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The multiple linear regression model and multiple linear regression model were established using Kriging interpolation method and Statistic Analysis Software based on the climate data in 30 years from 50 meteorological stations in Qinghai Province. Grid cell value with 500 m 500 m of minimum temperature in January, April, July, October were calculated to produce a minimum temperature map of Qinghai Province. The effects of different interpolation methods were analyzed. Results showed that the multiple linear regression model and multidimensional quadratic trend surface model were better than the Kriging interpolation method in January, April and October; and Kriging interpolation method was better in July.
Gannan Prefecture was selected as research area to evaluate the classification accuracy of MODIS land cover product (MCD12Q1) by using visual interpretation result of TM image in 2004 as reference data. The results showed that: 1) Out of 4 types of MCD12Q1 product (IGBP, UMD, LAI/FPAR and PFT classification maps), the UMD classification map had the highest overall accuracy (61.03%), its producers accuracy of grassland classification reached 91.61%, and the users accuracy reached 61.53%. 2) The main source of error in 4 types of land cover classification maps was commission error of forest and omission error of grassland. The commission error of forest and the omission error of grassland for LAI/FPAR classification map was the highest (85.04% and 38.90% respectively). 3) Grassland area calculated from UMD classification maps in 2001 to 2005 was basically close to the local statistical result, which could reflect the dynamic change of temporal and spatial distribution and area of grassland in Gannan.
The safe and health of grassland ecosystem is very important for the sustainable development of animal husbandry. Based on the animal population data in the area of south slope of Guanshan and the climate data regarding to sunshine duration, temperature and precipitation in Qingshui and Zhangjiachuan Weather Stations in 1978 to 2008, the model of grassland pressure index was established to analyze the dynamic variation of animal population, grassland potential production and pressure index. The result showed that the annual animal population increase was 1.76104 sheep units; potential grassland production changed little and ecological pressure index increase was 0.2 since 1978. It indicated that the ecological pressure index increased greatly in the last 5 years and the animal population was over the capacity of the grassland. The main way for sustainable animal husbandry development was to control the animal population and expand the grassland area.
Surface soil of arable land in different reclamation duration in Qiongjie and Jiangzi of Tibet was sampled to study the dynamics of nitrogen and organic carbon. The results showed that the total nitrogen and soil organic carbon (SOC) content of the topsoil of the farmland decreased within the first two years and then increased in the following years, which presented roughly a Vshaped trend. Generally the ammonium nitrogen (NH4+N) showed same trend, but the nitrate nitrogen (NO3- N) had no significant variation with increasing of arable years. Ammonium nitrogen, total nitrogen and SOC in the surface soil of both regions showed a significant positive correlation (P0.01), but no significant correlation (P0.05) between nitrate nitrogen and SOC.
On the basis of understanding plants functional in golf course, 14 indicators which remarkably contribute to the golf course plant community were selected and the weight of each indicator was determined by using excellent sequence comparison. Taking Shunfeng Country Club in Beijing as an example, the value of comprehensive evaluation of each community was calculated and the evaluation result was obtained through the evaluation curves. The results showed that the average evaluation value of 10 samples was 80.70%, in which, plant disposition of B3 and C1, C3, C5 was Grade Ⅰ, and the rest 4 samples were Grade Ⅱ.
Based on the field survey from 2006 to 2008 and literature review, the invasive species in Liaoning Province were summarized in this paper. The result indicated that totally 117 invasive species were identified in Liaoning．Among the invasive species，89 species were plants，17 species were pests,10 species were pathogenic microbes. In which, 14 species were seriously harmful to environment and ecosystem．The spread of these invasive species were very fast and most of them were accidentally introduced to Liaoning. The ecosystem with simple structure was the main invading site such as crop land, pasture or planted forest, where the climate was warm and humid, and the biodiversity was rich.
