzed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of each pixel of pictures to distinguish vegetation and bare land, and calculated the FVC. We compared the FVCs from multispectral camera and those from visual estimation, and found: (1) the visual estimation of FVC was subjective, however, the average of these estimates was reasonable; (2) the estimation using multispectral pictures was accurate and rapid; (3) the value of 0.4 for NDVI could be used as a threshold to distinguish vegetation and bare land; (4) to apply the threshold of NDVI for estimating FVC, the spatial scale of a pixel in a multispectral picture should not be more than 0.2 cm. We also studied the relations between FVC and permafrost distribution, and found that the FVCs in the permafrost area were significantly higher than those in the seasonal frost and transitional areas.
To understand the status a of grassland degradation of Maduo County in 2009, a remote sensing assessment model between the grassland degradation index and vegetation index was established, further, according to the survey of grassland resources in the 1980s and 1990s, the dynamics of grassland degradation in the past 20 years was analyzed. The resulsts showed: (1)The weigh of plant height, vegetation cover and biomass were 0.21,0.39 and 0.40 among evaluation index.(2) MSAVI significantly correlated with grassland degradation index compared to the other vegetation index. The model can be quantitatively expressed as:Y=1.02+0.5 ln X. (3) Grassland area of Maduo County is about 2.22 million ha in 2009, and the area of grassland degradation is 1.76 million ha, accounting for 79% of the total area of grassland. Most of the grassland degradation were mild and moderately degraded, accounting for 66.5% of the total area of grassland. (4) With the establishment of the Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve and a large number of ecological protection and construction project implementation, grassland degradation changed from the most severe and moderate in 1990s to the degradation of most mild and moderately degraded. Severe degradation had also been improved to the level of 1980s. However, the continuous expansion of grassland degradation is still. Area of grassland degradation increased from 1997 to 2009 by 15 million hectares amounted to 10% during 12 years.
Present study explored the effects of wetland area change in Sanjiangyuan area on the climate by using RegCM3 model. The meteorological effect was simulated by adjusting the parameterized scheme of underlying surface covering with the meteorological model, mainly the wetland area change, and the interactional effect between the change of marsh area and climate was agrued.The rule of temperature and rainfall variation among 18 different meteorological sites were analysed by simulating the climate change for 15 years using RegCM3 model through the actual underlying surface in 1980 and 2000. The results showed that when wetland area descended, the regional temperature increased, the rainfall decreased, this trend was more obvious in western area.
The football lawn establishment technology was discussed according to the experience and climate features in Nanjing Prefecture. The seedbed of the football field was divided into three layers: growing, filtering and drainage layer. The growing layer was mixed with sand and soil in proportion so that it was not only permeable to water and gas, but also conserved fertilizer and water. The spray system used eighteen underground sprinklers to spray water at one time. And underground drainage system used the fishbone shape. There were three ways to establish the lawn: sowing seeds, turf planting and sowing stems. Lawn maintenance could be divided into two aspacts which maintenance before and after lawn establishment. It should be remmbered that standard treatment of the grass beds and the reasonable soil configuration of the growing layer were the foundation of the grass growth, also, the level of the maintenance management was important.
Plant disposition is not only accounts for the aim of material composition, but also plays an essential role in the formation of an integral culture and even assumes the role of theme which can express the design idea and aesthetic pursuit itself sometimes. This study described the green planning and design of Chaoyang Square according to the conception of plant disposition, the principles of planting design, configuration instructions, planting pattern, plant selection, plant general layout and plant layout in details.
To improve the airport flight safety and remove the hidden danger of birdstrike, 1.5 ha native lawn at Kunming Wujiaba airport was used to establish Pennisetum clandestinum lawn. The native law was preparated by Disc plough and divided into 5 experimental plots, in which P. clandestinum cuttage were planted with four densities (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm row and individual plant spaces). The results showed that the most economic density was 80 cm row and individual plant space. P. clandestinum exhibited well competition with the native species at the airport. The P. clandestinum lawn became nomaintenance lawn at the first established year and cost lower for continual 6 years at Kunmibg Wujiaba airport. The hidden danger of birdstrike was largely reduced because of bird food absent, lower and denser grass layer. The decibel sound through the P. clandestinum lawn was also significant reduced by 15.7% compared to the native lawn (P＜0.01). It was suggested that P. clandestinum was the top choice pasture species to establish maintenance free lawn of Kunming Wujiaba airport.
