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Currently, the main measures to rehabilitate rock desertification were forestation, enclosure, watershed based comprehensive control and grazing forbidden. But all these measures failed to control the expansion of rock desertification because of the expansion of slope land for cultivation.Therefore,the key in controlling rock desertification are reducing cultivation on slope land,growing grass in slope land, intergration of agriculture,forestry and livestock husbandry,and perfecting agroecosystem.
The restoration process of the grassland was studied through observing the grassland under enclosure and grazing conditions. The results showed that enclosure to prevent grazing have the obvious effects on vegetation coverage, biomass and net productivity. And the coverage and biomass increased as the time elongating. Moreover，the species diversity of the grassland increased at the early period of enclosure, but the species diversity and the richness decreased as the enclosure time elongating. Long time enclosure could not help to improve the species diversity of the grassland.
Due to the global climate change and improper utilization, the grassland degradation is threatening the grassland ecosystem health in Qinghai Province. The classification management for grassland proposes a new approach of solving the contradiction between grassland protection and utilization in order to control the grassland degradation and achieve the sustainable utilization of grassland resources. Based on the estimation and analysis of ecological and economic benefits of grassland, the index of benefit difference index (BDI) was provided to divide the management regions and the grassland was grouped into conservation region and production region. In which, the grassland areas for conservation and production were 2.841 44107 hm2(46.27% of total grassland area) and 3.299 04107 hm2(53.73% of total grassland area) respectively.
The vegetation and soil nutrition characteristics of flow sandy land semifixed sandy land, fixed sandy land, and planted Astragalus adsurgens and Hedysarum laeve communities in Kubuqi Desert were studied. The results showed that the soil nutrient contents correlated with the vegetation coverage and the general trend was that the soil nutrient content of high coverage vegetation was high. Among the natural vegetations, the content order of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and soil protease, urease, invertase levels was fixed sandy land semifixed sandy land flow sandy land. The soil nutrient content of planted vegetation was higher than the natural vegetation. In which, the contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, total phosphorus were 44.4%, 13.0%, 29.5% and 22.7% higher. The contents of soil protease, urease, polyphenol oxidase and invertase activity were 23.41%, 37.10%, 7.96% and 47.41% higher. Within community, the annual and biennial plants accounted for 44% to 63%, perennial species 25% to 43%, shrub and subshrub 8% to 18%. The diversity order was semifixed sandy landfixed sandy landflow sandy land. As for biomass, the order was H. leaveA. adsurgensfixed sandy landsemifixed sandy landflow sandy land.
The spatial distribution of 4 different kinds of Rumex nepalensis cover community in Sewalongba Valley, an important alpine summer rangeland in Dimaluo village, Gongshan County，northwest Yunnan Province, were investigated with the point quatrats in September 2009; their community diversity and species diversity were analyzed by Shannons Diversity Index (H) and Equitability (evenness) (EH). The research found that there were 25 species within the study plots. The cover of Rumex was positively correlated with Carex inanis and Potentilla leuconota, whereas it was negative correlated with Galium aparine var. echinospermu Cufodontis and Oenanthe sinense. The moderate and moderate high Rumex areas had the highest species richness and diversity and high species evenness, followed by the high Rumex areas. The lowest species richness and diversity was in the low Rumex sites, but it had the highest total species density. These results indicated that the effect of Rumex on plant species diversity is not quite so clear, and the main reasons for the rangeland plant diversity losses are the grazing intensity and frequency.
Alpine Kobresia humilis meadows are the main vegetation types on Tibetan Plateau, theirs strong ecosystem stability can play a role in maintaining the plateau ecosystem service functions. The alpine K.humilis meadow stability，including its stability maintain mechanism，loss processes and rehabilitating ways were reviewed in order to provide the theoretical basis of sustainable utilization and recovery methods to the degraded grassland of alpine K.humilis meadow on Tibetan Plateau.
