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Mongolian developed a unique traditional culture due to the longterm nomadic life. This paper proceeded with the contribution of Mongolian grassland culture to maintenance of grassland ecological function and development of grassland animal husbandry, and analyzed the characteristic of Mongolian grassland traditional culture. It considered that the simplicity sentiment of treasuring animals and protecting environment in the Mongolian grassland culture embodied the spirit of harmonious relationship between human and nature, which provided favorable ideological basis for implementing the sustainable development mode, and made significant revelation for adhering to concept of scientific development and pursuing development mode and approach of animal husbandry industrialization in grassland.
Nine Poa pratensis varieties were used to investigate their turf qualities including changes of turf coverage, tiller density, turf quality, SPAD, leaf width in the field during summer of Nanjing, and physiological characteristics such as water content and membrane permeability in leaves were measured in lab. The results showed that coverage, tiller density, turf quality, SPAD and water content of varieties declined significantly along with increase of heat and drought stress and persisting period. The membrane permeability in leaves increased remarkably and leaf width change was not significant. By hierarchical cluster analysis, the 9 P.pratensis varieties could be classified into three categories. Bluemoon and Park belonged to the first category which was weak in heat tolerance. Nuglade, America, Award, Liberator and Total belonged to the second category, they were mid heat tolerance varieties. Barrister and Nudesting belonged to the last category, and they had the strongest heat tolerance.
Physiological response mechanism of Sedum was studied with five Sedums, which aimed to provide theoretical basis for selecting low cost and suitable plants of green roofs. In this study, five Sedums were exposed to drought stress (without irrigation) for 28 days. All measurements were determined in seven days intervals, including leaf water content, relative electric conductivity, malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and proline(Pro).The results indicated that leaf water content decreased significantly with increase of the stress time, while relative electric conductivity, MDA and Pro increased, however, SOD activities were raised first and declined continually later. Through comprehensive analysis, it was concluded that the drought resistant abilities of these five sedums ordered as Sedum sarmentosum＞S.lineare＞S. lineare cv. Jin Ye＞S. emarginatum＞S.spurium cv. Coccineum.
Stems of Zoysia japonica were separately planted on the four matrixes such as humus (A1), residual soil after construction (A2), soil with surface layer removed (A3) and sand (A4) in the experimental garden of Shenyang Normal University. The effect of soil matrixes on net photosynthetic rate and growth of Z. japonica were measured. The results showed that the sequence of net photosynthetic rate and most of the measured growth indexes was A1＞A4＞A2＞A3. The high level nutrient of humus promoted the growth of Z. japonica greatly, and the growth indexes showed significant difference compared to other treatments (P0.01). The differences among A2, A3 and A4 were not significant (P0.05). The growth indexes of A4 better than A2 and A3, so the destroyed structure of soil was an unfavorable factor to influence the growth of Z. japonica.
Through the analysis of community characteristic and species diversity of mountainous steppe in Qinghai Lake, this paper concluded that Achnatherum splendens grassland, abandoned land, mountain slope grassland and scattered A .splendens grassland were divided into four community types such as A. splendens+Poa sp., Poa sp.+Elymus nutans, Koeleria cristatum+Stipa krylovii and S.krylovii+E.nutans, respectively. The change orders of plant diversity indices such as ShannonWeiner index and Simpson index were bottomlandmountain slope grassland abandoned landA. splendens grassland, the Pielou evenness index ranked as mountain slope grassland abandoned landbottomlandA. splendens, and the richness indices were bottomlandabandoned landmountain slope grasslandA. splendens grassland. The difference of habitat conditions resulted in the formation of species diversity.