The productive adaptability of 10 varieties of Italian ryegrass in Jiangsu Yangzhou region were studied in present study, and the traits related to performance and production from full range, such as growth rate, tillering capacity, leaf ratio, fresh yield were analyzed. The results showed that the ryegrass growing in winterfree field in the Yangzhou region could be cut three times during the growth period approximately 230 days; The first and second crop of the test varieties, from tillering to jointing then to booting showed slowfastslow of growth rhythm. In the third crop of test varieties, a fast growth rate was observed during tillering to jointing stage, but slow growth rate at the jointing to booting. There was significant difference of growth rate among tested species; and cluster analysis showed Angus 1, Double Barrel and Tetragol presented a high production, fast growth rate and higher tillering ability, indicating some good comprehensive properties, and suit for planting in Yangzhou region.
Phenotype diversity for 31 morphological traits of 12 Bromus tectorum germplasm materials from China were analyzed. The results showed that coefficient variation ranged from 3.90% to 37.36%, the length of rhachis, spikelet number, tiller number, pulse number of second glume length, spikelet length, floret number in spikelet showed a relative larger variation. The 1-7 principal components summarized the variation to 87.96%. Ramify number whorled each internode of spindle, leaf length, ear length, floret number, spikelet number on in ramify, spikelet length, stem height, ramify length, leaf width contribute more to main components. Clustering analysis of 31 morphological traits showed that leaf length, ramify number whorled every internode of spindle, stalk diameter, ear internode number, floret number, floret number in spikelet, leaf width, spikelet number, ligulate length, stalk internode number, glumella length, spikelet number, lemma width, glumella width, caryopsis length, stem height, first glume length, lemma length exhibited higher correlation each other. All of materials were classified into three categories through clustering analysis: the materials from Xinjiang Nileke as separate one, the materials from American, Xinjiang Buerjin and Zhaosus as second one, the other materials together for third category. Morphological diversity research laid the foundation for breeding.
An orthogonal design was applied to optimize the SSRPCR system on Caragana microphylla, which employed four levels and five factors (DNA, Mg2+, dNTP, primers, and Taq DNA polymerase, respectively). The optimum SSR reaction included 40 ng template DNA, 3 mmol/L Mg2+, 300 mol/L dNTP, 0.6 mol/L primer, 1 U Taq DNA polymerase, 1Buffer with total 25 L reaction volumes. The PCR procedure was an initial step of 94℃ for 10 min, followed by 10 cycles of 94℃ for 45 s, 65℃ for 1 min (decreasing 1℃ every cycle), 72℃ for 1 min; 30 cycles of 94℃ for 45 s, 55℃ for 1 min, 72℃ for 1 min, and a final extension at 72℃ for 10 min. The optimized SSRPCR system was stable and universality, which was proved by application on C. microphylla germplasm and different SSR primers. This work could be used in analysis of genetic diversity, construction of a genetic map, and fingerprint in Caragana spp..
The electrical conductivity, MDA content, proline, soluble sugar, soluble protein content, chlorophyll content and SOD of four bermudagrass varieties (lines) under the natural cooling process were measured, and fuzzy membership function method was used to evaluate the cold resistance of the four bermudagrass cultivars (lines). The results showed that all the physiological indicators of four bermudagrass cultivars (lines) have responded to low temperature under the natural cooling process. Electrical conductivity and MDA content with decreasing temperature showed a general increasing trend, proline content, SOD and soluble sugar content activity increased first and then decreased as temperature decreasing, soluble protein content increased first in short order then decreased and increased by inches, chlorophyll decreased with the decreasing temperature in the overall, SOD activity increased with temperature decreasing at first and then decreased. Comprehensive results of the various physiological changes, with fuzzy membership function to evaluate the cold tolerance of four Bermudagrass cultivars (lines) in descending order: Dwarf Abortion BermudagrassPrincessTifwayHN019.
