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2011 Vol.28(11)

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A study on heat tolerance of five coolseason turfgrasses
2011, 5(11): 1909-1914.
[Abstract](1997) [PDF 429KB](702)
The experiment was conducted to investigate heat tolerance of the five kinds of coolseason grasses, including Festuca arundinacea, Lolium perenne,Agrostis stolonifera, Poa pratensis and P. trivialis, through analyzing apparent indexes: green leaf number/plant and growth height; and physiologicalbiochemical indexes: relative water content, relative electric conductivity, chlorophyll content, SOD activity, CAT activity and POD activity, in artificial climatic chamber with high temperature (35 ℃/30 ℃, day/night) and high humidity (75%). The result showed that at high temperature (day/night, 35 ℃/30 ℃), the relative water content of five grasses decreased; and the relative electric conductivity of five grasses increased with threatened time increasing. The change of leaf chlorophyll content of five grasses was not consistence. The chlorophyll content of F. arundinacea, L. perenne and P. pratensis showed increased at first and then decreased; and the chlorophyll content of other two species decreased all the time. The SOD and POD activities of five grasses increased firstly and then decreased. CAT activity decreased all the time. The green leaf number/plant and plant growth height of five grasses decreased with threatened time increasing. The five grasses were classified three groups by a cluster analysis. The first group (heat tolerance) was F. arundinacea; the second group (moderate heat tolerance) were P. pratensis, L.perenne and A. stolonifera; and the third group (sensitive to heat) was P. trivialis.
A study on low temperature tolerance of warmseason ornamental grasses
2011, 5(11): 1915-1918.
[Abstract](1491) [PDF 406KB](692)
In order to understand low temperature tolerance of warmseason ornamental grasses, eight germplasm materials were used to investigate their phenological period in Nanjing, and LT50. The LT50 was determined by the inflectional point temperature through conductance ratio measurement combining with Logistic equation. The results showed that low temperature tolerance of the materials was ranked as follows: Saccharum arundinaceum>S.ravennae>Miscanthus sinensis Strictus>Cortaderia selloana Pumila>Miscanthus sinensis Cabaret>M.sinensis Cosmopolitan>Pennisetum>Panicum virgatum Rehbraun. There was no significant correlation between LT50 and green period. Both the low temperature tolerance and the green period extension can be enhanced simultaneously.
Effects of fertilizing nitrogen levels on soil respiration duringgrowing season in maize field
2011, 5(11): 1919-1923.
[Abstract](1523) [PDF 415KB](658)
In order to explore effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization on soil respiration in maize (Zea mays) field during the growing season, the study, using EGM4 sealed soil respiration measurement system, was conducted to measure Soil respiration rate of the maize fieild with different N fertilizatian at Liangzhou, Gansu Province. Results obtained in the study indicated that the soil respiration rate of maize field was changed on a similar diurnal pattern with a single peak, and increased with soil temperature rising up. The minimum and maximum values occurred around 06:00 and 14:00, respectively. The seasonal change of soil respiration rate in maize land was significant, with a CO2 emission maximum value of 8.92 mol/(m2s) on July and a minimum value of 1.12 mol/(m2s) on May. The order of seasonal change of soil respiration rate in maize field was tasseling stagebigtrumpet stageelongation stagefilling stagemature stageseedling stage. Soil respiration rate increased with the increase of fertilizing nitrogen levels. Fertilized N with 450 kg/ha (N450), the CO2 emission from maize field was 5.72 mol/(m2s) on average; and fertilized N with 300 kg/ha (N300) and unfertilized N (N0), the CO2 emissions were 5.34 and 4.90 mol/(m2s) on average; whereas the soil respiration rate of N450 treatment was 7.12% and 16.73% higher than that of N300 and N0, respectively. However, the significant difference between treatments only occurred during the maize blooming stage.
Analysis of tendency on 0 ℃ accumulated temperature during last 30 years inHainan area of Qinghai Province
2011, 5(11): 1924-1928.