This paper combined experiments with investigates, synthetically utilized methods such as market value law, substitution expense law and shadow project law, made the quota evaluation of the service function value of Maqu alpine wetland ecosystem in the first meander of the Yellow River, to provide basis for local economic development and scientifically and reasonably protection and utilization of the wetland resources from 11 kinds of service function aspects. The result indicated that the total value of Maqu alpine wetland ecology service function reached 159.42108 Yuan/a, it was 36.65 times of gross national product of this area. The hydrology adjustment function was 57.72108 Yuan/a, followed by water source supplies, cultural scientific research, nutrition circulation and storage and climate control function, which was 32.43108 Yuan/a, 12.50108 Yuan/a, 12.38108 Yuan/a and 11.37108 Yuan/a, respectively. The environment purification, physical production, biodiversity protection, soil formation and protection, atmospheric component adjustment function were 9.24108 Yuan/a, 8.48108 Yuan/a, 8.31108 Yuan/a, 5.67108 Yuan/a, and 1.09108 Yuan/a, respectively. The recreation function was the lowest with 0.23108 Yuan/a. This fully explained that the Maqu alpine wetland was the kidney of the plateau in west China, it was important water source supplies area and the flood storage area in the Yellow River upstream, it was green ecology barrier of the Yellow River upstream ecosystem, and it has important strategic position for ensuring the ecological security of middle and lower reaches area.
Compared with natural grassland, this paper analyzed species composition, community structure characteristics, biodiversity and the total annual fresh yield of grassland vegetation in different grassland controlling measures (including artificial grassland, improved and enclosure grassland) of karst rocky desertification in Jianshan of Qiaojia county of Yunnan. The results indicated that enclosure grassland had the most species, followed by improved grassland, and the artificial grassland had the least. There were little common species among four grasslands, and different grassland had different dominant species, subdominant, companion species, occasional species.The dominant species on artificial grassland was Lolium perenne, improved grassland was Trifolium repens, the enclosure was Potentilla fulgens. The orders of diversity indexes including Simpson index, ShannonWiener index and richness index ranked as enclosure grassland ＞natural grassland＞improved grassland＞artificial grassland the Pielou index was enclosure＞improved grassland＞natural grassland＞artificial grassland; the orders of yield and good forage percentage were artificial grassland＞improved grassland＞enclosure＞natural grassland. There were contrary change tendency among the quantity, quality and diversity indexes of different grasslands. Artificial grassland was the best effective measure in controlling degraded grassland of rocky desertification, improved grassland was better, and enclosure was the worst.
The soil heterotrophic carbon dioxide flux from alpine Dasiphora fruticosa shrub and meadow dispersed among the shrubs were measured using static chamberGas Chromatography method, and the community biomass and sample plot were also surveyed. The carbon budget of alpine shrub meadow ecosystem was estimated primarily. The results suggested that during the growing seasons, the observed amount of annual carbon fixation via primary production for alpine shrub meadow ecosystem was about 461.83 g/(m2a ). The carbon dioxide outputs via soil heterotrophic respiration was about 376.78 g/(m2a ). So carbon budget was input more than output, the alpine shrub meadow ecosystem has stronger potential to absorb carbon dioxide, it was a sink of atmospheric CO2, and the plant community had a net carbon gain of 85.05 g/(m2a ) in a year.
The process of degradation on Xilamuren grassland and artificial recovery measures were carried out such as enclosure, irrigation, soil loosen and reseeding, hay covering. Vegetation investigation, soil fertility assay and germination of soil seed bank were conducted to compare the recovery effects on degraded grassland in this region and the advantages and disadvantages among these techniques. Results showed that irrigation had most obvious effects on degraded grassland recovery; enclosure was also effective, but just 50% of irrigation effectiveness in generally. Soil loosen, reseeding and hay covering interfered the vegetation recovery.
