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2010 Vol.27(6)

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article
2010, 4(6): 1-5.
[Abstract](9178) [PDF 560KB](2262)
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2010, 4(6): 6-12.
[Abstract](8791) [PDF 4303KB](2671)
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Comparison NDVI with EVI in the herbage fresh weight estimation and vegetation dynamics for alpine grassland
2010, 4(6): 13-19.
[Abstract](5567) [PDF 444KB](1218)
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NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) were extracted from 126 MODIS images of 2007, 2008 and 2009, which were analyzed and compared with each other. This study indicated that the EVI values were lower than the NDVI values in the alpine meadow, and they all showed a similar trend in reflecting the growth status and characteristics of the vegetation, indicating that the EVI was more stable and accurate than the NDVI in alpine meadow by analyzing their corresponding standard deviation. Combined the alpine meadow AGB (Aboveground Green Biomass) data from 11 monitoring points, correlation analysis and regression analysis were applied to compare the two MODIS vegetation index products (NDVI, EVI) and four vegetation indices(NDVI250, NDVI500, EVI250, EVI500) in the alpine meadow AGB estimation. The results of this study showed that EVI estimated AGB more accurately than NDVI did, and had a better correlation relationship with AGB. EVI250 had the best dependent relation with alpine herbage fresh weight among four vegetation indices (NDVI250, NDVI500, EVI250, EVI500), and the correlation coefficient was 0.904 (P0.01). This study suggested that EVI250 was a better index in the alpine AGB estimation, and the regression equation between EVI250 and alpine herbage fresh weight was as following:yAGB=-244+1 316xEVI250.
The allelopathy effect of litter from three dominant specieson alfalfa seedlings growth in the Loess Plateau
2010, 4(6): 20-24.
[Abstract](1929) [PDF 582KB](1304)
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Allelopathy resulted from litter decomposition is a unique regulating mechanism and competitive effect to natural pasture. The aqueous extract from the litters of Stipa bungeana、Lespedeza davurica、and Artemisia capillaries growing in the transition region of Loess Plateau was used to investigate their effectiveness on alfalfa seedlings by measuring seed germination, plant height, shoot dry matter and root dry matter. The results of this study indicated that the three dominant plants affected the growth of alfalfa seedling, the extent of which changed accordingly with different mass fraction. The greatest inhibition effect on the seed germination and plant height of alfalfa was found in the aqueous extract from S.bungeana and A.capillaries, respectively. The inhibition effect on root dry matter of alfalfa seedlings are common in all three plants and would enhance with the reduction of mass fraction.
Spatial and temporal change of arable land resource and its driving force in the Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture
2010, 4(6): 25-31.
[Abstract](1801) [PDF 520KB](1114)
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Based on statistical data in Gannan prefecture from 1997 to 2006, the generally changeable trend of arable land area, spatial difference and driving factors causing changes in arable land area were investigated by using factor analysis and regression in this study. This study indicated that the total area of arable land was in a reduction trend, and this reduction was significantly different among spatial distribution. Fixed assets, total agricultural output, rural per capita net income and urbanization level were main factors contributing to the reduction of arable land area and conversion cropland to grassland and forest was the shortterm and temporal factor contributing to the reduction of arable land area in Gannan prefecture. In this study, a multiple regression equation was developed by using the relationship between the arable land areas and driving forces. The arable land area from 2007 to 2020 in Gannan prefecture was predicted by developed multiple regression equation.
The primanry research on grouth dynamics of Aconitum leucostomum population
2010, 4(6): 32-37.
[Abstract](2324) [PDF 609KB](1161)
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Aconitum leucostomum is a perennial poisonous plant growing in the mountain meadow of Yili River Valley, Xinjiang and already seriously affects the development of animal husbandry. The height (H), density (D), diameter of bunch and aboveground biomass of A. leucostomum were monitored every 15 days from May 3rd to July 17th to reduce the harmfulness of this poisonous plant. The growth process of A. leucostomum was simulated by the monadic nonlinear curve. The relationship between the height, density, diameter of bunch and the aboveground biomass was used to establish the equations using stepwise regression analysis. This study indicated that the height, diameter and aboveground biomass increased with the increase of growth time, and the increase models were the power function model, Longmodified model and power function model as following: H = 4.697 8T 0.513 551, Z = (494.177 6+231.510 6T)0.339 913, W = 2.639 3T 0.781 408. The density of A.leucostomum firstly increased and then decreased, the increase model was compartment model: D=114.7676e(0.005 049T)100.859 2e(0.0957 65T). Meanwhile, relationship between aboveground biomass and height and diameter of bunch was significant regression: W=39.781 436 4+5.429 432 775H 7.108 936 940Z. The height was important factor affecting abovebiomass of A. leucostomum. This study proposed that the harmfulness of A. leucostomum would be controlled by regulating its height.