[Abstract](1271) [PDF 400KB](679)
The accumulated temperature is one of important characteristics on the crop and forage production. Analyzing changes of the accumulated temperature could benefit to animal production as well. This study analyzed the changes of 0 ℃ year accumulated temperature and its influence on production of crops and forages using the data obtained from the weather stations at 5 counties in Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province. The results indicated that during last near 30 years the growing periods of major crops and forages were shortened, while the initial growing period were forward. This was because in recent ten years the average temperature and regional 0 ℃ year accumulated temperature increased and thermal condition was sufficient for the growth of crops and forages, which provide a basis for the timely adjustment of agricultural structure in the region.
Ji-Zhou LIN
2011, 5(11): 1929-1929.
[Abstract](963) [PDF 321KB](1328)
Genetic diversity of Buchloe dactyloides based on SRAP markers
2011, 5(11): 1930-1935.
[Abstract](1605) [PDF 463KB](746)
Buchloe dactyloides is a warmseason grass for lowmaintenance lawns. In this paper, sequencerelated amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular markers were used to detect the genetic diversity of 31 accessions of B. dactyloides collected from America, Canada and Japan. Nineteen primer pairs were used to amplify among the accessions. A total of 271 (86.86%) bands were observed. The genetic diversity coefficients (GS) varied from 0.586 5 to 0.916 7 among these accessions, with an average of 0.669 1. Two materials showed the specific and specific deletion bands respectively in the amplified products of different primer combinations. These bands can be used to identify genotypes of B. dactyloides. The dendrogram and principal component analysis revealed from these markers clustered the materials into two main groups. But materials from the same geographic origins were not classified into the same group.
A study on transformation of Hypodermin A gene into Medicago sativa
2011, 5(11): 1936-1940.
[Abstract](1545) [PDF 618KB](544)
The high efficiency regeneration and genetic transformation system of alfalfa (Medicago sativa)was established by using the cotyledons as explants from the sterile 7days old seedlings of M.sativa cv. Gannong No.1. The optimal medium for callus induction and regeneration from Gannong No.1 cotyledons was MS+2,4D 2.0 mg/L+6BA 0.5 mg/L and MS+6BA 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.03 mg/L+GA3 2.0 mg/L respectively. In this study, the efficiency transformation system included agrobacterium concentration OD6000.5, infection time 8-10 min and coculture time 2 d. The transgenic plants were identified by PCR and Southern blot techniques. The results indicated that the Hyperdomin A (HA) gene had been transformed into the genome of Gannong No.1 alfalfa.
Detection methods of pollen viability of wild Dichondra repens
2011, 5(11): 1941-1944.
[Abstract](1354) [PDF 454KB](754)
The pollen viability of wild Dichondra repens (SD200303 and GD200503) was detected by methods of I2KI, 4, 4diaminobiphenyl1Naphthol, TTC and pollen germination in vitro, respectively. The comparison of the four methods indicated that the methods of I2KI and TTC were not suitable to evaluate wild Dichondra repens pollen activity. 4,4diaminobiphenyl1Naphthol method could detect the pollen viability, but the measured value was higher than that of pollen viability. The method of germination in vitro was the fittest and convenient, in which pollen tube grew well and pollen viability was stable. The optimum culture medium was 10% Sucrose+0.005% HBO3+0.015% [Ca(NO3)24H2O] +0.001% MgSO47H2O+0.005% KNO3 +0.5%Agar.
Effects of soaking seeds with salicylic acid on tall fescue seed germination under drought stress
2011, 5(11): 1945-1949.
[Abstract](1773) [PDF 406KB](1051)
Tall fescue (Fescue arundinacea) is a coldseason type turfgrass and is widely used in urban greening. This study was to evaluate effects of socking seeds with different concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) on seed germination of Bonsai 2000, Houndog 5 and Ruby tall fescue under drought stress, which was simulated by PEG2000. The results obtained from the study indicated that SA at the lower concentration (0.12-1.00 mmol/L) increased germination potential, germination rate of tall fescue seeds; promoted growth of seedlings and roots; and improved the drought resistance of tall fescue during seed germination period. However, the higher concentrations (2.00-3.00 mmol/L) inhibited seed germination and growth of the seedlings. The treatment with 3.00 mmol/L SA displayed a significant inhibiting effect (P<0.05) on tall fescue seed germination. The treatment with 0.5 mmol/L SA showed the best performance in this study.