The paper studied vegetation restoration of mountain shrubtussock in Yunnan province, and concluded that all of the three treatments including fencing, shallow plough and scarification reseeding could promote vegetation restoration, increase grassland yield and quality, improve soil and enhance effects of water and soil conservation on degenerated mountain shrubtussock. The effect of scarification reseeding was better than fencing and shallow plough. In the scarification reseeding treatment, three years average of stand height was 54.0 cm, the vegetation coverage was 95.4%, plant density was 2 250.1 branches/m2 and fresh yields was 7 701.1 kg/hm2, increased 210.34%, 147.12%, 123.60% and 93.25% than control, respectively. The soil total N (2.05 g/kg) and organic matter (62.61 g/kg) increased by 79.82%, 109.82%, and volume weight (0.83 g/kg) reduced by 25.89%. The surface runoff (5.73 m3/hm2) and soil erosion (6.32 kg/hm2) dropped by 93.59% and 78.85%.
Mirabilis jalapa was perennial herbal flower with powerful capacity of reproduction as a invasive plant. This paper analyzed the chromosome number and karyotype of M. jalapa with treatments such as 12 h low temperature pretreatment of root tip, fixation with Carnoys solution, cell wall acid hydrolysis and staining. The results showed that the somatic chromosome number of the M. jalapa was 2n=56, and karyotype formula was K=2n=2x=28m+22sm+4st+2m（sat）, which belonged to 2B type. The variation range of the chromosome length was 2.330.78 m, and which was classified to small type. As the coefficient of nonsymmetry was 63.8%, the chromosome of M. jalapa was nonsymmetrical type. The study would provide some references to cytology for preventing and controlling M. jalapa.
Based on ecological environment, natural attributes and economic characteristics of natural grassland in Southeast Tibet, this paper revealed resource characteristics of distribution, composition and type of the local grassland. The nutritional value, biomass and utilization of forage were analyzed according to utilization status of grassland resources. As a basis for further researches on local grassland, this paper provided the reference for government departments and livestock production operator. Moreover, it was suggested that the actual grassland situation and the need of guidance for livestock production should be combined so as to fully exert the potential roles of grassland and to construct and manage the pasture, and promote sustainable development of grassland animal husbandry.
Based on Chinese science and technology periodical database, this paper analyzed time variation of literature quantity, journal distribution, and thesis topic in China from 1997 to 2006 by bibliometric methods. The results showed that turf science was in the rapid development stage, its literature quantity increased linearly from 1997 to 2006. The Pratacultural Science, the Grassland and Turf, the Sichuan Grassland, the Grassland of China, the Acta Prataculturae Sinica and the Acta Agrestia Sinica were core journal groups in turf science field, and these six journals had higher literature quantity. The hot spots and focus in turf science research was ecology, biology, physiology, biochemistry, anatomy, cytology, molecular and genetics of turfgrass.
This paper summarized the research of different grazing intensities on compose of soil microbes, number of microbes and change of microbes in timespace of grassland in China, and the effect of different utilization ways on microbes. Soil microbes of grassland were composed of fungi, bacteria and actinomycete, which were the most three populations. The number of soil bacteria was the highest, the second was actinomycete, and the number of fungi was the lowest. In spatial, the numbers of soil microbes were all gradually decreasing with increase of soil depth. Season change of soil microbes increased with the increase of soil temperature in spring, and the highest on mid of August and the lowest in winter. So, soil microbes were very important for energy flow and matter translation in grassland ecosystem.
The 16 morphological variations and their distribution rules of 41 accessions of Elytrigia repens were studied, and the cluster analysis of 34 materials was carried out based on correlation analysis and principal component analysis of 16 morphological indexes. The result showed that the variations of the morphological indexes were great within species, and the coefficient of variation was 4.88%-33.30%. The coefficient of variation of leave level height was 33.30% and ranked the first, followed by length of flag leaf (26.03%), and the variation of seed length, seed width, seed thickness, glumes length and leaf length were low, the coefficient of variation was under 10.0%. There was significant positive correlation between the height of reproduction branch and the altitude（P0.01）, and there was significant negative correlation between the length of glumes and the altitude（P0.01）, but the correlation between the latitude and reproduction branch, latitude and the length of glumes was on the contrary. There was significant positive correlation between the first internodes length below spikelet and the longitude（P0.01）. Based on correlation analysis and principal component analysis of morphological characters, at the point of euclidean distance 5.0, 34 materials of E.repens could be divided into 4 morphological types including high type, partial high type, special type and dwarf type by cluster analysis, and the special and dwarf types had potential of turf use.