Soil seed bank and its relationship with aboveground vegetation of black soil type degraded grassland and two sowing grasslands, single seed and mixed seeds treatments were studied. The result showed that the soil seed bank is composed by 22 species in sowing grasslands and CK. Single seed grassland, mixed seeds grassland and black soil type degraded grassland are composed by 13, 12 and 21 species respectively. Perennial weeds proportion of total number of species was 61.5%, 50% and 61.9%. The size of soil seed bank of each experiment treatment is small. The seeds number of single seed grassland, mixed seeds grassland and black soil type degraded grassland is （4 142.81 547.6）、（5 057.8943.3） and （1 591.5876.9） seeds/m2 respectively. The similarity of species between soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation of black soil type degraded grassland is high. But it is low of each treatment. And the similarity is high between two treatments.
As a main linkage between material cycle and energy flow in ecosystem, the litter decomposition plays a very important role in soil organic matter formation and nutrient release rate. The research progress on litter decomposition in domestic and overseas were reviewed, and combining with its research trends in three different types of terrestrial ecosystems (forest, grassland and desert), the process of litter decomposition and its affecting effect were described, and the main factors which affect litter decomposition rate from different aspects including physical and chemical properties of litter, CO2 concentration, climatic factors and soil properties were analyzed as well. It could be concluded that the long term and fixed onsite research and the establishment of decomposition model would be the research hot pots in the future.
The spatial and temporal variation of NDVI in the watershed of Nujiang River in Tibetan Autonomous Region was studied by using each ten day period maximization NDVI data set (S10) product from December 1998 to November 2008. The result indicated that vegetation was good and little change occurred. With the data of monthly mean temperature, precipitation and sunshine from December 1998 to November 2008 at 9 meteorological stations in this region, the relation between NDVI and the climate factors was studied and it was found that the temperature in April might influence the regreening in terms of accumulated temperature, and the temperature in May, June and July affected the grass growth.
The advantage and disadvantage of satellites data, such as advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR), multispectral scanner (MSS), thematic mapper (TM), moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR), advanced microwave scanning radiometer (AMSR/AMSRE), synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and FY series sensor, which are frequently used to snow monitoring, are summarized. On the basis of it, the development of snow monitoring by using optical remote sensing, snow depth monitors and snow cover classification decision tree, were systematically studied. Some problems existing in snow monitoring, future development trend and research priorities were discussed, which will provide the scientific base for the further research on snow monitoring in pastoral area.
The density, texture, colour, persistence, coverage, disease resistance, heat hardiness and recuperative potential of 57 cool season turfgrass varieties of Festuca arundinacea, F. aubra, F. Ovina var. durivscula, Poa pratensis and Lolium perenne were measured and their performance and ecological adaptability in Beijing region were evaluated as well. The result showed that the ecological adaptability of L. perenne was the best, F. arundinacea ranked the second, F. aubra and F. ovina var. durivscula was the last. The performance and the ecological adaptability of Protegeglr and Laquinta from L. perenne was the best, Qiudao was the last; while for F. arundinacea, Rhamldersrp, Traversersrp and Hanma were the best and Hongbaoshi was the poorest, and Qiushiyangmao from F. aubra and Ecostar from F. ovina var. durivscula ranked the first. For P. pratensis, Rush was the first and Camask was the last. It could be concluded that L. perenne was proper for preseeding and overseeding, F. arundinacea for playfield and P. pratensis for park lawn.
The blooming and seed setting characteristics of Desmodium tiflourum in the whole growing period were studied. The result indicated that D. tiflourum could blooming in entire year and had two significant blooming stages. The first lasted 75 to 80 days from April to June and the second was from September to October which lasted 62 to 65 days; Pollen viability in the first and second blooming stages were 72.34% and 87.23%, and the first was significantly lower than the second. Pollen fertility in the first and second stages was 92.60% and 93.72%. The number of pollen falling on the stigma in the first and second stages was 5.86 and 5.77, and no significant difference was found. The duration of a pod getting maturated was 28 to 31 days, the bearing phrase lasted from May to November and the peak stage of the seed setting was from October to November. The optimal soil type that suitable for D. tiflourum was laterite, and the seed setting rate and pod setting number were the highest.