Effects of excess iron stress on photosynthetic characteristics and chloroplast membranes in pea seedling leaves
2011, 5(11): 1950-1956.
[Abstract](1902) [PDF 474KB](979)
A hydroponic experiment was employed to study the effects of excess iron on the photosynthetic characteristics and on the compositions and fluidity of chloroplast membrane in pea (Pisum sativum) seedling leaves. The results indicated that with the iron concentration increased, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), water use efficiency (WUE) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) showed various degree of downward trends. Chlorophyll content and maximal fluorescence (Fm), the PSⅡmaximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), PSⅡpotential photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fo), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR),maximum quantum yield (Yield) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) also declined. However, primary fluorescence (Fo) and nonphotochemical quenching coefficient (qN) increased.At the same time, content of unsaturated fatty acids and membrane fluidity of chloroplast increased, while the saturated fatty acids decreased.These results suggested that the iron stress not only caused stomatal inhibition but also destroyed the photosynthetic structure directly. Furthermore, the iron stress also resulted in inactivation of photosynthesis center, decreases of both primary capture capacity and assimilation efficiency of light energy, and increasing leaf chloroplast membrane unsaturation degree, which caused a decline in photosynthetic capacity of pea seedlings finally.
Phenotype plasticity of modules and growth analysis of reproductive ramets in Scirpus planiculmis population in the Songnen Plain of China
2011, 5(11): 1957-1961.
[Abstract](1529) [PDF 390KB](634)
By analysis of large samples obtained in the fields, quantitative characters and regulations of reproductive allocation of reproductive ramets in Scirpus planiculmis population in the Songnen Plain were studied. The results showed that quantitative characters of reproductive ramets in S.planiculmis population had large phenotype plasticity. The coefficient of variation (CV) of seed biomass was the largest (81.63%), while the CVs of reproductive allocation Ⅱ and ramet height were the second higher with 73.14% and the smallest with 13.11%, respectively. The phenotype plasticity of reproductive ramets in S.planiculmis population had a significant regularity. With the increase in ramet height and in biomass, leaf biomass showed a power function increase; a linear increase in inflorescence biomass; and a power function or exponential decrease in reproductive allocation. There were two different regulations of phenotype plasticity of reproductive ramets in S.planiculmis population (isogony and allometry) at the same time. The regularity of growth and reproductive allocation showed that the reproductive ramets of different growth conditions had different allocation strategies for limited resources.
Responses of the root architecture of Stipa grandis to grassland degradation
2011, 5(11): 1962-1966.
[Abstract](1643) [PDF 469KB](715)
The study was conducted to investigate responses of root architecture of Stipa grandis grown under different grassland degradation levels (light, medium, high and extreme) in Xilin Gol League. The relative completed roots of S. grandis were collected by trenching and analyzed by using the root analysis system of WinRHIZO to determine total root length, root surface area, total root volume, root average diameter, number of root tips, number of furcation and average branching angle, number and length of first vertical root, number and length of first lateral root, number and length of secondary lateral root, number of adventitious root. The data obtained was analyzed by oneway ANOVA and principal component analysis. The results indicated that 1) the number of furcation, the surface area of root and the total length of root were the preferred indexes for analyzing S. grandis variation to grassland degradation, while the number of furcation had the strongest explanation strength of the indexes to the variation. The cumulative contribution rate of the three root architecture indexes was 90.7%. 2) With the degradation development from light to extreme, the root architecture of S.grandis was obviously miniaturized. This phenomenon was especially obvious in medium degradation grassland. 3) The miniaturized root architecture of S. grandis eventually led to miniaturization of the entire plant, so the role of S. grandis as constructive species in the succession process of the community degradation was gradually weakened and finally replaced by other dominant species.