Evaluation of management coupling technology of integrated ecosystem in the Jingtai Electrical Irrigation Region Oasis
2010, 4(6): 38-44.
[Abstract](1489) [PDF 548KB](980)
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Three differently typical villages, named DaZuizi, HongYue and SiTan, were selected to investigate integrated ecosystem management by analyzing the response of farmers receptivity to Fencing Sandy Land, Conservation Tillage, Medlar Grown in the Salinification Land, Building Ecological Courtyard, and Protection Forest System in the Jingtai Electrical Irrigation Region of Gansu province. Analytical hierarchy process was used to evaluate comprehensive farmers acceptance and degree of satisfaction for above five measures. The results of this study showed that mean weight value of degree of satisfaction in target layer was 8.569, indicating that integrated ecosystem management was widely accepted by farmers. the weight value of degree of satisfaction in rule layer was in order: Fencing Sandy Land (0.417)Conservation Tillage (0.263)Medlar Grown in the Salinification Land (0.160) Building of Ecological Courtyard (0.097)Protection Forest System (0.062), and differences in the contribution value of factor layer showed that farmers acceptance and degree of satisfaction to rule layer were different among farmers in same village. Combined evaluation results and development status of irrigation region, this study proposed the management coupling technology and construction suggestions in oasis integrated ecosystem.
planting techniques on soil properties and survival rate of trees
2010, 4(6): 45-49.
[Abstract](1911) [PDF 505KB](1298)
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Soil was improved by flue gas desulphurization from coalfired power plant and krilium before soil was filled into tree well, meanwhile, three different cushion rubbers were placed at the bottom of three well (haulm + sand, sand, cobblestone + sand). Soil pH, soil total salt content and tree survival rate were measured in this study. The results of this study showed that the average pH of different soil depths in the treatment plots decreased by 9.01%12.10% ( P<0.01) , whereas that in the control plots increased generally, and soil pH of haulm + sand treatment was significantly lower than those of other treatments (P<0.05). The average soil salt content of different soil depths in the treatment plots significantly decreased by 1.62%67.59% (P<0.01), whereas those in the control plots increased by 22.37%58.21%, and soil salt content of haulm + sand treatment was lower than those of other treatments(P<0.05). The survival rate of trees was no significant difference between three cushion rubbers at 45 d, 75 d, 165 d, respectively, whereas significant difference was observed between the treatment plots and the control plots (P<0.01). The survival rate of Sophora japonica, Fraxinus chinensis, Picea crassifolia and Malus micromalus in the treatment plots increased by 28.7%31.1%, 88.3%112.6% , 46.0%48.0% and 26.5%33.6%, respectively when compared with the control plots.
Research progress of soil microbial biomass in China
2010, 4(6): 50-57.
[Abstract](9950) [PDF 451KB](3613)
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Research progresses of soil microbial biomass during recent years were reviewed in this paper, including microbial biomass C, microbial N, microbial P. The necessity of soil microbial biomass C, microbial N and microbial P in the nutrient cycling was emphasized and the effects of planting, rotation, grazing, and fertilizer application on soil microbial biomass were discussed. Finally, this study proposed the key points of soil microbial biomass research in the future.
Research progress of waste compost and sewage sludge compost used as soilless sod media
2010, 4(6): 58-63.
[Abstract](1905) [PDF 433KB](1665)
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Waste and sewage sludge are converted to composts, which have good physical and chemic property and improve soil structure and encouraged turfgrass growth when these compost are used as fertilizer or soilless media Research progress of waste compost and sewage sludge compost used as soilless media was summarized from five ways in this study, including soil property, turfgrass growth, environment, application to soilless sod, standards on land utilization.
Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on symbiotic nitrogen fixation
2010, 4(6): 64-70.
[Abstract](11302) [PDF 445KB](2849)
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The structure and function of Rhizobiumlegume symbiosis are affected by biotic and abiotic factors such as root exudates,nod factors,soil moisture,mineral elements and so on, especially the biotic factors, which are the leading factor for building symbiosis. It has great significance for environmental protection and sustainable agricultural development to study the effect of Rhizobium legume nodulation ability of infection nod and nitrogen fixation efficiency. Present research analyzed the effect of biotic (host plants and Rhizobium) and abiotic factors (environmental factors) on Rhizobiumlegume symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and discussed the problems needed to be further studied as well as the prospects.
Implememtation of the Regulation of Equilibrium of Pasture and Livestockis the important support to realize ecological service function of grasslands
2010, 4(6): 71-76.
[Abstract](1671) [PDF 542KB](1229)
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Ratified and carried out by Chinese government, the programme of Ecological Protection and Construction of the Ecofunctional RegionHeadwaters of the Yellow River in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous, which is the solid step for protecting Haidonglist of 50 headwaters in China. However, the research region have been damaged by the degradation, desertification and salinization of grassland, which was mainly caused by the Inequilibrium of pasture and livestock. Present study analyzed the degradation, desertification and salinization of grassland and their influence on ecofunction recession of grassland, and suggested that it was the good opportunity to realize equilibrium of pasture and livestock through the implementation of the programme.
Genetic variation within and among populations of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae), an invasive weed in the grassland ecosystem of the QinghaiTibetan Plateau
2010, 4(6): 77-87.
[Abstract](2286) [PDF 884KB](1039)
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The genetic mechanism and subsequent control of exotic invasive species have received extensive attention within recent years, but little attention has been paid to native weeds restricted to local ecosystems. Ligularia virgaurea is a clonal species of Asteraceae and reproduces asexually by underground rhizomes and sexually by seeds, which distributes throughout alpine meadows of the QinghaiTibetan Plateau. In the present study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to evaluate genetic variation and clonal diversity of 11 populations of Ligularia virgaurea. A total of 81 amplified bands were scored from the 13 RAPD primers, giving a mean of 6.23 amplified bands per primer, and 74.07% (61 bands) were found to be polymorphic bands (PPB), indicating a remarkable level of genetic variation at the species levels. The percentage of polymorphic loci within population ranged from 19.45% to 60.49%, and the mean Nei gene diversity (He) was 0.169 8, indicating a moderate variation in the genetic diversity of L. virgarea. RAPD phenotypes (genotypes) among populations were highly rich and variable. Moreover, an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 67.64% of the total genetic variation was found among individuals within population, while 31.74% was between populations. Contrary to the initial assumption that this clonal weed has a low diversity and population differentiation, results suggested that both the genetic diversity and amongpopulation differentiation of L. virgarea are high comparing to the average of the other nonclonal or noninvasive species. We proposed that the sexual recruitment and longdistance colonization characteristics, perhaps in combination with genetic introgression, are responsible for such a pattern of genetic structure in this local weed.
Construction of plant expression vector containing Arabidopsis transcription factor CBF4
2010, 4(6): 88-92.
[Abstract](1742) [PDF 664KB](1475)
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CBF4 gene was obtained by enzyme cutting with both SalI and EcoRI, and inserted into Bluescript M13(SK), thus the intermediate vector SKCBF4 was formed. Then, SKCBF4 and HpBPC26CBF4 were double digestion using BamHI and KpnI,respectively, and connected them using T4DNA. Finally,the plant expression vector of HpBPCCBF4 has been constructed. The results of PCR and enzyme digestion showed the plant expression vectors were correct and can be use in the genetic transformation of monocotyledon.
Comparison of leaf structure of Bermuda grass grown under two habitats
2010, 4(6): 93-96.