Studied the origin and development of the golf course, golf turf management and use of history by various means such as field research and data collection. It is believed that golf originated in East Coast beach sand of Scotland. The development of golf course should include three phases: Links, heather plexus and the modern stage. Golf turf management also includes three stages: initial golf turf management, interim golf turf management and modern golf turf management.Golf turfs not only spread in various geographical environment all around the world, but also have become an industry and influencing human life. The process of human using golf turf is the historical development and generating process of golf turf.
The effects of paclobutrazol and uniconazole on the cold tolerance of Zamioculcas zamiifolia were studied through pot experiment. The results showed that two plant regulators could increase the width, thickness and weight of leaf. They could increase the soluble sugar content, promote the activity of antioxidant enzymes and increase the cellular reactive oxygen scavenging capacity. After being exposed to low temperature stress of 4 to 5 ℃ for 2 days, the differences were found between treated and untreated plants in terms of leaf membrane permeability and Fv/Fm (fluorescence variable/fluorescence maximum). Treated plants had significantly lower leaf membrane permeability and smaller variation of Fv/Fm. It was concluded that paclobutrazol and uniconazole could improve the cold tolerance of Z. zamiifolia.
The effect of water stress and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth of Zoysia japonica cv. Shanghai was studied to serve the turf management. The results showed that the turf quality was very good under the treatment of light water stress and middle nitrogen level, and its turf density and aboveground biomass were higher or close to the treatment of no water stress and middle nitrogen level, and were significantly higher than other treatments of light water stress and all treatments of heavy water stress (P0.05). The turfgrass height in the treatments of high nitrogen level were significantly higher than that of other treatments in same water stress level (P0.05). Under same water stress level, the leaf conductivity, proline content and soluble sugar content were increased with the increase of nitrogen application on 19th day of experiment, and decreased after 41st day of experiment. The MDA content was increased with the increase of water stress level. It could be concluded that the light water stress with middle level of nitrogen was helpful.
Photosynthetic rate (Pn),transpiration rate(Tr), stomatal conductance(Gs) and water use efficiency(WUE) of 5 tropical forage cultivars were measured by using LI6400 portable photosynthesis system in Guilin. The results were as follows:1) The Pn, Tr and Gs of the five cultivars were increased with the enhancement of the PAR, and the WUE of the 5 cultivars were firstly increased and then decreased as the PAR was gradually enhanced. Guimu No.1 (Pennisetum purpureum cv.Mott) (P. americanum P. purureum) reached the maximum WUE at 1 500 mol/（m2s） while the others at 600 mol/（m2s）. 2) The maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax) and the light saturation point (LSP) of 3 hybrid cultivars were significantly higher than that of the two Paspalum cultivars, and it was same for net Pn and Tr. It could be concluded that the tested 5 cultivars were well adapted to the local environment.
The results of investigation on wild gramineous plants in Karakorum Mountains of China showed that there are 18 genera, 79 species, 4 subspecies and 2 varieties. In which, around 45% to 49% are the dominants of the grassland; 97.7% of them are high quality forages and the most important food of domestic and wild animals; 22 species of Leymus and Elymus are the kindred of crops；14 species of Achnatherum, Phragmites, Calamagrostis and Leymus are the plant resource for windbreak and sand fixation; 26 species of Poa and Puccinellia are the plant resource for water and soil erosion control; 9 species of Poa, Festuca and Koeleria are the resource of cool season turfgrasses in high altitude area and northern area.
Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) was growed on Qinghai Plateau and the preliminary results indicated that the plant density showed a significant effect on plant height, stalk diameter and unit yield, but its effect on growth period and single plant yield were not significant. The highest yield was 101 448 kg/hm2 when plant density was 120 000 plants/hm2. The irrigation times did not significantly affect the growth period, plant height, stalk diameter, single plant yield and unit yield, which suggested that sweet sorghum had strong drought tolerance and drought resistance. Plastic film mulching showed significant positive effect on growth period, plant height and unit yield. The sugar content under plastic film mulching was 15.93% to 16.67% and increased by 29.19% to 47.98% compared with control. In field demonstration trial, the yield was 73 362 kg/hm2 (density was 90 000 plants/hm2) and the ratio of input and output was 1∶1.78. It could be concluded that sweet sorghum was satisfied as forage and silage in the research area.