In order to provide the guidance for mung bean (Vigna radiata) cultivation in alkaline soil, the seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean under simulated alkaline stress was studied. The results showed that the alkaline tolerance of mung bean was strong. With the increasing of pH value (pH 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, 12.0), the seed germination rate was not significantly affected. However, with the increasing of pH value, the seed germination index and vigor index reduced. The taproot length, lateral root number, plant height and other morphological indicators of seedlings were reduced, and the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble sugar in seedling leaves increased.
The effects of sowing date and nitrogen fertilizer on the seed yield and its components of 4 oat cultivars was studied. The results showed that the effect was significant. The effective tiller number, seed number per panicle and thousand grain weight were higher while sowed at late April than mid April and early May. The nitrogen fertilizer showed the same pattern and the difference among nitrogen fertilizer treatments was significant. Applying nitrogen fertilizer at separate time showed better effect under the same application rate. Covered oats had higher seed yield than naked oats.
A fertilization experiment with orthogonal design was used to study the effects of different fertilization treatments on the canopy expansion of Melastoma dodecandrum in early growth stage. The results showed that the difference of canopy expansion of individual plant among treatments were significant, but not for the leaf area index. In mellow red clay soil with moderate fertility, the best fertilization rates of N, P2O5, K2O were 5.412 g/plant, 3.513 g/plant and 2.451 g/plant within the first 3 months after the transplanted seedlings turned to green. And the canopy cover area of individual plant increase by 5.66 to 5.91 times within 80 days.
In order to extend the cultivating area of Lavandula sp. in Northwest China, seeds of the perfume plant were introduced to Dingxi district of Gansu province from Beijing Botanical Garden, and its adaptabilities were studied from 2008 to 2009. The results showed that Lavandula sp. had a lower germination rate （19.2%） and a higher survival rate （97.4%）. Height was 13.5 cm and 44.1 cm in the first and second year, respectively, and all plants flowered in the second year. Therefore, this is a rapid growth, early flowering and early bearing seed plant in Dingxi. Survival rates of 2monthseedlings and 1yearold plants were 83.3% and 99.8% after transplantation. The seedlings can safely overwinter through the winter of the planting year, and tolerate to the drought for more than one month. Thereby, the plant has strong resistance to cold and drought. This study implies that Lavandula sp. adapts to Dingxis climate and soil condition, so there is a potential to introduce and culture in some area with irrigation system. However, large scale cultivation in the area needs some further study.
Ligularia virgaurea is a wellknown poisonous weed in the alpine meadows of the eastern QinghaiTibet plateau. The effect of temperature on seed germination under darkness conditions in a laboratory experiment and the effects of family, seed position and burial depth on seed emergence in pot experiments were studied. The results showed that the effect of temperature on germination percentage was significant and the germination rate decreased with the temperature rising. It was 87.33% while temperature was 18/28 ℃ and 95.33% while the temperature was 5/15 ℃. The emergence percentage was the highest (61.66%) while the burial depth was 0 cm. And it tended lower while the burial depth was 3 cm and was 0 while the burial depth was 5 cm.
The contents of moisture，ash，crude protein，watersoluble sugar，ether extract，calcium，phosphorus，crude fiber，neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber in leaf，seed and stem of 36 varieties of forage oats were studied in alpine meadow area of Tianzhu County. The results showed that the content of moisture, ash, crude protein，soluble sugar and calcium in leaf were 6.36%，9.28%，19.82%，13.71% and 0.25% respectively, which were significantly（P0.05）higher than seed and stem. The ether extract and phosphorus contents in seed were 4.48% and 0.25% respectively, which significantly (P0.05) higher than that in leaf and stem. The crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber contents in stems were 35.62%，65.18% and 56.40% respectively, which were significantly（P0.05）higher than that of leaf and seed. It could be concluded that the order of nutrition value of different parts were leaf seed stem.