The whole cell protein SDSPAGE was a rapid, stable, accurate method to reflect protein molecules types in cells, it could be developed to perform primarily clustering of Rhizobium and verification of nodulation strains in nodulation ability test. 120 strains isolated from the root nodule of Trifolium spp. which were collected from six regions such as Yunnan, Hubei, Hebei, and so on. The clustering analysis of the whole cell protein SDSPAGE molecular marker showed that there were 104 types which clustered six groups at a similarity level of 80%. 42 strains were selected by strains characteristic and collection site etc. to carry out the nodulation test. The results showed that 42 Trifolium spp. plants with rhizobia inoculation could nodulate, and the nodulation rate was 100%. At the same time, some reisolated strains named nodulation strains gained by reisolated root nodule of representative strains partly. Then, we carried out the whole cell protein molecular marker between original strains and reisolates strains in same cultivation conditions. The clustering analysis demonstrated that 10 original strains had an identical protein maps with their reisolated strains at higher similarity, it indicated that these strains could establish symbiotic nodulation connection with their original Trifolium spp. hosts.
The study on the productivity of five different growth years of Medicago sativa was carried on the experimental farm of the Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities in Xiliaohe Plain from April to October in 2007. The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate of twoyear old alfalfa was higher but lower for sixyear old alfalfa in generally, and varied among cutting times. With the increase of the growing year, the content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b decreased in first cutting, but the content of threeyear old and fouryear old alfalfa were higher in the second, third and fourth cuttings, and the twoyear old and sixyear old alfalfa were lower. The content of Carotinoid decreased in the first cutting with the increase of the growing year, but there was no obvious correlation between the content of Carotinoid and growing years in the other cuttings. The whole year alfalfa yield ranked as: twoyearthreeyearfouryearsixyearoneyear. With the increase of growing year, the plant density of alfalfa with different growth years decreased, but the rate of rotted roots, the root crown diameter and the tiller number of root crown increased. The dry weight of major root and the number of lateral root of threeyear old alfalfa were the highest, and the dry weight of lateral root of fouryear old alfalfa was the highest in 0-50 cm soil layer.
The clipping experiment was conducted every ten days from July 26 to October 6 in the past two years on the mixedsown artificial grassland, which was established withmixture of Elymus nutans + Poa crymophila + Festuca sinensis + Puccinellia tenuiflora in the Black Soil Type degraded grassland of source region. The results indicated that the fresh grass yield of 2year old mixture grassland clipping firstly in August 26 was the highest for 31 933 kg/hm2, and 3year old mixture grassland clipping in August 16 was the highest for 9 520 kg/hm2. The determination of nutrient showed that the crude protein yield of mixture grassland clipping firstly in August 16 was the highest, and the 2year old grassland was 5 683 kg/hm2, 3year old grassland was 2 189 kg/hm2. So the period from August 16 to 26 was the optimum clipping time of the perennial artificial grassland in the area.
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a widely adapted perennial (C4) grass and a potential bioenergy crop. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of marginal land types and transplanting methods on the establishment of switchgrass seedlings. One loam soil (CK) and three typical marginal land soils(sandy soil, coarse sand, and gravel soil) as well as three transplanting methods(nutrition pot, rootnaked and rootnaked plus nutrient soil) were used in this study, which was carried out using potted experiment in greenhouse. Switchgrass was suitable for planting on marginal lands, and plant height, tiller numbers, leaf numbers of main stem and dry weight were significantly reduced along with the decline of soil nutrient. Compared with the nutrition pot seedlings, the rootnaked seedlings were in poor growth status with significantly lower survival rate, plant height, tiller numbers and dry matter weight, but the seedlings of rootnaked plus nutrient soil had better survival rate and growth status than the rootnaked ones. In summary, rootnaked plus nutrient soils is the preferred transplanting method for switchgrass planting on marginal lands.
