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Based on the current status of alfalfa industry development in China, and the function, development opportunities and benefit of farmers in alfalfa planting, this study proposed that the characteristics of dairy development was the basic for the alfalfa industry development in China and that the alfalfa industry development pattern in China was the farmersoriented development road with Chinese characteristics. This study also put forward four measures for strengthening farmers function in alfalfa industry development in China.
The main grassland types in China were classified by using the integrating method with MODIS EVI and multisource data of environmental factors in this study. Based on the classification system of the first national grassland survey, this study established a new grassland classification system, in which the natural grassland types in China were classified into 9 types. The distribution areas of grassland in China were divided into four grassland regions by climatic distribution zones, and the grassland types were identified for each grassland region. The extracting rules of grassland types was proposed by quantified characteristics of each grassland via EVI, DEM, precipitation, accumulated temperature, and moisture index data. The grassland types in each grassland region were classified by the extracting rules, and then the grassland classification system for China was constructed by merging each grassland region. The precision of classification was tested by confusion matrix and was 96.19%.The grassland classification showed the actual distribution of the main grassland types in China.
The system dynamics software STELLA was used to built a FAO PenmanMonteith model and the system dynamics modeling and the ecological models was firstly combined in this study. This study showed that the simulation value of the actual solar radiation (Rs) was accord with the spatial interpolation by ArcGIS. The estimated value of potential evapotranspiration(ET0) was consistent with the simulated value of SEBS model, indicating that the evapotranspiration changes of time series reflected the heterogeneity of every day evapotranspiration. The sensitivity analysis of STELLA showed that ET0 was insensitive to alpha, As, Bs and area latitude (range from 37-39). This study suggested that the system dynamics change showed the great advantages in the analysis of complex systems dynamics and simulation interaction between the system factors and the response process under different conditions, that STELLAs powerful features and good graphical interface could be applied in the ecology modeling and related research, and that the multidisciplinary approach, more temporal and spatial scale and multiphase coupling of physical processes would be the focus in this field and an important trend in the future.
Grassland is the basis of the livestock industry. Scientific and reasonable method of grassland classification is essential for the development, protection and management of grassland. Based on meteorological information in 30 years from 55 meteorological stations located within Gannan Region and in surrounding areas, the spatial databases of 0 ℃ annual accumulated temperature and humidity grade were constructed with the methods of geostatistics and mathematical regression. A potential grassland type map in Gannan Prefecture was made according to the method of Integrated Orderly Classification System of Grassland (IOCSG). The result of this study showed that 9 classes of grassland types were identified in the study area, including frigid perhumid rain tundra, alpine meadow class, cold temperate perhumid taiga forest class, cool temperate perhumid mixed coniferous broad leaved forest class, cool temperate humid forest steppe, deciduous broad leaved forest class, warm temperate perhumid deciduous broad leaved forest class, warm temperate humid deciduous broad leaved forest class, warm temperate subhumid forest steppe class, warm temperate semiarid warm temperate typical steppe class, warm temperate arid warm temperate zonal semidesert class. This study suggested that grassland mainly distributed regions within the elevation between 3 000 and 4 000 m, and the elevation and slope significantly influenced spatial pattern of grassland.
ACE soil respiration measurement system was used to monitor the diurnal changes of the soil respiration rate of fencing grassland from the end of April to the early October every ten days in Xilamuren regions and the correlation relationships between the soil respiration rate and soil temperature and moisture were discussed in this study. This study indicated that diurnal changes of soil respiration was onepeak curve with the highest value at 12:00-14:00 and the lowest value at 1:00-3:00. The soil respiration flux was different day and night at the different phonological stage and showed a negative value while soil temperature was under 0 ℃, implying that the increase in observation frequency of soil respiration observation and sighting into the related mechanism were helpful to estimate accurately the whole year carbon flux. Soil respiration rate showed a quadratic function with soil water content and the theoretical highest respiration rate was 456.2 mg/(m2h) when soil water content was 21%, coinciding with field waterholding capacity with 20%. During growing season, Q10 value were between 1.16 and 6.28, and showed a quadratic function with soil water content, differing from previous study results, which would be a important guidance to soil respiration under global change.
