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The patterns of water hyacinth absorbing 4 heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg) in different water areas were studied and the tested water hyacinth and water samples were collected from 8 different water areas in Zhejiang Province through atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The results showed that the contents of heavy metals in water and water hyacinth were high in the seriously polluted water areas. The contents of Pb and Cd in water samples were significantly higher than those of Cr and Hg (P0.05). The contents of heavy metals in roots were generally higher than in those in stem and leaf of water hyacinth. Cd content was significantly lower than Cr in stem and leaf (P0.05) and it was similar in root but the difference was not significant (P0.05). Under the lab conditions, the contents of Pb and Cd in root, stem and leaf showed an increasing trend with the increase of heavy metal contents in water.
Festuca arundinacea cv.Barlexas was used to study the physiological and biochemical characteristics of different positions of leaf during overwintering stage. The results showed that the contents of chlorophyll, soluble protein, AsA, total N and K, and activity of antioxidative enzyme in upper part of leaf were significantly lower than other parts, but the contents of GSH and MDA were higher. During the overwintering stage, soluble protein, total N and K contents in different leaf positions had no obvious variation, while the chlorophyll and total P contents decreased at the beginning and then increased. However, the activities of SOD and POD and content of MDA showed an opposite pattern.
The influences of different temperatures, pH and humidities on the germination characteristics of Euphorbia humifusa were studied. The results showed that different temperatures, pH and humidities had significant influences on the germination characteristics of E. humifusa. The germination rate and index of E. humifusa seed performed best under 30 ℃ with 52% and 22.6, respectively; The best pH value was 7, under which the germination rate and germination index were 48% and 23.79, respectively. When the humidity was 90%, the E. humifusa seed germination rate and germination index were 55% and 23.02, respectively.
The color analysis software WinCAM was used to measure the turf coverage by analyzing the digital image with quadrate method and the measured coverage data were compared to those by needling method on campus of Lanzhou University from April 20 to May 15, 2009. The result indicated that 1) the estimated coverage data by WinCAM could well fitted to the actual data while the turf coverage ranged less than 10% and more than 90%. However, the estimated data were poor while the turf coverage ranged from 10% to 90%. 2) The estimated coverage varied depending on the turf types and environmental background while the measurement was conducted at same site. 3) The functional relationship between actual and estimated coverage data could be described with y=0.0135 8x+0.733 9 (while the coverage was below 20%) or Taylor series y=0.052 68+0.673 8x+0.845 19x2-32.166x3+234.270x4-786.769 7x5+1 437.828x6-1 464.822x7+775.926 7x8 -164.943x9 (while the coverage was over 20%).
The correlation between plant functional groups and Loxostege sticticalis population was analyzed in Xilinguole degraded grassland by field investigation and statistical analysis.The results showed that there was a positive correlation between meadow moth larvaes and relative coverage（r=0.92，P0.05）, relative density（r=0.69，P0.05）and relative biomass of annual forbs（r=0.94，P0.05）; There was a positive correlation between meadow moth adults and relative coverage（r=0.60，P0.05）, relative density（r=0.69，P0.05）and relative biomass of annual forbs（r=0.49，P0.05）;There was a negative correlation between meadow moth population density and community characteristics values of perennial grasses, perennial shrubs and subshrubs and perennial forbs.
The grassland monitoring data on North Slope of Qilian Mountains were used to analyze the grassland resources and their deterioration situation. The results showed that the total grassland area, usable grassland area, deteriorated grassland and the fresh grass yield were 4.33 106 hm2, 3.91106 hm2, 3.32106 hm2 and 5.651109 kg in 2008 respectively. The areas of desertification grassland, pest damaged grassland, rodent damaged grassland, poisonous grasses//weeds type grassland and salinized grassland were 2.722105 hm2, 5.838105 hm2, 4.93105 hm2, 4.25105 hm2 and 5.67104 hm2 respectively. Accordingly, the proportions of the different deteriorated grassland area to the total grassland area in research region were 6.29%, 13.55%, 11.44%, 9.86%, and 1.32%.
The grassland animal husbandry is the tie point between economic development and ecological environment protection in karst area. The natural conditions for developing grassland animal husbandry in karst areas of southern China are quite good, and achievements and experiences have been got. Through grass growing, pasture improvement and fencing, the vegetation coverage was increased, and the water and soil erosion and rocky desertification were under control. A series of techniques for grassland establishment was summarized extended in Weining County, Dejiang County, Qinlong County of Guizhou Province.