The nutrient, type of amino acid and content, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and tannin content of a new introduced species Galega orientalis and Medicago sativa cv.Xinjiang Daye were determined. The results showed that the nutritive value of G. orientalis cv.Xinyin No.1 was high, the content of crude protein and crude fiber in initial flowering stage was 23.88% and 25.48%. The content of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were 43.17% and 45.35%, respectively. The kinds of amino acid and composition was complete and balanced, the total amino acid was 14.17%, EAA/NEAA=0.78＞0.60，EAA/TAA=0.43＞0.40，was a high quality protein source of livestock. The content of tannin was 0.93%, even green feed the ruminant tympanites would not happen. It has high feeding value, and can be used as commercial cultivars in its suitable area.
Effects of grazing intensity (0 goat/ha,22.2 goats/ha and 44.4 goats/ha) and light conditions (100%,68.83% and 54.29% light intensity) on productivity of mixedsown artificial grassland under Cinnamomum camphora forest were studied. The results showed, during the whole growth seasons, standing crop, regrowth biomass and net primary production of artificial grassland all increased as light intensity increased at the same grazing rate, and there was a tendency of 22.2 goats/ha0 goat/ha44.4 goats/ha at the same light intensity. The results implied that moderate grazing density could promote growth of grass and increase productivity of grassland, furthermore, moderate weak light condition would not decrease productivity seriously in C.camphora grasses goats system. Thus, its possible to develop silvipastoral system for local area.
The productivity and carrying capacity of Tanzi pasture in Tanchang County, Gansu Province, was investigated and charted by GIS in July 2008. The total area of grassland was 2 449 ha. The grassland belonged to montane meadow type, and had 3 groups and 8 formations. The forb group included 3 formations, that was Umbelliferae + Anemone rivilaris + Carpesium cernuum, Polygonum viviparum + Kobresia + Saposhnikovia divaricata, Iris ensata+Anemone rivilaris + Cirsium. The sedge group included 2 formations, that was Blysmus + Ligularia, Bysmus + Potentilla + Pedicularis. The shrub group included 3 formations, that was P. fruticosa+Salix + P. viviparum, P. fruticosa + P.viviparum + Potentilla,Daphne giraldii + Saposhnikovia divaricata + Anemone rivilaris. The forage yield was 3 078 t/ha under the grazing intensity of 50%， the carrying capacity was 2 810 sheep units. To improve the grassland productivity, the ways of reseeding,cutting and rotational grazing should be putted into practice.
Jinghe river estuary wetland is one of the main proportion in wetland of Ebnur Lake. By using the method of space substituting time, vegetation was investigated in Wetland of Jinghe River Estuar at different restoration stages. The results indicated that Phragmites australis was the main dominant specie during the restoration process. After 1, 3 and 5 years of restoration, the number of species was 17, 11 and 1, community coverage was 85.98%, 96% and 100%; height of P. australis was 75, 85 and 234 cm, respectively. This implied that 4-5 year restoration could make the vegetation back to natural status if the water was enough.
Cutting is one of the main ways to utilize grassland plants, moderate cutting could promote tillering and regrowth, and thus increase aboveground biomass and nutritional element NPK. According to the growth characteristics of Amorpha fruticosa, the effect of cutting frequency on growth height, aboveground biomass and NPK content of stem and leaf were studied in this study. The results showed that, during rapid growth period which was from April to September, the aboveground biomass ranged as cutting twice treatment＞once＞three times. A similar trend was also observed in terms of NPK content. These results implied the optimal cutting frequency for A. fruticosa was twice at least in present study.