The different cutting frequencies were conducted in the tropical tussock grassland of Kast Areas in one year, and yield, agronomic characters, regenerative capacity and the following year returning green stage were analyzed primarily. The results showed that: 1) the following year returning green stage for 2-4 cutting times postponed 4-10 d compared once in a year; 2) the regeneration height of plants decreased with increasing of cutting frequency in the same growth period. The correlation analysis of treatments among average layer height of grass, grass cover and yield showed a positive correlation (r=0.974 9, r=0.962 8 and r=0.967 5); 3) the fresh and hay yields were 11.87 t/hm2 and 5.33 t/hm2, respectively. There was significant difference of hay yield between treatments (P0.05); 4) the growth rate increased with increasing of temperature, active accumulated temperature and rainfall among different cutting stages for the same treatment, vice versa; the growth rate decreased with increasing cutting frequency in the same cutting time of different treatments. The growth rate was the highest 2.1 g/(m2d) for one cutting in full year.
The chromosome number and the karyotype of Paspalum atratum cv. Reyan 11 were investigated by the method of root tip squash. The result showed that the chromosome number of somatic cells was 2n=40, the karyotype formula was 2n = 2x = 40 = 32m + 4sm + 2st + 2M. The karyotype belonged to type 2A, and it was quite symmetrical. This confirmed the chromosome number of P. atratum cv. Reyan 11 and analyzed its karyotype, which would provide basis for the research of cytology in genesis evolution and molecular biology of P.atratum cv. Reyan 11.
This paper took fresh alfalfa at bud stage as material, discussed the effects of different measures on alfalfa leaf protein extraction including temperature, pH and the orthogonal experimental design of fourfactors including temperature, heating time, pH and NaCl concentration. The results indicated that in the single factor experiment, the optimum temperature and pH, which affected LPC production, LPC purity and crude protein extraction ratio, were 75 ℃and 4.0, respectively. While in the orthogonal experiment, the optimum combination factors for extracting LPC were that pH was 4.0, temperature was 85 ℃, heating time was 2 min, and NaCl concentration was 0.4%.
In order to understand the drought resistance of Elymus sibiricus at germination stage, seven germplasm materials were collected at various locations in China. The seeds were treated with PEG6000 solution at the concentration of 50,100,150 g/L, and the relative germination rate, germination potential, germination index, seed vitality index and shoot/root lengths were evaluated comprehensively. The results showed that the high tolerant droughtresistance group included Jibukang which came from Changji, Xinjiang (E03); Wutaishan of Shanxi (E04); Luqumaai of Gansu (E07). The intermediate droughtresistance group included materials which came from Wutaishan of Shanxi (E01); Yili Xinjiang (E02);Gangou Urumchi of Xinjiang (E05). The sensitive drought resistance material was Qinyuan,Shanxi (E06). E. sibiricus was studied on the changes of seed germination characters under PEG6000 resistance as a good pasture, which had the significant meaning for breeding.