The lowmaintenance turfgrasses, including fescue grass (Festuca), buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides), crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa), and their characteristics of establishment and maintenance were introduced in order to provide necessary information. Besides, the research work involving germplasm collection and evaluation of turfgrasses (Erenochloa ophiuroides, Axonopus compressu and Chrysopogon aciculatus) in China was discussed as well. Future studies should focus on the establishment of the perennial mixed or overseeded lowmaintenance turf, application of endophyte, solution of summer decline of crested wheatgrass and billbug damage to tufted hairgrass. The concept of lowmaintenance should be expanded in order to develop a new view for medium and high maintenance of turf.
An excellent athletic field is essential for many highlevel sports matches and the quality of turf is relative to the safety of players and the quality of the matches, therefore, how to improve the quality of turf in the athletic field is a very significant concern. To a great extent, the quality of a turf lies on the stability of the turfbed. Currently, strengthening technologies of turfbed in the sports field were rare in China, while those were plenty at aboard. The strengthening technologies of turfbed included mixed seeding, application the strengthening materials to soil, and combination artificial turf with natural turf together, and combination artificial turf with natural turf together is the best one. The effectiveness of mixture artificial turf with natural turf on strengthening turfbed was summarized and some strengthening technologies were introduced in this study.
Study on seed yield and its components of Sophora alopecuroides under two water regimes was conducted and the results showed that the seed yield of S. alopecuroides was very high and reached 1 806 kg/hm2. Water was the major factor controlling seed yield which by reducing reproductive branch differentiation and retarding its growth. Also, there was a strong competition between vegetative growth and reproductive growth under drought habitat, but this competition decreased while water was sufficient. The research results obtained in this study might be practically used in controlling the population spreading and threaten of S. alopecuroides to grassland.
Number and temporal distribution of seed of Chamaecrista spp and their seed yields were investigated in Fujian central subtropical area in 2006-2007.Results showed that seed yields of 34 accessions of Chamaecrista spp. were 7.05120.56 g/m2, and the weight of 1 000 seeds was 2.635.89 g, and annual seed number was 1 52721 553 seeds/m2, and seeds could be harvested from August to January. With the increase of latitude of seeds source region, seed yields reduced obviously. Based on data of seed yields, 34 accessions of Chamaecrista spp. could be classified into 3 clusters by Kmeans cluster analyze method: 2 accessions were found belonging to high seed yield type, 5 accessions belonging to middle seed yield type, and 27 accessions (including Wynn、CPI86134、ATF2217 )belonging to low seed yield type. Based on data of temporal distribution of seeds, 34 accessions cloud be classified into 4 maturity types: 11 accessions were early mature type, 5 accessions were middle mature type, 16 accessions were middlelater mature transitional type, and 2 accessions were later mature type. Its recommended that accessions of Chamaecrista spp. could be classified into 3 types (high seed yield type, middle seed yield type and low seed yield type), and 3 types could be identified with brief classification standard of annual seed yield over 80 g/m2, 4580 g/m2, and below 45 g/m2, respectively, in Fujian central subtropical area.
Two years of field experiment were carried out to study the 12 introduced forage triticale (Triticum secale) varieties in Heilonggang region, the forage yield, grain yield, natural height, the ratio of stem / leaf, the ratio of fresh / dry, lodging resistance and seed setting were investigated and analyzed. The results showed that NTH1048 and NTH1877 had more aboveground biomass but lower grain yield, therefore, they were suitable for cultivation as forage triticale; NTH2597 and NTH2179 had more dry yield and grain yield, so they were suitable for drying hay and cultivation as grainforage triticale, and the goal of anniversary production could be achieved through use of winter fallow land.
The effects of sowing date and nitrogen application on the height, tillering number, fresh and dry matter yield of oats were studied in alpine region. The results showed that with the prolonging of sowing date, days to maturity was postponed, but the effect of nitrogen fertilizer was not significant; sowing date and nitrogen application had significant effects on height, tillering number and fresh and dry matter yield, and increased with the increasing nitrogen application rate. It was suitable to sow in late April to early May and harvest at flowering stage for higher grass yield under 100 kg/hm2 of nitrogen application rate.
Four kinds of plant growth agents (Penshibao, Sanxiaolvyeshen, KH2PO4 and GGR6) were sprayed on the leaves of Poa crymophila cv. Qinghai and Festuca sinensis cv. Qinghai respectively to study the effect on seed yield. The results indicated that 4 plant growth agents could increase the yield of the fresh grass, seed and underground biomass and the effect of KH2PO4 was the best. and it could be concluded that 4 agents could be extended for grass production.