Age structure features of cloning population hibernation of Poa pratensis var.anceps cv.Qinghai
2011, 5(11): 1967-1971.
[Abstract](1651) [PDF 419KB](778)
Characteristics of age structures of one to sixyear pasture of Poa pratensis var.anceps cv. Qinghai was studied in the experiment. The results indicated that age structures of hibernated buds were from 0 to 4 years old with 5 classes, while hibernated seedlings and parent strains had 4 classes from 1 to 4 years old. For the hibernated buds, the 0 years old number was the highest, but for the seedlings and parent strains the 1 years old number was the best. However, all of them were decreased when ages increased. The fouryear number of hibernation components of parent strain was the highest, for 672.337.74; while the oneyear numbers of hibernated seedlings and buds were the highest, 191.825.34 and 137.6728.97 respectively.Hibernated seedling age structure was fitted with a linear model, which was S=-35.96 t+221.3, while the hibernated bud was fitted with a growth curve, S=e5.472-0.374 t, and parent strain was followed a quadratic curve, S=-86.417 t2+547.455 t-279.752. When the each of age class number curve of hibernate seedlings and buds was fitted with a power curve, the higher the F value, the more likely growthtype age class structure. In conclusion, 1 and 2year pasture were growth age structure; 3 and 4year were stable age structure; and 5 and 6year were recession age structure.
Research on compensatory growth of Stipa aliena andimpact factors under different habitats
2011, 5(11): 1972-1981.
[Abstract](1807) [PDF 683KB](681)
Grazing disturbance and resource availability can affect the compensatory growth of defoliated plants, but it is unclear which factor is the most important in inducing the over compensatory response to herbivores in a particular area. Our objectives were to examine how compensatory growth of Stipa aliena varied with different habitats in an alpine Kobresia humilis meadow and determine relative effects of these factors on compensatory growth. A field experiment was carried out at the Haibei Research Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences from April to September 2007, which included three habitats (habitatⅠ: pen, grazedhigh nutrient availability; habitatⅡ: pass pasture, grazedlow nutrient availability and habitat Ⅲ: ungrazed pasture, null defoliation ratiolow nutrient availability) with three plots per habitat. In each plot, 12 quadrats (0.5 m0.5 m) were divided into two groups (6 caged and 6 uncaged). For each group, 3 of 6 quadrats were sampled in midJune and other 3 in midAugust, respectively. We used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) with potential impact factors selected by the forward selection procedure for the compensatory growth of S. aliena to determine the relative effects of defoliation, water and soil nutrient variables on compensatory growth. The results indicated that full compensation occurred for roots at habitat Ⅱ and low compensation was found in leaves and inflorescence at habitat Ⅰ and Ⅱ. The ramet density, height and growth allocation of the S.aliena were higher at habitat Ⅲ. The ramet relative growth rate of the species was lower at habitatⅠ and higher at habitat Ⅱ. The results of CCA showed that the most important impacted factors of compensatory growth and ramet relative growth rate of the species were defoliation ratio by grazing. Although there were higher soil nutrient and water contents at habitat Ⅰ, but still did not blot out the negative effects of heavy deflolation and trampling by domestic animals on the species. The results above suggested that the most important factors affecting the compensatory growth of S. aliena was defoliation ratio rather than soil resource availability.
Responses of biomass allocation of Lagotis brachystachya to degradation ofsoil nutrition bank in alpine meadow
2011, 5(11): 1982-1986.