Horqin is the key region for the desertification issue in China, where there are still debate on the current, the future situation and the causes of desertification in the Horqin regions. A field survey was conducted in the agricultural area, pasturing area, and mixing area, respectively, to determine relationship between desertification and productive modes. This study showed that three productive modes enable desertification issue to become serious, which requires for improving the inappropriate productive modes. This study proposed that the desertification in the Horqin region resulted from the increasing conflicts between human need and the nature supplies, in which social, economic and cultural factors were the essential drivers, indicating that market regulation became ineffective, the traditional culture gradually lost and the education lag behind. Therefore, this study put forward some suggestion as followed: firstly, Making proper policy for the farmingpastoral areas responding for the specific local conditions; secondly, launching the systematic protection and development work and focusing on sustainable development; thirdly, taking the scientific research serious in the future; fourthly, encouraging the local farmers and herdsmen to develop new cooperatives for enhancing their ability in the market competition; finally, carrying on the traditional culture for a prosperous future of the regional social economy.
The physiological and biochemical indexes and apparent quality of leaves were tracedetermined in autumn to compare the effects of pulping black liquor and inorganic fertilizer application on the cold resistance of Poa pratensis. The results of this study showed that the pulping black liquor and inorganic fertilizer enhanced the cold hardening effect of P. pratensis to some degrees. The inorganic fertilizer increased the accumulation of free proline with a maximum concentration of 868.95 g/g, while the pulping black liquor increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) with 201.16 U/g and the content of soluble sugar (WSS) with 137.15 g/g. The inorganic fertilizer prolonged the turf green period for about 10 days, while the pulping black liquor did it for about 40 days. The pulping black liquor enhanced the cold resistance of P. pratensis more effectively and maintained a higher apparent quality.
The grassland vegetation index (NDVI) were selected to establish the model of estimation biomass in the Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture by combing the MODIS data in July and August 2005 and the field biomass at the same time. This study established the estimating model of grassland yield through and the precision of the estimating model was good. The theoretical and Key Pasture carrying capacity were calculated by Key Pasture Theory. The result of this study showed that the theoretical and Key Pasture carrying capacity of Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture were 1 776 100 and 1 137 100 sheep units, the overgrazing rates were 48.18% and 131.45% respectively when compared with the actual carrying capacity of 2 631 900 sheep units.
An experiment was conducted to determine the response of alpine grassland communities to enclose in the northern Tibetan by monitoring the community change of three types of degraded alpine grasslands. The results of this study showed that the shortterm enclose greatly increased vegetation height, cover and aboveground biomass, and the number of plant species in the three types of degraded alpine grasslands. The response of cover and height of alpine steppe and alpine meadow to the shortterm enclose was slower than the response of the number of plant species of alpine steppe and alpine meadow to the shortterm enclose. The shortterm enclose quickly increased the aboveground biomass of the three alpine grasslands, but did not affect the plant species diversity of alpine grassland communities. This study suggested that the combination of the shortterm enclose and fertilizer was the effective way to restore the degraded alpine steppes and alpine meadows and the combination of the longterm enclose and fertilizer and reseeding benefited the restoration of degraded alpine desert grassland.
Plant diversity of mixed pasture with different years was investigated in this study. The results of this study showed that the richness index increased, diversity index and evenness index firstly decreased and then increased, and dominant index firstly increased and then decreased when pasture years increased, implying that more years benefited the growth of native quality herbage. Plant diversity in the 3years pasture was bigger than that in one year pasture, and the latter was bigger than that in 2years pasture. The diversity slightly increased and the community affinity reduced between years. The pasture community reached a temporary balance from productive stability to ecological stability.
An experiment was carried out determine the effect of coal cinder, sawdust, municipal sludge, waste compost and mushroom soil on the sod quality character, operating costs and environment benefit of sowing Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) named Tiantang 328. The results of this study indicated that Bermudagrass obviously reduced the Cu and Zn content, and the sod color, cover and aboveground biomass in municipal sludge treatments was better or significantly higher than that in other four treatments (P 0.05).The total biomass and root biomass in the municipal sludge and coal cinder were significantly lower or higher than that in other treatments (P0.05). The sod freshness was not significant among five treatments (P0.05). The comprehensive estimation showed that five waster soilless medium in the order: municipal sludge（municipal sludge=0.885）mushroom(mushroom=0.674)sawdust (sawdus =0.598)waste compost(waste compost=0.550)coal cinder(coal cinder=0.543), suggesting that the municipal sludge was the best soilless medium of the bermudagrass sod.