Aimed to the situation of grassland degradation and lack of legume in alpine region, the adaptability of Onobrychis viciaefolia cv. Gansu was studied in the area with 3 050 m of altitude of Xiahe County, the alpine region of Gansu Province from 2004 to 2007 by measuring the growth periods, plant height，grass yield and overwintering rate. The results showed that the ripe seeds could be obtained, its grass yield and overwintering rate increased along with the growth time. It could be extended in alpine region as a high quality legume.
The relational grades of 5 hard branch cuttage treatments and 8 observing indicators of Salix oritrepha were conducted with relational grade analysis method. The results showed that the relational degrees among observing indicators of S.oritrepha cuttage with hard branch was survival rateroot lengthstem diameterheightnumber of first class branchfresh weight of aboveground biomassnumber of lateral root. The order of relational degree of 5 treatments was plastic mulchsimple plastic greenhousenursery bagseedling cupopen field. Root length, stem diameter and height were the main indicators for the survival rate and plastic mulch treatment was the proper method for rapid propagation in alpine area.
Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of N and K application on the forage yield and economic benefit of sudangrass under different site conditions on Datonghu Farm, Hubei in 2007 and 2008. The results showed that the fresh grass yield of the all treatments of N and K combined application increased 1.2 to 2.3 times over the treatment N0K0 when planted in field bund. In farmland, fresh grass yield of each treatment of N and K combined application was also significantly higher than that of the CK and the grass yield was increased by 0.84 to 2.20 times respectively, but the grasses yields were much lower than that under field bund condition. Under two site conditions, the treatment of N540K180 obtained highest grass yields as 82.1 t/hm2 and 57.0 t/hm2. The economic benefit analysis indicated that the combined application of N and K fertilizers increased income by 3 991 yuan/hm2 and 2 897 yuan/hm2 on average in field bund and farmland, and the net profit of N540K180 were the highest and achieved to 5 087 yuan/hm2 and 4 385 yuan/hm2 in field bund and farmland respectively.
The seed germination and seedling emergence of Aconitum gymnandrum in subalpine meadow of the eastern Tibetan Plateau and in abandoned farmland of Hexi Corridor were studied. The results showed that 1) The treatment of removing petals and staments for their parents delayed days of first seedling emergence, and the correspond offsprings seed germination rates, seedling emergence rates, leaf area, and seedling biomass were all significantly reduced except the emergence percent, Furthermore, these traits were obviously influenced by the interactions of family and removing treatment, suggesting large genetic variations and also indicating a great selective potential. 2) Parents had no effect on seeding characters before the reproductive stages, which suggested that maternal effects on seedling characters of juvenile stage for A. gymnandrum were different at different plant life stages.
The embryo of Zoysia japonica was used as explant to induce the embryogenic callus and then regenerate the plant. The result showed that the pretreatment method remarkably affect embryogenic callus induction and the ratio of embryogenic callus induction was 82.67% by removing hull, 30% NaOH soaking for 1 min, then rinsing 30 min with tap water. The basal MS media was supplemented with 3 mg/L of 2,4D and 0.1 mg/L of 6BA. The quality and quantity of embryogenic calli were obviously improved and increased respectively by 1 to 2 rounds reculture on the basal MS media supplemented with 2 mg/L of 2,4D and 6BA (0.2 and 0.5 mg/L). Embryogenic Calli were inoculated on the basal MS media supplemented with 1 mg/L of KT and 0.1 mg/L of NAA and the ratio reached 86%. The rooted plantlet clusters could be easily transplanted and the survival rate was 100%.