Rust diseases occur on all turfgrass species which caused by the particular air borne rust fungus, symptoms of these diseases appear on the both sides and the sheath of leaves. Based on previous publications on the diseases, this review article discussed the research progress of rust diseases resistance made in coolseason grasses, like tall fescue, ryegrass, and Kentucky bluegrass, and warmseason grasses, like bermudagrass and zoysiagrass. The authors also figured out some important points in future research and necessary methods will be conducted. The authors focused on the characteristics and efficient of germplasm evaluation for rust diseases resistance in turfgrasses. Combined with conventional breeding methods, we summarized the development of the linkage molecular markers and quantitative trait locus QTL for rust diseases resistance in turfgrasses. The purpose of this paper was to provide a relative detailed research background information for further research.
Cynodon dactylon, as one of the higher valuable lawn grasses in global warmseason turf grass, it has strong living ability, speedy fertility and high trampling resistance. In China, it is not only the fine lawn grass widely applied, but also a good plant in soil conservation. There were of great significance in constituting the scientific protected strategy, promoting its exploitation and utilization, and breeding new varieties. Based on previous studies, this research reviewed the utilization, distribution, genetic diversity and breeding progress of the C. dactylon germplasm in China. To provide reference for the further research and utilization of the C.dactylon germplasm, the problems of the C.dactylon current germplasm research was anlysed as well.
Dynamics of rodents and biomass on alpine meadow in Sajia country, Shigaste, Tibet, were investigated in fixed locations for successive three years (2007, 2008 and 2009) via stifled and recovered rodent holes. The biomass in Shigaste decreased for continual 3 years and significantly correlated with the number of rodents holes（P＜0.01). The rodents in the alpine meadow could be efficiently reflected via stifled and recovered rodent holes investigation. A regression model between rodents hole and biomass could be used to estimated indirectly alpine meadow production in Tibet.
The dynamics of Meriones meridianus population both in bangrazing and rotationgrazing area were studied by live trap method in Alxa desert from 2002 to 2010, and further analysed its seasonal and year variation. Meanwhile, a prediction model for M. meridianus population was achieved by applying the linear regression analysis. The results showed that atotal number of 2 360 M. meridianus were captured during experimental period, amount to 39.68% captured rat, which indicated M. meridianus was the dominant species in this area. In rotational grazing area, the capture rate of M. meridianus was 13.25% in 2008 was 57 times than the lowest population, and significantly greater than the other years. In bangrazing area, the population of M. meridianus exhibited a small fluctuation and capture rate, was lower than 4% each year. Linear regression analysis showed that the capture rate in July can be estimated by the capture rate in April, and the prediction accuracy was very high. The prediction function for ban grazing area was y2=0.384 9+1.085 4x1（P=0.046，r2=0.456，df=8）, and the prediction function for ban grazing area was y2=-0.974 1+2.397 3x2（P＜0.001，r2=0.925，df=8）.
Supercooling point and freezing point in all stages and overwintering adults of Hypera postica were measured in a laboratory population. The results showed that the mean supercooling point of adult, normalwing pupae, vestigialwing pupae, 4th and 3rd instar larvae were -20.46℃, -10.34℃, -9.55℃, -10.0℃, 9.75℃, respectively while their freezing point were -18.24℃, -6.68℃, -6.52℃, -7.52℃, -7.86℃. The suppercooling point and freezing point of adult were the lowest. There were no significant differences between pupae and 3rd, 4th larvae in suppercooling point and freezing point. The difference of adults which were in different wingtype was not significant. During late December and late January, the supercooling point of female adult was lower than male adult. Thus, it revealed stronger cold hardness in adult stage than in other stages. The effect of two wing types were no significant differences, and the sex brought significant differences with the temperature decreasing.
In this study, a high valueadded commoditycomposite straw particles was made from fresh alfalfa grass by cutdryshatterratio mixturepelletization procedure. A random grouping experiment was designed to evaluate the relationships between substitution quantity and milk production and grass consumption cost through feeding milk cow with composite straw particles substituted for 2.5 kg or 2.0 kg concentrated feed. The results showed that composite straw particles is a small volume, less expensive，antistorage and using convenient, palatable to livestock and higher nutrition products. Compared to the 2.5 kg concentrated feed, composite straw particles significantly increased milk production by 2.2 kg per cow each day，reduced forage cost by 0.47 yuan, increased income by 7.07 yuan；moreover, compared to 2.0 kg concentrated feed, composite straw particles strong significantly increased milk production 1.28 kg per cow each day, reduced forage cost 0.48 yuan, increased income 4.32 yuan.