Based on the current situation of the ecological problems in the stone pit, this study presented the process of construction technology and forecasted the application prospects when vegetation concrete was used to restore the ecotype of the stone pit through the concrete implementation of the project by taking the ecological management of the Dongsheng stone pit of Cencun Village in Guangzhou City as an example. And then this study proposed the management ideas for the ecological restoration in the stone pit and greening engineering construction at rock slope in the southern China, and basic principles of tiein plant application, which would provide mirror for the ecological restoration of other similar stone pit, rock slope greening concrete or protection, and soil and water conservation.
Three foreign alfalfa（Medicago sativa） varieties (Victoria, Millennium, and Cw787) with strong resistance to high temperature and humidity were selected to obtain salttolerant callus variants by using sodium chloride (NaCl) as selective reagent via positive selection (direct selection and continuous selection) methods. The physiological indexes, including MDA, proline, soluble protein and soluble sugar content, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of regeneration plants of callus variants were measured and these physiological indexes was used to comprehensively evaluate the salt tolerance by Subordinate Function method. The results of this study showed that the MDA, proline, soluble protein and soluble sugar content, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of regeneration plants of callus variants were significantly (P0.05) higher than that of control plants. The order of salt tolerance was Millennium CW787 Victoria.
Twentyfive Russian Wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea) germplasms were selected from the first generation individuals developed from space flight seeds to test the drought tolerance by using the relative water content, MDA content, proline content and soluble sugar content The results of this study showed that the height of individual 15, 21 and 24 were higher than that of others, leaf length of individual 15, 21 and 11 were longer than that of others, leaf width of individual 21, 7 and 17 were widest, and that cover of individual 10 and 21 was biggest. The individual 1 and 3 maintained higher relative water content under drought environment and the individual 2, 3, 6 and 23 showed the soluble sugar content. The MDA content in 11 and 12 individuals was lower and the proline content in 11 and 24 individuals was higher. The cluster analysis showed that 25 germplasms of Russian Wildrye were divided into three groups by drought tolerance, indicating that 23, 25, 24, 10, 21 and 15 fell into the group with stronger drought tolerance, 11 and 22 showed the medium drought tolerance, and that the weaker drought tolerance group included 12, 13, 16, 6, 7, 2, 3, 4, 8, 17, 19, 1, 20, 5, 14 and 9，the weakest drought tolerance group included 18.
An experiment was conducted to screen the germplasm materials with high winter hardiness by measuring the leaf electronic conductivity of 30 germplasm materials of Elymus sibiricus seedlings growing at 28 ℃ and 5 ℃ for 12 h in the nursery plate. The results of this study showed 30 germplasm materials of E. sibiricus were divided into very high, high, medium winter hardiness. 25 Germplasm materials of E. sibiricus were very high winter hardiness and took up 83.33% of the all materials, including ES002, ES004, ES006, ES009, ES010, ES012, ES014, ES015, ES016, ES017, ES018, ES019, ES025, ES026, ES028, ES029, ES030, ES031, ES032, ES034, ES036, ES037, ES038, ES039, ES040. Germplasm materials of E. sibiricus with high winter hardiness were ES001, ES005, ES007, and occupying up 10.00%. ES013 and ES033 showed the medium winter hardiness and were 6.67% of the all germplasms. The winter hardiness of 30 germplasm materials of E. sibiricus was significantly different (P0.001) and classified into 17 various combination, and these suggested that E. sibiricus showed the widely ecological plasticity, and developed different winter hardiness due to longtime adaptation for the original habitat.