In order to achieve the genetic improvement of alfalfa and establish the high frequency and stable regeneration system, the hypocotyls of 4 alfalfa cultivars (Medicago varia cv. Gannong No.1, M. sativa cv. Ameristand, M. sativa cv. WL324 and M. sativa cv. Sanditi) were cultured on 4 basal medium (MS, UM, modified HS and modified UM) containing 2,4D, KT and casein acid hydrolysate respectively. And the effect of light on callus induction and somatic embryo formation was studied. The result indicated that light showed no influence on callus induction and the callus rate was 100%. Callus induced under the lightdark alternation showed higher browning rate but rapid growth and more active, and showed light green or alternation of yellow and green. Callus induced from Gannong No.1 showed the highest somatic embryo developing rate which ranged from 20.83% to 56.25%. And it was easier to form somatic embryo under the lightdark alternation. The different medium were used to induce somatic embryo, UM + 0.1 mg/L NAA + 0.5 mg/L KT was the optimum medium and the rate of somatic embryogenesis was 56.25%.
The range conditions of alpine Kobresia meadows under different degradation degrees (nondegraded, light degraded, moderate degraded and heavy degraded) were studied. The results showed that aboveground and underground biomass, height of vegetation community, depth of sod, area of bare ground, number of plant species and soil moisture had significant difference with the degraded alpine Kobresia meadow. The aboveground biomass and belowground biomass decreased by 43.2 and 10.1 g/m2 respectively in the heavy degradation stage, and the largest value of bare ground proportion was 65 m2 and the lowest soil moisture was 22.83%. The rodent burrow density showed a V pattern along with the degradation degrees. The dominant plant in community was changed from sedge and gramineous to forbs.
To study the interspecific association of plants is of significance in understanding the responses of plant species to habitat change and the mechanisms of vegetation succession. 68 plots in the midst of Taihang Mountain were sampled and 32 dominant species were selected according to the important value to study the interspecific associations and correlations by using 2 test for 22 contingency table and Spearmans rank correlation coefficient. The results showed that the overall associations among dominant species in community were positive, and the relationships among speciespairs were varied with environmental conditions in different types of community, reflecting a certain trend of community succession. The interspecific correlations among 496 speciespairs of the 32 dominant species showed that 75 speciespairs were distinctly significant positive association, 74 speciespairs were significant positive association, 20 speciespairs were negative association based on 2 test, however, they were 43, 79 and 6 respectively based on Spearmans rank correlation coefficient test. Species with positive association have similar biological characteristics and similar habitats. The calculated value by 2 test was higher than Spearman rank correlation test.
The seed germination rate, radical and plumule growth of Elymus sibiricus cv. Tongde and Puccinellia tenutiflora were observed under different concentrations of Na2CO3 solution (0,5,10,20,30,50,75 mmol/L) in lab. The results showed that as the concentration of Na2CO3 solution reached a certain value (50 mmol/L for E. sibiricus cv. Tongde and 20 mmol/L for P. tenutiflora), the seed germination rate was significant inhibited. The radical length negatively correlated with Na2CO3 concentration. Low concentration of Na2CO3 promoted the bud growth, while the high concentration had inhibitory effect but it was not significant. This suggested that the resistance of E. sibiricus cv. Tongde to Na2CO3 stress was stronger than P. tenutiflora.
The recent research work on heat tolerance of forage and turfgrass were reviewed in this paper in terms of the stability of cell membranes, self induction of heat shock proteins, water, nitrogen and endogenous hormones. The influence of hot stress on photosynthesis and respiration were discussed. The work on physiological responses of sugar metabolism, identification and characterization of genes associated with heat tolerance, differentially expressed protein under hot stress and heat stressinduced signal transduction was also discussed.
There are abundant species and a large number of rumen microbes in ruminant，these microbes, including bacteria，fungi and protozoa, play a crucial role for degradation of structural carbohydrate. The bacteria and fungi have stronger ability for degrading structural carbohydrate，they could loose the compact texture of structural carbohydrate by adhesion and penetration，and then degrade structural carbohydrate to monosaccharide by enzymes function. The monosaccharide could be utilized by ruminant through rumen microbes. Many factor, such as plant epidermis，physical and chemical characteristic of cell wall，composition of cell wall，rumen environment and other nutrients, could affect the degrading process.