The effect of foliar application of PASP with different application rates on the yield and biological characteristics of alfalfa was studied and the result indicated that the PASP application could remarkably increase the hay yield of alfalfa at a proper application rate (P0.05), and the best was 20 mg/L, the hay yield were 14 424.03 kg/hm2 which was 13.68% more than CK. The biological characteristics of alfalfa were also influenced by the treatments. The height, leaf area and internode number reached the maximum at 20 mg/L. The stem diameter and shoot number reached the highest at rates of 40 mg/L and 60 mg/L respectively.
Jingtai, Jingyuan and Huining counties are located in the middle part of Gansu Province, which is the transitional region between Tenggeli Desert and Loess Plateau with transitional climate between arid and semiarid. Based on the meteorologica1 data from meteorological stations of Jingtai，Jingyuan and Huining from 1960 to 2008, the climate features and climate productivity potential were studied. The result indicated that the turning point of climate change was around 1980. The climate productivity potential in Huining was the highest, and followed by Jingyuan and Jingtai. The estimated values were 1 898,1 738 and 1 531 g/（m2a） respectively. Since 1960, the climate change in 3 counties varied and was not significant.
The relationship between grass and livestock is the key issue of grazing ecology. Salsola passerine, the typical desert rangeland plant in Alashan, was selected to study its response to grazing under different simulated grazing intensities in order to provide proper management suggestions. The results showed that the population density of S. passerina was increased under light, moderate and heavy grazing conditions. The canopy cover area did not significantly vary among treatments. The plant height was the highest under moderate grazing condition, which was followed by light grazing and heavy grazing. The biomass was significantly impacted by treatments, and it was increased under light and moderate grazing but was decreased under heavy grazing. Compensation growth was obvious in autumn. The moderate grazing in spring was propitious to better compensatory growth and the compensatory growth was not obvious in summer. So, the moderate grazing was proper for the recover and health of S. passerina rangeland and this type of rangeland possesses excellent resistance to grazing especially in autumn.
The feeding effects of the milk replacer with different materials and formulas in earlyweaned lambs were studied. Twentyfive 30 day lambs (Gansu Alpine Fine Wool Sheep) were divided into 5 groups and 5 in each group, the lambs in control group were breastfed and grazed with the ewes; the lambs in treatment group were weaned at 30 day age and fed with 4 different milk replacers (Group A: popped main diet materials; Group B: unpopped main diet materials; Group C: popped main diet materials with spraydried porcine plasma (SDPP); Group D: with whey powder on the basis of C). The trial period was from 30 to 90 days age. The results showed that the body weights of the control group were maximum at 50 and 70 day age. The lambs in treatment group were affected by weaning stress. The body weight of group D was significantly higher than the group B and C (P0.05) and more than the control group at 90 day age. The daily weight gains of group D were maximum and significantly higher than the group B and C (P0.05) during 30 to 90 day age. The spleen weight in control group was significantly higher than 4 treatment groups (P0.05), spleen index was maximum. In a conclusion, the milk replacer with SDPP and whey powder was positive to health, and further, body weight gains for earlyweaned lambs.
Traditional ingredients and modern technologies were combined to make the sausage with alfalfa flavor by using the alfalfa as vegetable raw materials. Soybean protein, alfalfa juice and modified starch were selected as three factors for Response Surface Methodology design to optimize the ratio of soybean protein, alfalfa juice and starch. The result show that the color, taste, slice ability and sensory value decline obviously with addition of alfalfa juice. Production rate ranged from 120.9% to 140.1% and it was significantly decreased by the interaction effects of soybean protein and modified starch. The best ratio of soybean protein, alfalfa juice and starch was 8% alfalfa juice, 4.2% soybean protein and 2% modified starch.
The insecticidal activities of Corydalis adunca extracts against Mythimna separate were studied through immersion and sandwich methods. The results showed that the contact effect of methanol extract against the larvae was the strongest and the corrected mortality was 15.5%. Contact effect of chloroform fraction from the methanol extract against the larvae was the strongest, its corrected mortality was 87.5%, the median lethal concentration (LD50) was 13.07 g/L. The chloroform fraction had very strong development inhibition and stomach poisoning effects, development inhibition rate and corrected mortality were 88.66% and 91.38% respectively.