The 160 plants of Seriphidium transiliense with the different geographical population growing at different terrains was used to screen the genetic diversity by SRAP technical analysis for providing the useful information for utilization this plant resource. The results of this study showed the percentage of polymorphism loci of S. transiliense population was 78.43. This study also indicated that the obvious demarcation point was not found among the different geographical population of S. transiliense, implying that the difference in geographical distance between S. transiliense populations did not affect the hereditary substance of S. transiliense. However, 160 plants were clustered into two groups, and one group consisted of sunny slope and plain populations, the other group consisted of shady slope and hilly populations, indicating that terrain showed a greatly effect on the hereditary substance of S. transiliense.
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of mowing on plant regrowth and reproduction characteristics of invasive Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth for controlling this invasive plant in the semiarid region of northwest Liaoning province. The results of this study showed that C. pauciflorus maintained a high growth rate during the whole growing season and showed a stronger regrowth ability and obviously seasonal effectiveness, indicating that the regrowth rates were same as the similar growth rates with quickslowquick rhythm when mowing was carried out at tillering stage and jointing stage, and that mowing at booting stage directly benefited the reproductive growth of C. pauciflorus. From 7 indicators of reproductive characteristics of C. pauciflorus, results of Principal Component Analysis showed that the cumulative contribution of the 2 factors was up to 93.07%, the first component factor was the plant height factor and the second factor was the branch factor. Except for the branch number per plant, this study suggested that the mowing at the different time had obviously control effect on C. pauciflorus reproductive ability by reducing a lot of caryopsis number, and the optimal mowing time was booting stage for control C. pauciflorus.
The CI340 photosynthetic system was used to monitor the photosynthetic diurnal variation of Eupatorium adenophorum at the reproductive stage and determine the relationship between photosynthetic diurnal variation and environmental factors for providing the useful information for control E. adenophorum in natural condition. The results of this study indicated that the diurnal variation of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) presented a doublepeak curve, peaking at 11:00 and 13:00, and this study also showed an obvious midday depression. The stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) were positively consistent with Pn from 9:00 to 14:00, and then increased slightly, and they showed a threepeak curve. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was significantly negative correlation with stomatal limitation value (Ls) (R=-0.997 6**), presenting the singlepeak curve. At the reproductive stage of E. adenophorum, Pn was mainly affected by Tr, Leaf Water Deficit and leaf temperature, and greatly regulated by photosynthetic active radiation (R=0.860 0**）. This study suggested that the comprehensive control measures of E. adenophorum focused on choosing the more strongly photosynthesis replaced plants, herbicide, chemical control time.
The daily water potential dynamic of Populus euphratica, Tamarix ramosissima, Haloxylon ammodendron, Elaeagnus angustifolia and Populus simonii in the Alaxia desert region of Inner Mongolia were determined in this study. The results of this study showed that the shapes of leaves, plant species and plant distributing influenced the daily water potential dynamics. The water potential among shapes of leaves was columniformleafbroadleaf, and the water potential among plant species showed as T. ramosissima＜H. ammodendron＜P. simonii＜E. angustifolia＜P. euphratica. The water potential of the ovatusleaf was bigger than that of the lanceolatusleaf for P. euphratica. The water potential of T. ramosissima and H. ammodendron at the different locatiion showed in order: Yabrai region＜Jartai region＜Ejin region.
A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different concentration EDTAFe (0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 mL/L) on chilling resistance and green period of centipedegrass strain E126 (Eremochloa ophiuroides). This study indicated that EDTAFe treatment reduced the electrical conductivity, increased the chlorophyll contents and restrained the chlorophyll decomposition, increased soluble sugar and proline content of centipedegrass under low temperature condition, implying that EDTAFe treatment improved chilling resistance. The concentration of EDTAFe with 10 mL/L was optimal and prolonging green period of centipedegrass for 15 days.
A pot experiment was carried out determine the physiological response of Bermudagrass （Cynodon dactylon）to different drought stresses for selecting the appropriate time of irrigation by measuring the relative water content, content of free proline and superoxidase activity. The results of this study indicated that drought stress decreased leaf relative water content and increased the content of free proline. The reirrigation in the 12 days after drought stress restored the relative leaf water content and free proline. The reirrigation in the 8 days after drought stress restored the superoxidase activity. This study suggested that Bermudagrass cultivated in soilless medium could tolerate 12 days drought stress, but reirrigation in 8 days after drought stress was the best time for Bermudagrass recovery growth.