[Abstract](1441) [PDF 430KB](637)
In order to understand responses of biomass allocation of Lagotis brachystachya to degradation of soil nutrition bank in highcold meadow, three plots with differences in nutritional composition of soil and in vegetable community characteristics caused by different utilizing methods of grassland were selected to investigate the biomass allocation of L. brachystachya in clonal plants in the source region of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers. The results indicated that the biomass allocation of L. brachystachya to each clonal component was affected by soil nutrient resource heterogeneity obviously. L. brachystachya allocated more biomass to the roots of genet, while less biomass was gained in the leaves of genet and ramet under richer soil nutritional resource. The contrary trend was found under poorer soil nutrient resource. However, under moderate soil nutrient resource level, L. brachystachya tended to allocate the highest biomass to stolons, but the lowest in both richer and poorer soil nutrient condition. The pattern of biomass allocation varied with the change of soil nutrient resource, which was one of the ecological strategies that clonal plants exploited soil resource heterogeneous distribution effectively.
Influence of imazethapyr soil treatment on growth of alfalfa seedlings and root nodules
2011, 5(11): 1987-1991.
[Abstract](1474) [PDF 413KB](605)
A field experiment was conducted to investigate effects of four different applied doses of 5.0% imazethapyr on growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seedlings and root nodules in Heilongjiang. The results indicated that application of imazethapyr at different levels (0.067 5、0.082 5、0.097 5、0.112 5 kg/ha) leaded to the different negative effect on alfalfa emerging and seedling growth. The dosage at 0.112 5 kg/ha had stronger inhibitory effect than those of others, while the effect of 0.067 5 kg/ha was the least. The study also showed that the negative effect on increase of nodule number and their dry weight accumulation with high dosage of imazethapyr lasted longer, while medium and low dosages had shorter inhibiting time and easy resuming from inhibition. There were significant differences (P0.05) of dry weight of alfalfa seedlings at the different dosages applied after 10 weeks, but the difference of total nitrogen contents was not significant. Therefore, the dose of imazethapyr at 0.067 5 kg/ha might be a safety level on growth of alfalfa seedlings.
Effects of irrigation on growth dynamic and yield of Glycyrrhiza uralensis in Minqin Oasis
2011, 5(11): 1992-1997.
[Abstract](1386) [PDF 468KB](615)
An experiment of randomized block design was conducted to study the effect of irrigation on growth dynamic and yield of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. The six levels of irrigation, 2 700 (W1), 3 600 (W2), 4 500 (W3), 5 400 (W4), 6 300 (W5) and 7 200 (W6) m3/ha, were applied. The plant height, root length, root diameter, aerial dry weight and root dry weight were promoted with different irrigation levels. The results indicated that plant height with W4, W5 and W6 treatments were significant higher (P0.05) than these with W1, W2 and W3 treatments. Growth rate of W6 main stem was 60% faster than W1 and 33% than W2 and W3. The aerial dry weight of W3, W4, W5 and W6 were significant significant higher (P0.05) than W1 and W2. The accumulation rate of the dry matter with W3 was 11% faster than W1. The root length, root diameter and root dry weight increased with increasing irrigation levels, but decreased when irrigation levels were more than 5 400 m3/ha. The root dry weight of W3 and W4 were significant higher (P0.05) than others. The accumulation rate of dry matter of annual and biennial roots with W3 and W4 were faster 50% and 35% than W1, respectively. It was concluded that the yield of annual and biennial roots were higher with 4 500 and 5 400 m3/ha irrigation levels, respectively. However, the irrigation efficiency with 4 500 m3/ha was higher than with 5 400 m3/ha treatment.
A comparison of adaptive cultivation of eighteen alfalfa varieties in the Qinghai Plateau
Chun-Chi LI
2011, 5(11): 1998-2002.
[Abstract](1697) [PDF 378KB](584)
Eighteen alfalfa varieties were compared on their performances in Qinghai Plateau in 2009-2010. In the first planting year (2009), the root length, root diameter, number of branches per plant and plant height were 22.6-31.9 cm, 4.1-8.8 mm, 4.1-6.8, and 43.9-80.1 cm, respectively. No significant difference was observed among varieties during the early flowering period in 2009.The highyield period appeared in the second planting year (2010); and the number of branches per plant increased by 1.5-10.5 times. The height of plants at the first mowing in 2010 was 110.7-145.4 cm, which was one time higher than that in 2009. Varieties of Sandeli, Debao, WL232 gave the highest fresh forage and hay yield in 2010, which were between 106 614-121 364 kg/ha and 30 761-34 934 kg/ha, respectively. America Zajiao, Defy32IQ, Sitel, Nongbao, Algonquin ranked 4th-8th with 91 922-102 822 kg/ha of fresh forage and 25 410-29 036 kg/ha of hay forage. These eight varieties had better performances than other varieties, which indicated they were suitable for cultivating in eastern agricultural areas of the Qinghai Plateau.