Plant expression vectors on which the maize bZIP transcriptional factor ABP9 was under the control of either a constitutive promoter Ubi/35S or an ABA responsive promoter were constructed and transformed into ryegrass and tall fescue via Agrobacterium mediated transformation or particle bombardiment, and the resulting regenerated plants were analyzed by PCR, Southern and Northern blotting for integration and expression of ABP9 and tested for resistance under drought or high salinity conditions. The results showed that transgenic ryegrass and tall fescue plants expressing ABP9 with enhanced stress tolerance have been obtained.
Six SSR markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity of 9 different aphidresistant alfalfa varieties/lines. The loci of 69 were detected, 63 loci of which was polymorphism. The rate of polymorphism was 91.3%, the average number of allele was 1.913 0, the average number of effective allele was 1.482 2, the average index of genetic diversity was 0.293 4 and the genetic distance ranged from 0.156 6 to 0.623 2. The results of clustering analysis showed that M8 was more close to HA-3 and their similarity coefficient was the highest (0.855 0). The similarity coefficient between S7 and X2 was the lowest (0.536 2). In addition, the similarity coefficient between high aphidresistant variety (HA-3) and low aphidresistant variety (Hunter River) was 0.739 1, which suggested that their genetic background was remarkably different.
Achnatherum inebrians, an intoxicating grass growing at native grassland in Northwestern China, companioning with Stipa capillata and Poa sphondylodes were selected is to study the allelopathy effect of A. inebrians on two recipient plants by bioassay. The results indicated that the water extraction of the endophyte infected (E+) A. inebrians displayed the significant inhibiting effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of two recipient plants (P0.05), and the inhibiting effects became greater with the increasing of the concentration. The water extraction of the endophyte free (E-) A. inebrians had no significant effects on the seed germination (P0.05), the concentration of 0.20 g/mL showed the inhibiting effects on the seedling growth (P0.05). In summary, the water extraction of endophyte infected (E+) A. inebrians had significant antagonism on S. capillata and P. sphondylodes, and in contrast, the endophyte free (E-) A. inebrians had no significant effects on the other two grasses.
The responses of pea seedlings to salt stress (NaCl solutions) were studied at the morphological, physiological and biochemical levels. The results showed that the changes of plant height and root length were significantly related to salt stress. As the salt concentration increased, the plant height and root length slowly declined, and the root moisture content decreased significantly. Chlorophyll content in leaf under different treatments significantly decreased with the treating time. Proline content positively correlated to salt concentration, but did not relate to the treating time. Soluble sugar content increased along with the salt concentration, it began to decline after the peak on 10th day. SOD content increased along with the salt concentration and treating time as well, it reached the maximum on 10th day. POD activity increased with the salt concentration and treating time and its content increased steadily.
The light plays important roles in plants growth and development. Plants have an extremely elaborate photoreceptor system. Plant photoreceptors, as the protein receiving light, regulate many plant mechanisms such as molecular, cellular and developmental response. There are at least 5 types of light receptors including phytochrome, cryptochrome, phototropin, zeitlupes and UVB receptors. The light receptors of construction, physical and chemical properties, biological functions, signal transduction and the research progress of molecular biology were reviewed and the functions of light receptors and signal transduction in plant development and their molecular mechanisms were discussed in this paper
Soil nitrogen is one of the mineral elements which can be absorbed by plant roots and is important for plant development. Therefore，the study of plant root N uptake becomes an important issue in predicting the structure and function of ecosystem. There are two types of N in the soil: inorganic N and organic N; the inorganic N which could be utilized was nitrate and ammonium, while the organic N mainly refers to amino acid. Present research summarized the mechanism of N absorbing and regulating by plant root, and future prospects on this research were put forward.
It is very important to select and breed local high quality forages and application for ecological animal husbandry development and rocky desertification control in Guizhou. The achievements in the last 30 years were summarized in this paper. The result indicated that over 10 forage species (including 100 germplasm materials) were introduced. Over 1000 local wild germplasms were collected and identified. In the last 15 years, 9 new forage varieties were bred through introduction, domestication and screening, and these had made a certain contribution to the promotion of animal husbandry in Guizhou. The main problems and future research work were discussed as well.
Chicory (Cichorium intybus), a perennial plant, is an important forage from Compositae with satisfying palatability, high yield, high protein content, strong adaptability to cold, heat and drought. It could be intercropped with cereal crops to resolve the competition in farmland shortage problem. In recent years, chicory has been widely grown in alpine areas in China. The research progress on genetic diversity, morphology, cytology, molecular, transgenic breeding were reviewed. And the suggestions for further research work were provided as well.