Membership function of fuzzy mathematic was used to evaluate the salt tolerance of fall nondormancy standard varieties of alfalfa (Dona Aan, Pierce, CUF101) at the germination period by considering germination power, germination percentage, root length, shoot length, the germination index and the vigor index as the evaluation indicators. This study indicated that low levels of salinity (0-50 mmol/L NaCl) did not increase seed germination. The increase of NaCl concentration reduced the germination power, germination percentage, root length, shoot length, the germination index and the vigor index when NaCl concentration was over 50 mmol/L. The effect of salt stress on the vigor index was stronger than that on the seed germination rate. Evaluation results of membership function of fuzzy mathematic showed that the salt tolerance of alfalfa varieties was Dona AanPiercCUF101Zhongmu No.1.
Autotoxicity often causes poor establishment of continuous cropping alfalfa, therefore reducing the autotoxicity will benefit successful alfalfa regeneration in continuous cropping. A field experiment was conducted in the Beijing regions to determine effect of the interval between ploughing and reseeding on growth of continuous cropping alfalfa in 5years field. The treatments included 0, 15, 30, 45 and 90 days of interval between ploughing and reseeding. The results of this study showed that less interval between ploughing and reseeding reduced the length of root and shoot and the weight of root and shoot of the alfalfa plants. The root length, shoot length, root weight and shoot weight in plots with 0 day interval reduced the 10%-23%, 16%-26%, 58%-71% and 38%-62%,respectively when compared to those in plots with a interval of 15, 30, 45 and 90 days. The changes of the interval did not affect chlorophyll content while the activities of SOD and POD increased with the decrease in interval between ploughing and reseeding.
The formula of ecoorganic soilless matrix for cultivation is the focus of formula of soilless matrix for cultivation in the future. Based on previous studies, the new four formulas were constructed by combining the peat, plant ash, litter, humus and appropriate amount of small particles of poly to a certain volume ratio to substitute for soil cultivation in this study. This study not only screened out the most suitable formula of ecoorganic soilless matrix for E. dahuricus growth at its seedling stage by adding basic manure into four ecoorganic soilless matrixes, but also provides a basis theory for the formulation. The results of this study showed that the higher nutrient content benefited seedling growth of E. dahuricus when the ecoorganic soilless matrix met the requirements of an ideal matrix. The emergence of E. dahuricus was closely related to the physical property of the matrix, but was not related to nutrient composition of the matrix. This study showed that A3 matrix was best ecoorganic soilless matrix for cultivation, in which the ratio of humus, litter and plant ash was 6∶2∶2.
The breeding, cultivation, returning to soil and comprehensive utilization progresses of Astragalus sinicus were reviewed in this study. The breeding and cultivation included quality variety, obducens seed and application of rhizobium. A. sinicus could improve soil fertility, increase gain yield, benefit nitrogen fixation and energy saving, reduce CO2 emission and soil nitrogen loss, and encourage soil organic carbon to cumulate when it was returned to soil. In the view of comprehensive utilization, this study summarized the progress of A. sinicus utilization as seleniumrich product, nectar source, hay and vegetable. This study proposed that new breeding means and quality variety reproducing were effective approaches to resolve the worse quality, degeneration and complexity of A. sinicus variety for facing the decrease in area of A. sinicus, and suggested that extension of A. sinicus would benefit sustainable development of agriculture as green manure.
Sheep in three households were selected with same pasture type and similar sheep body condition in Sunan County, one household fed sheep in the heated greenhouses from Jan. to Apr.(Group Ⅰ), and the second household grazed sheep in pasture in day and supplement after come back (Group Ⅱ), another household grazed only, act as control group. Sheep's body weight loss in total reproductive cycle, ewes reproductive rate and lamb living rate were recorded to determine the influence of feeding patterns on production efficiency of sheep. The results of this study showed the difference of ewes body weight loss among three groups was obvious after cold season, and the body weight of Group Ⅰ,Ⅱ and control increased 2.76, 1.91 and -1.24 kg in next mating time respectively. Conception rate and pregnancy rate of Group Ⅰ and Ⅱ were significantly higher than that of control group. Wool yield of GroupⅠ was significantly higher than that of GroupⅡ and control (P0.01). However, there was not significant difference between GroupⅡ and control (P0.05). Economic analysis showed that the feeding costs and the net income of GroupⅠ were the highest, and those of control was the lowest. However, the ratio of revenue and cost in control was the highest, and those of Group I was the lowest.