A comparative study on production performance and quality of 16 varieties of Medicago sativa in Yangzhou region
2011, 5(11): 2003-2007.
[Abstract](1324) [PDF 410KB](620)
In order to select Medicago sativa varieties for adapting to the local climate in Yangzhou region, an experiment of complete randomized block was conducted to compare the productivity and quality of sixteen varieties of M. sativa in the study. The results showed that under the same conditions of geographical, climatic and management, there were large differences among the M. sativa varieties. The fastest growth rate on average was Derby, which was significant higher than that of Leafy king, Alfalfa King, Hunter River and Flourish Age. The hay yield of Aifeinite was the highest and significant higher than that of others; and followed by GL0602, Sanditi and Leafy king. The highest CP content was Algonquin and the ADF and NDF contents of Algonquin were also higher. The second higher CP content was Aifeinite, while the ADF and NDF contents of Aifeinite were significant lower than that of Algonquin. Compared comprehensively, Aifeinite had the best production performance, and followed by GL0602, Sanditi and Leafy king. Thus, these semidormancy varieties (fall dormancy index=4 or 5) is more appropriate for local applications in Yangzhou region.
Effects of sowing quantity on production characteristics of Onobrychis viciaefolia and Medicago varia at alpine region in Lintan County
2011, 5(11): 2008-2015.
[Abstract](1427) [PDF 457KB](730)
Onobrychis viciaefolia cv. Gansu and Medicago varia cv. Gannong No.1 were planted with different sowing quantity (O. viciaefolia cv. Gansu with 70, 100 and 130 kg/ha and M.varia cv. Gannong No1 with 7,10 and 13 kg/ha) in the early spring on the terraces of 2 590 m above sea level at Yeliguan Town in Lintan County. During the study phenology of two varieties was observed; plant height, growth rate, yield, nutrient dynamics and winter survival rate were measured; and the productivity and adaptability of them on alpine region were also discussed. The results showed that the winter survive rate of two varieties was over 95% although they were not complete their life cycle in the sowing year. Yields of fresh forage and hay of the O. viciaefolia cv. Gansu the sowing quantity (100 kg/ha) were the highest, which were 11 734.0 and 3 357.8 kg/ha, respectively. Yields of fresh forage and hay of the M. varia cv.Gannong No.1 at 13 kg/ha were the highest, which were 5 217.5 and 1 690.9 kg/ha, respectively. There was little effect on the nutrient contents of two varieties at the different sowing quantity. However, crude protein, crude ash and phosphorus contents tended to decrease, while crude fiber content increased gradually after August 5th. O. viciaefolia cv. Gansu and M. varia cv. Gannong No.1 with the sowing quantities at 100 and 13 kg/ha respectively had the high performances and strong adaptability, so they can be used as forage at Lintan in the future.
Spatial and temporal variation of net primary productivity in Inner Mongolian grassland from 1981 to 2001
2011, 5(11): 2016-2025.