It is urgent to update the concept of grassland management to face serious grassland degradation throughout the China. Based on grassland degradation in China, This study proposed that the ecofeminism was a requirement of improvement the concept of grassland management. After discussion on enlightenment of the ecofeminism on natural resource management, some compatibilities between ecofeminism and grassland management were presented in this study, and then this study pointed out that introducing the ecofeminism into grassland management benefited the sustainable utilization of grassland in the northwest pastoral areas.
A significant effects on rural labor by developing grassland animal husbandry were achieved in the Qinglong County based on a field survey research. First, it promoted surplus rural labor force freed from the traditional agriculture and adjusts rural employment structure. The survey results showed that the rural labor force engaged in traditional grain production reduced from 50.47% to 25.23%，while plantanimal production workforce increased from 5.30% to 27.73%. Second, it encouraged migrant workers to return home and participate in new rural construction. Data showed that the proportion of migrant farmers decreased by nearly 10%. Third, it increased the potential of women and the elderly to obtain wealth, women and the elderly accounted for 33% of the herding labor force. Last, it improved the employee skills, and thus cultivated a large number of new farmers. It changed the attitudes of farmer who raised livestock from passive to active, as 82.4% of farmer said that the grassland animal husbandry increased their desire to learn science and technology.
The implementation of herdsmen settlement project have played a positive role in improving ecology environment, accelerating economic development, and raising herdsmens income and living conditions in pastoral zone. Taking Ashili Kazak Nationality Town of Changji City in Xinjiang for example, present study analyzed the benefits of ecology, economy and society of herdsmen settlement project by a method which combined theory of sustainable development with practice. The problem and its solution in the implementation of herdsmen settlement project were also discussed.
The origin and development of Grassland Protection course were reviewed and the current situation was analyzed. The view that the research of teaching contents and method should keep the pace with times to advance the development of the higher education in Grassland science was provided based on the example of Shenyang Agricultural University.
Switchgrass(Panicum virgatum) has become hot point in the bioenergy crop research because its low cost of plant, convenient management, short life cycle, high yield, and positive effects to environment. This paper reviewed the characteristic of energy，the way of plant and management, the method of biotechnology modification, and the translating process of biofuel of switchgrass. Also, the key issues include overcoming recalcitrance, efficient breakdown of cellulose, and increasing biomass and lipid production for ethanol and biodiesel were analyzed. The optimization method of enzyme and the fermentation efficient of different microorganism, the vital indexes of microorganism feature should not only be considered in the process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, fermentation strategies such as batch culture, continuous culture with cell recycling and in situ ethanol removal are also important.
Liangzhou donkey was an excellent local donkey kinds, the donkey meat, skin, milk products and so forth which had pharmacological efficacy such as invigorating vital energy, nourishing blood and aphrodisiac, and played an irreplaceable utilization value. However, for the past ten years, as the mechanization development in the country and consumer demand on the donkey product quality, the standing stock of Liangzhou donkey decreased soon compared to 1980s. In addition, due to Qingyang donkey genes introduction to local area, Liangzhou donkey characteristics has changed a lot such as its height and length significantly increased by 10 cm. Based on this, Liangzhou donkey was identified as Gansu provincial livestock and poultry genetic resources protected variety by Gansu agricuture and animal husbandry office in 2009. This article argued the development and utilization of Liangzhou donkey from four aspacts which are policy protection, breeding improvement, product development and consumption propaganda.
In this article, rooting agent(0.2%) that could promote the rooting ability of plant was used to deal with the cutting materials of 8920mf alfalfa in order to study the effects to the characters of the survival rate, the days of germinating,rooting ability,plant height and branches of the plant and give some advises about the cuttage of alfalfa under nature conditions. The result showed that the influence of the continous vainfall must be avoided at the begiaing of cuttage. The agent could not only promote rooting and increase the number of branches of the cutting materials remarkably but also reduce the time of germinating.