Hay is one of the important roughages for ruminants, and the high quality hay plays an important role on improving ruminant productivity. In resent years, the technologies regarding hay making methods and storage have drawn the attention over the world. The hay making technique mainly includes the mechanical and chemical treatments, the former is to squish the grass stem by mechanical power and the later is to break down cutin on epidermis of stem and leaf. Both of the treatments are to accelerate moisture dissipate and shorten the drying time and decrease the nutrients loss during hay making. Hay storage technique is to prevent deleterious decay with chemical or biologic treatments and improve the hay quality.
Alfalfa silage technology has became a hotspot in alfalfa research and the improvement and standardization of quality evaluating index system and measuring methods for alfalfa silage directly affected the alfalfa silage quality, so it was urgently necessary to establish the suitable evaluating standards for alfalfa silage. The current standards for alfalfa silage are from those for common silage and they are not suitable for alfalfa silage because of the its specific features and newly developed measuring methods. By analyzing the different evaluating standards and measuring methods, VScore and Kaiser were suitable for alfalfa silage, but the evaluating index was not enough, the indices including pH value, ammonium nitrogen and lactic acid should be covered in order to improve the evaluation. The ammonium nitrogen could be assayed by spectrophotometer and for organic acid, methods of HPLC and Ion Chromatograph are better.
Prataculture is a multiple ecosystem which has ecological function，productive function and livelihood function. Its development is a thematic issue involving politics，economy and society which are concerning the state ecological safety, borderland stability, ethnic unity, herders livelihood and pastoral development. Pratacultural science of China has formed a rudiment on the industrial foundation and subject system by several decades' development. It is playing an important role in the ecological construction and economic development of China. Therefore，prataculture should be solely schematized into the national economic development plan from the national requirement of strategy development. This could strengthen the grassland subject construction and promote the development of grass seeds production, animal husbandry, grass and livestock product process and turf industry. Pratacultural will become a mainstay industry to maintain ecological safety, ensure food safety and promote social harmonious development.
Nine kinds of leguminous forages, including Tephrosia candida, Semen dolichoris, Chamaecrista rotundifolia、Alysicarpus vaginalis、Pueraria lobata、Stylosanthes dolichoris、Macroptilium lathyroides、Wedelia chinensis、Lotononis bainesii, were intercropped in mango，longan and litchi orchards and the growth speed, fresh yield, stem to leaf ratio, dry matter ratio and nutrient content of the legumes were measured. The results showed 5 legumes including W.chinensis，T.candida，S.dolichoris, M.lathyroides and L.bainesii performed good shading tolerance, regeneration, palatability and high crude protein content, and they also could promote the growth of fruit trees by inhibiting weed growth and increase the soil fertility. Therefore, they should be further extended in this area.
The growth performance of Elymus sibiricus cv. Chuancao No.2, E. nutants cv. Gannan, Agropyron cristatum and E. breviaristatus cv. Tongde were observed in Tiebujia, Qinghai Province. The results showed that 4 species could normally growth and E. breviaristatus cv. Tongde was the best in fresh grass yield, hay yield and seed yield (1 558.75 g/m2, 540.75 g/m2 and 74.79 g/m2), which was followed by E. sibiricus cv. Chuancao No. 2 (1 453.33，508.71，67.96 g/m2) and E. nutants cv. Gannan (1 439.58, 503.67, 67.92 g/m2). All of them were excellent for the research area.
The benefit and importance of growing grasses with arable land, such as high photosynthesis efficiency, long production chain, valueadded product, satisfying ecological effect, low feeding cost, were introduced in order to enhance the prataculture development. In consideration of poor realization, small scale and poor supporting system in grass growing sector, the strategies were provided in this paper, such as proper organization and coordination, scientific planning, research work for sustainable development, supporting from policy. So the grass growing could be enhanced for promoting the animal husbandry development.