[Abstract](1455) [PDF 893KB](729)
With remote sensing and climatic data, CASA model was applied to simulate spatiotemporal variations of grassland net primary productivity (NPP) in Inner Mongolia from 1981 to 2001. Impacts of climatic factors and human activities on the grassland NPP were primarily distinguished via statistical analysis. The results showed that from 1981 to 2001, approxmiately 69% of the grassland NPP had no significant change, while about 30% of the grassland obtained NPP increment and only about 1% of the grassland experienced a process of NPP decrease. Spatially, the NPP in northeastern, southeastern and southern part of Inner Mongolia significantly increased, but in boundary areas of the desert steppe and typical steppe in the central region of Inner Mongolia, the grassland degraded in term of NPP change. For the whole region, NPP of Inner Mongolian grassland showed a slightly increasing but not statistically significant trend; the long term averaged seasonal NPP between July and August is 192.0 g/m2 (150.5-255.5 g/m2). There was a significant positive correlation between NPP and precipitation, but increased temperature had the effect to cause NPP decreasing. The solar radiation in this region showed no obvious correlation with the grassland NPP. Human activities had determinative impacts on grassland NPP on local scale. While grazing strength represented by livestock density intensified during the two decades in Tumote Left Banner and Tumote Right Banner, the grassland NPP there decreased rapidly and remarkably.
Research advances in germplasm resource of Elymus sibiricus
2011, 5(11): 2026-2031.
[Abstract](1451) [PDF 447KB](697)
China is exceptionally rich in wild germplasm resources of Elymus sibiricus, which is a very important role for the future research of E.sibiricus germplasm. In present, the research of Elymus sibiricus germplasm has been focused on its taxonomy and genetic diversity, but the breeding and genetic integrity of E.sibiricus germplasm has not been systematically studied; particularly in the genetic integrity. This study summarized the research progress of the botanical and biological characteristics, genetic diversity, breeding of E.sibiricus germplasm resources at home and abroad; indicated the main problems of E.sibiricus germplasm resources in research; and provided references on the further study of E.sibiricus germplasm resources.
Effects of red clover isoflavone on production performance and meat quality in broilers
2011, 5(11): 2032-2036.
[Abstract](1226) [PDF 466KB](691)
In order to study effects of red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavone on production performance and meat quality, one hundred and eighty 1dayold AA broilers were randomly assigned to three groups, which were the fed with basic diet (control), the basic diet+red clover isoflavone (10 mg/kg) and the basic diet+red clover isoflavone (20 mg/kg), respectively. The results indicated that the red clover isoflavone could increase daily gain and slaughter performance (P0.05), reduce the contents of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) in serum and the percentage of abdominal fat of broiler (P0.05). The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P0.05), drip loss and shear force of muscle were decreased after feeding red clover isoflavone(P0.05). In conclusion, the red clover isoflavone could modulate growth performance and slaughter performance; improved meat quality in broilers. The broilers were fed with the diet content of 20 mg/kg red clover isoflavone had the highest daily gain.
Effects of feeding pulped hybrid pennisetum on early and midgestation sows
2011, 5(11): 2037-2041.
[Abstract](1308) [PDF 411KB](731)
Effects of pulped hybrid pennisetum (Pennisetum americanum P.purpureum cv.Minmu 6), which was fertilized with biogas slurry, on early and midgestation sows (0-80 d) were investigated in this study. There were 4 dietary treatments with different proportions of pulped hybrid pennisetum to feed the sows, including 0 kg/(headd )(CK), treatment 2, 4 treatment 3 and 6 treafment 4 kg/(headd). Fresh hybrid pennisetum was converted into dry matter to replace the equivalent feed. The results showed that litter size of the four treatments were 13.42, 10.60, 13.64 and 11.50; and numbers of live cubs in nest were 12.42, 10.30, 12.73 and 9.92, respectively. There was no significant difference among the CK, treatment 2 and treatment 3 (P0.05), while the number of live cubs of treatment 4 was significantly lower than that of the CK (P0.05). The birth weight and rate of healthy piglets of the three treatments were increased to varying degrees compared with that of the CK. In conclusion, to feed 2-4 kg/(headd) pulped hybrid pennisetum to supplement forage fiber for the early and midgestation sows could improve the production performance of sows and the healthg piglets. The best performance was given by fed 4 kg/(headd) pulped hybrid pennisetum, which contained the fiber content of 8.24%~9.41%.
Series studies of animal demandingfeed availability balance control (2)Evaluation on current method of animal carrying capacity calculation
Jing-Feng LI
2011, 5(11): 2042-2045.