The ThreeRiver Headwaters Region is main part of QinghaiTibetan plateau, known as China watertower, and is the assembling region with rich biodiversities and a gene pool of plateau biology. However, the climate warming, glacier decreasing, over grazing cause the grassland to degenerate in the recent years, and highintensity rodents activities undoubtedly exacerbated the pace and process of grassland degradation. Rodent activities not only play positive role in the alpine meadow ecosystem but also play negative role in the alpine meadow ecosystem, and scientifically qualifying threshold of rodent activities is urgent. Based on field survey data in Guoluo autonomous prefecture, Qinghai province, and many documents, this study summarized the effectiveness of rodent activities on plant community and soil environment in alpine meadow, and suggested that the rational rodent population density benefited sustainable utilization of grassland resources and grassland conservation.
The fermentation quality and chemical components of the ensiled white sweet clover （Melilotus albus）and oats (Avena sativa)were investigated in this study. The forages was either ensiled solely or ensiled by mixing the sweet clover and oats at the rates of 70∶30, 50∶50 and 30∶70 to determine the optimal mixture between white sweet clover and oats. The results of this study indicated that the pH value, content of ammonia nitrogen, content of dry matter and crude protein content of directly ensiling white sweet clover was significantly higher (P0.05) than that of other four groups. The pH value and content of ammonia nitrogen of directly ensiling oats was significantly lower than that of other four groups (P0.05). There were no differences between directly ensiling oats and mixed silage which had 70% oats in the crude protein content. The content of lactic acid, neutral detergent fiber content and acid detergent fiber content of directly ensiling oats was significantly higher (P0.05) than that of directly ensiling white sweet clover, but there were no differences in mixed silage which had 70% oats. Butyric acid content of directly ensiling white sweet clover was markedly higher than that of the mixed silage which had 70% white sweet clover (P0.05). There was no butyric in other three groups. This study suggested that the directly ensiling oats was better feed, and the effectiveness of the mixed silage which had 70% oats was better. It was similar with the mixed silage which had 50% oats.
The grassland disputes and crime cases has become serious in the economical rapid development in China, affecting the economical development with the smooth and health order. Based on the characteristics of grassland crime cases at the present stage in China, this study pointed out main issues in the present penal code when the penal code was used to protect the grassland resources, and proposed the corresponding countermeasures for grassland crime in this study.
In order to explore the feasibility of Dolichos lablab as one of the feed resources of Tenebrio molitor, a study was conducted on larvae and feces of T.molitor fed with D.lablab and wheat bran. The results of this study showed that larva crude protein content, nitrogen and calcium content of feces of T.molitor fed with D. lablab were significant higher than those with wheat bran. And there was no significant effect on larva body increase, larva crude fat, phosphorus and potassium content of feces of T.molitor fed with two fodders（P＞0.05）. It is feasible to rearing T. molitor with D.lablab.
The different dose kuoji with 300, 600, 900, 1 200 and 1 500 g/hm2 was used to treat broadleaf weeds in seed field of Kngyilia rigidula for determining the best scheme by measuring stem harmfulness and fresh weight of weeds and harmfulness of K.rigidula. The results of this study showed that Kouji effectively control Hypecoum leptocarpum, Capsella bursapastoris, Polygonum viviparum, Chenopodium glaucum but did not affect Elsholtzia ciliate and Geranium wilfordi in the seed field of K. rigidula. The dose of 900, 1 200, and 1 500 g Kuoji per hectare control stem harmfulness with 76.1%, 87.4% and 85.2%, and control fresh weight with 76.5%, 85.2% and 90.2%. 1 500 g Kuoji harmed the leaves and stems of K.rigidula. This study suggested that the 1 200 g/hm2 kuoji was the best group to control the broadleaf weeds in the seed field of K.rigidula in the view of safety.