Four milkreplacer diets (A, B, C and D), their digestible energy (MJ/kg) and crude protein (%) were 18.5 and 23.0, 20.0 and 25.0, 21.5 and 27.0, 23.0 and 29.0 respectively, were designed to study their feeding effects on earlyweaned lambs in alpine pastoral area. Thirty lambs (10 day old) were randomly divided into 5 groups including 4 test groups (A, B, C, D) and 1 control group (E). The lambs in Group E were raised with ewes milk. The trial period was 90 days. The results showed that the weight and the daily gain of Group E were higher than the test groups while the lamb age was 50 and 70 days. While the age was 90 days, the body weight of Group C and D was significantly higher than Group A (P0.05); Group E was higher than Group A, B, C (P0.05), but the difference between group D and E (P0.05) was not significant. Rumen index of Group E was significantly lower than Group B, C and D (P0.05), meanwhile, the kidney index and liver index were significantly lower than test groups (P0.05). It could be concluded that the milkreplacer contained 29.0% crude protein and 23.00 MJ/kg digestible energy was proper.
5-6th instar mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae and a singlefactor randomized design were used to study the effects of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and white clover (Trifolium repens) diet on growth performance and body compositions of Tenebrio molitor with two treatment groups (clover group fed with white clover hay and alfalfa group fed with alfalfa hay) and one control group (wheat bran group fed with wheat bran). The results showed that the dry matter intake of clover group was at the normal level, but that of alfalfa group was far lower than that of control group (about 1/4 of the control). The weight gains, nitrogen depositions, ether extract depositions of mealworm larvae among three groups were significantly different (P0.01) and the order was alfalfa group clover group control group. At the end of experiment, the differences of crude protein contents and ether extract contents of mealworm among three groups were significant (P0.01); the orders were alfalfa group clover group control group, alfalfa group clover group control group respectively; the energy value of mealworm among three groups were similar. As for mortalities and pupation rates, there was no significant difference between two treatment groups, but significantly lower (P0.01) than control group.
Inner Mongolia is located in temperate zone with rich grassland resources, diversified topography and geomorphology and daily temperature difference in summer. The summer vacation destination in grassland area is of great significance to the tourist industry development of Inner Mongolia and the protection of grassland resources. The advantages and disadvantages of traditional summer vacation destination in grassland area in Inner Mongolia were analyzed and the result indicated that the characteristics of the destinations were wide daily temperature difference in summer, dry air, wideopen spaces, suitable undulating terrain and broad vision. The existing problems were imbalance of regional economic development, lagging level of tourism development, small environmental carrying capacity of grassland and poor infrastructure. The objective of building summer vacation destination should be focused on the quality instead of quantity, creative subjects and distinctive tourism programs. Meanwhile, the strategies and suggestions in terms of input on facilities and grassland ecological environment protection were provided.
The profit analysis of ecological protection and construction projects was conducted with Tanggulashan Town in Geermu City of Qinghai Province as a sample. The result indicated that the input for each household was 308,370 RMB on average since 2004, and 76,090 RMB per capita. The input for grassland was 15.61 RMB/hm2. The livelihood and animal production conditions were significantly improved. The development of economy, ecology and society was greatly enhanced. The problems existed in project implementation were analyzed and the suggestions were offered as well.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), as a high quality legume forage in animal husbandry, is widely cultivated in the world. Based on the investigation on alfalfa growing and demand in Guizhou and the situation of shortage of arable land resources, severe rocky desertification, and the midlong term development goals of grassland ecological animal husbandry and the objective requirements of developing grainsaving animal husbandry, the necessity and feasibility of alfalfa industry were discussed and the key points for alfalfa industry, such as alfalfa germplasm identification, new variety breeding, highyield cultivation technology and processing technology were provided in order to support the development of ecological animal husbandry in Guizhou.