[Abstract](2280) [PDF 1057KB](1405)
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Through observing the leaf cross sections of five varieties of Bermuda grass grown in rural area soil and vegetation concrete, the thickness of leaves, upper epidermis and lower epidermis, the diameters of vascular bundle(rosette structure) in the main vein of Bermuda grass were compared. The results showed: Except for Nanjing bermudagrass, the thickness of leaves of the other four varieties (Common hulled, Jackpot, 040459/680 and Xinnong No.1) grown in vegetation were bigger than those grown in rural area soil; Except for 040459/680 bermudagrass, the thickness of leaf upper epidermis and lower epidermis of the other four varieties grown in vegetation were bigger than those grown in rural area soil; The diameters of vascular bundle(rosette structure) in the main vein of five varieties grown under the two habitats varied differently.
Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on lipid peroxidation antioxidase fluorescence of Isatis indigotica leaves under drought stress
2010, 4(6): 97-101.
[Abstract](1816) [PDF 398KB](1052)
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Combination of adding the exogenous NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) with different concentrations, Isatis indigotica leaves were treated with 10% PEG 6 000 solution for 8 days to determine the effect of exogenous nitric oxide on oxidative damage fluorescence under drought stress. This study showed that exogenous NO treatment increased the accumulation of Proline and soluble sugar content of Isatis Indigotica leaves with the strengthening drought stress, and that the low concentrations of NO increased SOD and POD enzyme activity, while the high concentrations of NO restrained the activity of these two kinds of enzymes. This study also indicated that the variation of MDA contents of Isatis Indigotica leaves in same treatment showed a decreasing trend while low concentrations of NO made greater decreased in MDA content. The results of this study suggested that exogenous NO treatment increased the drought resistance of Isatis Indigotica.
Effects of sowing methods on soil carbon density and composition in the alfalfa and Bromus inermis pasture
2010, 4(6): 102-107.
[Abstract](2268) [PDF 396KB](1278)
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A experiment was conducted to investigate the soil organic carbon density and oxidative stability coefficient among four grasslands by multilayer sampling method, including twoyear alfalfa single pasture, Bromus innermis single pasture, interlacing mixture pasture of alfalfa and B. innermis, and inline mixture pasture of alfalfa and B. innermis. This study indicated that the soil organic carbon density was the biggest with the 11.59 t/hm2 in the interlacing mixture pasture of alfalfa and B. innermis, and was the second in the alfalfa single pasture during the growth season. The soil organic carbon density in the interlacing mixture pasture of alfalfa and B. innermis and alfalfa single pasture was significantly greater than that in the B. innermis single pasture and inline mixture pasture of alfalfa and B. innermis (P<0.01). The highest oxidative stability coefficient was found in the interlaced mixture pasture of alfalfa and B. innermis with 1.28 and the oxidative stability coefficient was 1.16 in the inline mixture pasture of alfalfa and B. innermis. The oxidative stability coefficient of alfalfa single pasture and B. innermis single pasture were 1.00 and 0.85, respectively. This study implied that Mixed sowing was the better for the stabilization of soil organic matter and interlacing mixture method was better than inline mixture method.
Economic value diversity of forage germplasm resourcesin the centre pool of China
2010, 4(6): 108-114.
[Abstract](2563) [PDF 518KB](1169)
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The centre pool of state forage germplasm resources centre collected 9593 shares of forage germplasm resources from 1998 to 2006,and these shares belonged to 67 families, 411 genera, and 1000 species. According to their economic value, these materials were classified into feeding, food, medical, industrial and environmental plants. In the centre pool, excellent forages, good forages, fair forages, low forages and poor forages were 199, 156, 183,23 and 4 species, and they occupied 19.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, 2.3% and 0.4% of total species, respectively. 22 species are poisonous plants and 10 species are harmful plants. 114 species belonging to 73 genera and 29 families were food plants, occupying 42.38% of total families, 17.76% of total genera, 11.4% of total species, respectively. 310 species belonging to 207 genera and 57 families are medical plants, and they occupied 85.07% of total families, 50.36% of total genera, and 31% total species, respectively. Industrial plants included fiber, resin and rubber. Among environmental plants, fixing sand plants, soil erosion plant, green manure plants, lawn plants and ornamental plants were 28, 28, 38, 64, and 53 species, respectively.
Research progress of flavonoids biological activity
2010, 4(6): 115-122.