[Abstract](1807) [PDF 411KB](742)
In this study, the current technical guidelines for animal carrying capacity calculation methods were evaluated through field analysis of animal carrying capacity. Some of technical parameters in the technical guidelines were evaluated on their suitability and necessity in the estimation procedure. It was considered that the current method was out of date in the approach of selecting parameters as the mode and methods of animal production have been changed dramatically. Some parameters were obviously unnecessary and should be disregarded or modified in accordance with animal production system in grassland regions practically.
Analysis and discussion of changes of the main body of agricultural managementabout farm households in Gansu Province
LI Wei, Bing-Pu CHEN
2011, 5(11): 2046-2051.
[Abstract](1384) [PDF 535KB](642)
Researches on the main body of agricultural management are very limited in China, specific to the research and even fewer in Gansu. If we can correctly analysis and evaluate farm households as the major components of the main body of agricultural management, and grasp their characteristics, it is helpful for government to provide the references for formulation of agricultural economic development policies. This study describing the historic changes of the main body of agricultural management about farm households in Gansu; discussing and analyzing features and problems in the process of the historic changes of farm households. Finally, the corresponding countermeasures for the problems are suggested.
A study on leaf protein extraction and purification of white clover
2011, 5(11): 2052-2056.
[Abstract](1501) [PDF 392KB](662)
The leaf protein (LPC) of white clover (Trifolium repens) were extracted and purified by single factor experiment. Heat time, temperature, pH value, the sort of acid and the ration of fresh leaf to water as extracting factors were studied in extracting leaf protein. Methanol, ethanol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, water as extracting solutions were studied in purifying leaf protein. The results showed that the optimum time, temperature, pH value, acids and the ration of fresh leaf to water were 9 minutes, 90 ℃, 4.0, nitric acid, 1∶2, respectively. The result of orthogonal experiment showed that the sequence of the factors in affecting extraction ratio of the LPC was pH value, temperature, heat time and the ratio of fresh leaf to water. The optimum combination condition was pH value 4.0, temperature 90 ℃, heat time 9 min and the fresh leaf to water 1∶2. The result of the purification method showed that the sequence of the purifiers in affecting protein purification was methanol, ethanol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, water; and there were not significant differences (P0.05) among the factors.
A review on utilization of peanut vine and peanut shell in animal feeds
2011, 5(11): 2057-2060.
[Abstract](1428) [PDF 388KB](730)
As a major peanut (Arachis hypogaea) producer, peanut vine and shell are abundant byproducts produced in the process of peanut production in China. Efficient use of peanut vine and shell can not only increase the economic benefit of agricultural products but also help the sustainable development of animal husbandry. In this paper, the nutrition characteristics of peanut vine and shell; the pattern of mixture silage by peanut vine, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vine and corn (Zea mays) stalk as the sources of roughage; and application of peanut shell as dietary fiber, colorants and antioxidant source in animal feeds were reviewed. As references, this study can be offered to utilize the peanut resource rationally and effectively.
Current situation and development measures of herbage seed industry in Heilongjiang Province
2011, 5(11): 2061-2066.
[Abstract](1318) [PDF 446KB](646)
Forage seed source is one of the most important factors on improving degenerated rangeland, establishing artificial grassland and raising pastural animal production. The local pasture and stock breeding development was inhibited in Heilongjiang for long time due to the low level of forage seed production. According to investigation and consulting on relevant data in Heilongjiang, there are that more than 2 000 forage germplasm resources have been collected; 19 varieties have been officially recognized; 9 local standards of forage seed productions have been established in Heilongjiang Province so far. In addition, the seedbreeding development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) was especially studied; and the seed yield has been improved from 150 to 225 kg/ha. Although the annual seed yield in Heilongjiang is around 700 t, the existing forage seed production can hardly satisfy the requirement of pastural development. There are still many problems of forage seed production, i.e. imperfect laws and regulation, lack of good varieties, and low degree of mechanization, etc.