Alfalfa shoots have multiple bioactive phytochemicals and unidentified growth factors, and the secondary metabolites of alfalfa shoots have many bioactive phytochemicals. The many bioactive components, including leaf protein, saponin, flavonoid, polysaccharide, and dietary fiber, of alfalfa shoots were summarized in this paper. After discussion on effectiveness of these bioactive components shoots on livestock production, this study proposed that the bioactive phytochemicals of alfalfa shoots played an important role in the development of animal husbandry healthily.
Methane is one of the main green house gases which can make the climate warming. The terrestrial plants have the ability in releasing the methane in the recent years, these researches are the challenge to the present theories which the terrestrial plants are the channel connecting the soil and atmosphere in releasing methane. This mechanism of theory is unknown and questioned. The effect of terrestrial plant on the methane cycle in the atmosphere, including comparison in different theories, the contribution in methane cycle in atmosphere by terrestrial plant in the future was discussed in order to provide the theories to evaluate the effect and the potential of terrestrial plant in the methane cycle.
The caloric value of forages and common crop straws in Tibetan Autonomous Region were studied. The results showed that the gross caloric value (GCV) and ash free caloric value (AFCV) of 69 forages ranged from 16.06 to 20.68 kJ/g and 17.83 to 22.47 kJ/g, respectively. Cultivated forages showed higher caloric value than natural forages. AFCV of all the 69 forages were relatively higher than that of the terrestrial plants in the world. 95.65% of the forages belonged to medium or high caloric value forage. The arrangement of AFCV differed within families, which could be explained by the difference of ash content. The average AFCV of graminaceous forages, which were the main feed resources for livestock, was 20.46 kJ/g. Meanwhile, the caloric value content of the forages was higher than that of the crop straws, whose AFCV was 17.75 kJ/g on average, close to the average caloric value of terrestrial plants in the world. GCV of the crop straws showed negative correlation with ash contents.
The interplanting grass in orchard, planting the grasses between the fruit trees or in the all orchard, is a method of orchard management. It affects the orchard microclimate, soil property and fruit quality. The research progress in this field in China was reviewed and the suggests on the grass cultivation management, the selection of the proper grasses, the effects of the grasses on the trees were provided in order to serve as theoretical base for the further research and practice.
The grasslands in China distribute in different provinces where the economic development is at various levels, and the problems involving in grassland administration are different as well. The rules of administrative punishments in different grassland laws, administrative regulations, and local regulations are very complicated. For example, the classification of actions and relevant punished persons should be clear. Based on the analysis on administrative punishments in the Grassland Law, it was concluded that it is the essential approach to protect the grassland resources by conducting the Grassland Law strictly and veraciously.
As one of new teaching modes, the selfteaching with multimedia combining multimedia teaching was used to improve the abilities of selfinnovation and oral expression through preparing multimedia courseware by students themselves, selfteaching in the classroom, discussing after class. This mode could enhance the classroom atmosphere and promote the teaching effect.
New cultivar of Lathyrus splendens cv. Guwan No. 1 was hybridized with 6 parent materials and 60Go radiation induction, which was a medium early repining cultivar with 90 to 95 days of growth period, 75 cm of plant height, and 220 g of thousand seed weight. The pod was flatlong shape, 5 to 8 cm of length and 1.1 cm of width, with 5 to 8 seeds per pod. Its contents of crude protein, crude starch, lysine and crude fat were 25.39%, 54.54%, 1.98% and 1.42% respectively. In the field experiment, the disease resistance was similar to the CK (Deying No. 2). The multiplesite experiments in Gulang indicated that the average yield was 6 411.0 kg/hm2, which was 36.5% higher than that of CK (Ma). In 3year production experiments in Wuei showed that the average yield was 5 102.4 kg/hm2, which was 15.8% higher than the CK. The study results suggested that it could be extended in Liangzhou County, Gulang County and Tianzhu County of Wuwei City and those semiarid areas with similar climate conditions such as Zhangye and Baiyin of Gansu province, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia where the irrigation was available.
The correlation and path coefficient analysis between plant traits and seed yield of the natural succession of wild Bromus cartharticus in alpine mountains were studied based on calculation of determination coefficient and the result showed the it was d= 0.957 6, and this indicated that the main components affecting seed yield had been included. The rate of fruit ripening, seed number per inflorescence and thousand seed weight were the main traits affecting seed yield. The optical multiple regression could be described as y=-453.07+0.958 7x7 (seed number per inflorescence)+0.342 7x8 (thousand seed weight)+0.510 5x9(rate of fruit ripening). So the effective way to increase the seed yield is to improve the rate of fruit ripening, seed of inflorescence and thousand seed weight.