[Abstract](10206) [PDF 580KB](3288)
Abstract:
Flavonoids have shown multibiological properties, such as antioxidative activity,freeradical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, anticancer activity, antibacterial, prevention of hepatopathy and inhibition (or promotion) of apoptosis. Therefore, Flavonoids have been used to improve the production of livestock. The current advances in flavonoids biological activity was summarized in this paper, which would provide some guidance for researchers in further investigations and in developing animal husbandry healthily.
Analysis of the price of pork in the view of agrograssland ecosystem
2010, 4(6): 123-128.
[Abstract](1925) [PDF 441KB](1077)
Abstract:
The pork price index in China from 1985 to 2006 was analyzed to investigate the seasonal fluctuations of pork price, indicating that the pork price showed a U changeable trend in a year and the cycle trend of AdjustmentWaviness.PorkGrain mode obviously depended on forage crops. The pork product in China increased by 2.14 times from 1985 to 2006, responding with the increase in supplies corn production. The increase rate in corn was tenfold, fourfold and threefold for those in rice, wheat and potato production, respectively. The relationship between pork prices and maize prices was positive correlation (R=0.973). The issue of pork prices lied on the contravention of supply and demand between the maize undulate output and pork feed increasing need, and while the development of biofuel intensified this contravention. This study suggested that developing grassland agriculture was a way to reducing the food security pressure in China.
The application of microstorage technique in the Shigatse region,Tibet
2010, 4(6): 129-133.
[Abstract](2075) [PDF 492KB](1098)
Abstract:
The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of microbial silage bacterium on the nutritional components of three materials, including oat(Avena sativa), barley straw(Hordeum vulgare var.nudum) and mixture of oat and alfalfa (Medicago sativa)in the Shigatse experiment station. The results of this study showed that the three materials could produce high quality silage, and the microbial silage of the mixture of oat and alfalfa was better than that of oat. The crude protein of barley straw and mixture of oat and alfalfa increased by 41.74% and 39.73% and was 5.12% and 10.68%, respectively. The general energy (GE) and nitrogenfree extract (NFE) of three materials declined due to microbial silage bacterium treatment, in which GE and NFE of barley straw were the lowest and were 2.46% and 15.76%, respectively. This study suggested that the microbial technology solved the problem of forage lacking in spring and winter to improve animal production in the Shigatse regions as a useful scientific and technological.
Evaluation of nutrient composition and feeding value of halophyte (Suaeda glauca) seeds in the Songnen grassland
2010, 4(6): 134-137.
[Abstract](2036) [PDF 448KB](1149)
Abstract:
The suaeda glauca seeds were collected in Songnen grassland located in Dorbod Mongolian Autonomous County of Heilongjiang province from September to October in 2006.The analysis results of nutrients, mineral contents and amino acid composition showed that the Suaeda glauca seeds contained high percentage of crude fat, ash and sodium and potassium, which was 8.65%, 26.46%, 4.46% and 1.26%, respectively. The sulfuramino acids of suaeda glauca seeds were very abundant and the methionine and cystine contents of suaeda glauca seeds were 0.24% and 0.20%, respectively, and was higher than that of alfalfa meal, meanwhile, the lysine concentration of suaeda glauca seeds was nearly equal to that of alfalfa meal. The digestive energy content of suaeda glauca seeds would be close to the level of Leymus chinensis and alfalfa meal according to prediction from gross energy; and the suaeda glauca seeds was rich in linoleic acid, linolenic acid and linolenic acid, whose content were 63.22%, 6.15% and 1.74, respectively. This study put forward that the suaeda glauca seeds should be utilized as a good feed resource, and had a potential value for producing functional animal food containing healthy fatty acid. This study also pointed out that the supplemental level should be considered for avoid toxicosis of sodium for animal.
Isolation and identification of Bacillus mucilaginosusfrom rhizosphere of Kentucky bluegrass
2010, 4(6): 138-142.
[Abstract](2263) [PDF 544KB](1277)
Abstract:
Seven strains of Bacillus mucilaginosus were screened from rhizosphere soil of Kentucky bluegrass, and their physiological and biochemical characters, salt tolerance, acid and alkali resistance, and temperature sensitivity were determined in this study. The results of this study showed that all strains were G-, produced circular gemma and thick capsule. The catalase and lysozyme test on seven strains of Bacillus mucilaginosus were masculine. The hydrolyzed starch, V.P lecithinase and indole test on seven strains of Bacillus mucilaginosus were feminine. All strains survived in the medium with 1%2% NaCl and grew well under the temperature ranging from 2530 ℃.