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen(N) and phosphorus(P) on one year old Sophora flavescens. The four levels of N were set up as 0(control), 38, 75, 113 kg/hm2 and four levels of P(P2O5) were set up as 0(control), 23, 45, 90 kg/hm2 in a two factor randomized block design field test. Results showed that there were significant stimulated effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth of annual S. flavescens, and the interactions of N and P were significant. The bud numbers, plant fresh weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight, aerial part fresh weight and aerial part dry weight were highest when applied with high nitrogen fertilizer of 113 kg/hm2 and low phosphorus of 23 kg/hm2 P2O5. That was increased by 95.6％, 57％, 57.6％, 50.6％, 60.1％, 41.5％, compared with the control（P0.05）, respectively. Secondly, there was also significant difference when applied with lowmedium nitrogen of the 38 kg/hm2, 75 kg/hm2 N and high phosphorus of 45 kg/hm2 P2O5 than control. The ratio of root dry weight to root fresh weight and ratio of root dry weight to total plant dry weight were increased with increasing P2O5 under all levels of N applied. The root diameter and the xylem diameter were the highest with 113 kg/hm2 N and 23 kg/hm2 P2O5, that was increased by 24.9％,20.2％compared with the control（P0.05）. Nitrogen and phosphorus had not significant positive effect on phloem thickness. The leaflet numbers of plant, leaflet area and plant area were highest by applying 113 kg/hm2 N and 23 kg/hm2 P2O5, that was increased by37.6％,40.2％,83.9％compared with the control（P0.05）, respectively. It was considered that the combination of 113 kg/hm2 N and 23 kg/hm2 P2O5, and the application of 38 kg/hm2, 75 kg/hm2 N and 45 kg/hm2 P2O5 could get higher yield of S.flavescens seedling, they were appropriate applications for the growth of one year old S. flavescens.
Global livestock inventory increased by two times from 1962 through 2002 and inventory of poultry, pig and cattle simultaneously rose by 3 times, 1.2 times and 42.8%, respectively. Current amount of cattle, sheep and pig in China accounted for about 1/10, 1/5 and 1/2 of that around the world, respectively. All kinds of livestock inventory increased substantially in developing countries during the last halfcentury, but most of livestock excluding poultry started to reduce in developed countries after reaching to a peak in 1970s-1990s, which resulted from population tendency and industrial structure adjustment. Productive efficiency of individual animal was lower for all kinds of livestock in developing countries than that in developed countries, but improved rate of livestock productive efficiency was higher in developing countries than that in developed countries. Specialized livestock production contributed about 3/4 of poultry, over half of pork and almost 2/3 of egg to the whole world at present and about 94% of global meat production came from pork, poultry and beef together. Yield of pork, poultry and beef in China accounted for 55.7%, 23.6% and 13.2% of global corresponding meat production, respectively. From 1961 to 2008, mean annual consumption of meat and milk per capita increased by 0.43 kg/a and 0.57 kg/a in developing countries, respectively whilst by 0.28 kg/a and 0.25 kg/a in developed countries, respectively. Global feed (herbage, concentrate, etc) consumption was 66% higher in 2002 than that in 1962, and cattle, pig and poultry ingested 48.9%, 16.8% and 12.5% of total feed, respectively and occupied 30.7%, 31.7% and 23.6% of feed production land (rangeland, sown grassland, cropland, etc.), respectively.
Locoweed was poisonous plant distributed widely in Northwest rangelands of United States, there were more than 370 species, in which 24 species contained swainsonine and 11 species could cause animal poisoning. Ingesting locoweed could result in livestock death and affect livestock breeding and improvement. The extending locoweed could decrease the utilization rate of grassland and lead to huge losses which threatened seriously the local development of livestock husbandry. In order to reduce the economic losses, American government input large amount of manpower, energy and money on locoism study and had made great achievement in biology, ecology, physiology, toxicology, clinical diagnosis, prevention and treatment of locoweed nowadays. This paper mainly summarized the category, distribution and the recent development in diagnosis and prevention of locoism in America.
This paper summarized cultivars and productive performance of Cichorium intybus. Chicory was a perennial herb that has been popularly cultivated in Europe, its aerial parts were used as a vegetable, pasture, forage, and its root as coffee substitute and raw material of sugar. Chicory as pasture could produce high quantity and quality feed for livestock in many parts of the world. There were many chicory cultivars in China, including Cichorium intybus cv. Puna, C. intybus cv.Europe, C.intybus cv.Commander, C.intybus cv.Oubao, C.intybus cv.Kuoye, C.intybus cv.Yifeng, hybridized F1 Barckoria and C.intybus cv.Chicory. Most of them were forage and economic crops with a bright prospect associated with high yield and quality characters as favorable adaptability, longer grass supply stage, high nutritive value and digestibility, and better resistance to diseases and insect pests.