Spatial distribution of population based on interpolation and its application in the farmingpastoral transition regions
2010, 4(6): 143-152.
[Abstract](2244) [PDF 1128KB](1471)
Abstract:
Several widely used methods were used to compare the effectiveness on spatial distribution of population for Bayan Nur city, based on Census Data of 2000. The results of this study showed that the gross population obtained by five surface interpolation methods was similar to the statistical population and the difference was below 0.1%, but the population value of neighboring areas showed a nonlinear great change in theirs administrative regionalization boundary inside and outside. Although the administrative central point as control point spot interpolation method overcame the great changes in population between neighboring two areas, the gross population was more than 4 times of statistical gross population. This implied that and the administrative central point as control point spot interpolation method was not better way to determine spatial distribution of population. The gross population using the many spot as control point spot interpolation method was 75% of the statistical gross population; therefore, it was not also a better approach. This study indicated that the gross population obtained by the periphery adjustment points as control points spot interpolation method was 98.22% of the statistical gross population, and the periphery adjustment points as control points spot interpolation method improved the great changes in population between neighboring two areas. Such, this method was a better approach to spatial interpolation of population distribution for national population. This study also compared the grid chart of nation population density with the grid chart of farmingpastoral transition population density and drew a conclusion that the uniformity of population density between national and farmingpastoral transition regions was 0.641 3. The population distribution was an important field in the research of the farmingpastoral transition regions.
Present situation and dynamic of grassland resources in Haixi national municipality of Mongol and Tibetan in Qinghai province
2010, 4(6): 153-157.
[Abstract](2258) [PDF 687KB](1362)
Abstract:
Based on field survey and grassland monitoring data from 2005 to 2009 in Haixi national municipality of Mongol and Tibetan, Qinghai province, grasslands in this regions were classified into 6 types, and they were alpine steppe, temperate steppe, temperate desert steppe, alpine meadow, lowland meadow and alpine meadow steppe. The available grassland areas were decreased continually and were decreased by 226 070 000 in 2008 and 169 310 000 hectare in 2009, respectively when compared with available grassland area in 2007. Overgrazing was common in the last 5 years, and 13 970 000, 26 560 000 and 33 940 000 sheep unit were overloaded on the grassland in 2005, 2007 and 2009. The grassland ecoenvironment became badly worse due to degradation and desertification in different degrees. According to present situation of grassland resources in Haixi national municipality of Mongol and Tibetan, this study proposed that enclosure grassland, establishment pasture, and plan grazing were measures for grassland management, and improved the grassland situation.
Prevent and control technologies for Polygonim sibircum
2010, 4(6): 158-162.
[Abstract](1601) [PDF 486KB](993)
Abstract:
The medical, biological, agricultural measures were applied to prevent and control Polygonim sibircum. The result of this study showed that three measures led death rate of P.sibircum to gradual increase in the 45 days, and then P.sibircum regenerated gradually in the 30 days. Medical measure, overdrilling measure and heavy grazing showed a better control and prevent for P.sibircum, in which the herbicide glyphosate was the best measure to control P.sibircum and the heavy grazing followed it, and other measures did not work. This study indicated that any measures did not control P.sibircum once time, and had to be applied many times. Combing medical measure and biological measure and rational management, harmfulness of P.sibircum could be reduced.
Study on constructing of Gansu agricultural scientific and technological innovation systems
2010, 4(6): 163-167.
[Abstract](1781) [PDF 464KB](1489)
Abstract:
Construction of new socialist countryside brings new opportunities and challenges to Chinese agricultural technology. It is a project to construct of Gansu agricultural scientific and technological innovation systems through adopting advanced experience of developed countries. Present study analyzed the problems existing in the Gansu agricultural scientific and technological innovation systems, and put forward corresponding improvement measures and suggestions based on both national and international successful experiences on construction of agricultural scientific and technological innovation systems, which was valuable for the construction of Gansu agricultural scientific and technological innovation systems.