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Grassland tourism was displaying more and more role and industrial advantage in economic development of the area with farming and animal husbandry. Based on the necessity of the intangible cultural heritage for grassland tourism developing, the paper discussed the positive significance of development and utilization of the intangible cultural heritage resources for promoting the level of grassland tourism. Trough overall understanding and mastering the variety, quantity, distribution, existence environment, protective situation and problems of intangible cultural heritage resources in grassland culture, making protective plan and strengthening the management of intangible cultural heritage resources, we could improve the grassland tourism cultural taste, achieve social and economic benefit of intangible cultural heritage resources in grassland.
In this article,vegetation, soil, windsand activities three layers index system has been established and the value of the index has been decided by AHP. Take 2 types of ecological project in xianghuang banner as example, its ecological benefit were evaluated by using the method of remote sensing interpretati GV on and ground investigation. The results show that the score of enclosure project is 75.88, the score of Aerial Seeding project is 81.07.
Colorimetry method of FolinCiocalteu was used to measure prolease activity of soil in different habitats of Khobqi sand area. The result showed that the seasonal change of soil prolease activity was summer＞spring＞fall＞winter on flow sandlot, the vertical variation was 10-20 cm＞2-5 cm＞5-10 cm＞0-2 cm.On the half fixed and fixed sandlot, the seasonal change of soil prolease activity was summer＞fall＞spring＞winter, the vertical variation was 0-2 cm＞2-5 cm＞5-10 cm＞10-20 cm. The soil prolease activity of no crust type was higher than the algea crust type on half fixed sandlot. The soil prolease activity of moss crust was higher than the algea crust and no crust sandlot on fixed sandy.
Based on aboveground biomass of rangeland, the fixation of CO2, release of O2, soil erosion control, conservation of water source and nutrient cycles which were 5 rangeland ecosystem services in northern agropastoral ecotone (which lies in Taipusi banner and Guyuan league) were evaluated using market value approach, material balance approach, water budget approach in this paper. The result showed the indirect value of five rangeland ecosystem services in farmland zone and in rangeland zone were 16 668 yuan/(hm2a) and 17 223 yuan/(hm2a). Although the later was higher 3.33% than the first, it didnt lead to significant decrease of indirect value of ecosystem services in study agropastoral ecotone site because of the interference of cultivation activities. This indicated that maintaining agricultural activities or returning more farmland to grass might promote sustainable development and ecological role of natural rangeland ecosystem. However, if cultivated or destroyed rangeland continuously, ecosystem services of rangeland would decrease, and ecological barrier role of rangeland also would drop or disappear.
This paper summarized the component and role of root exudates, as well as the effects of vegetation types, nutrition stress and rhizosphere microorganisms on the types and quantity of root exudates. In general, under stress condition, the quantity of root exudates increase significantly，it ameliorates plants growing situation under lacking of nutrition or metal contaminated condition. Some of phenolic acids in root exudates is harmful to plants at high concentration; at the same time it restrains plants'growth. Further research on the generation mechanism of the root exudates and their reflections in physiology and ecology，will help to further understand the physiologic and ecological course on root and soil interface and the mechanism of control and regulation.
The mowing test was conducted on 30 excellent Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) forage germplasm resources in Ramie resources nursery at the height of 50-60 cm, and the biological output and crude protein content were determined. The results showed that suitable forage germplasm lines was Wu Shan Xian Ma. After the first harvest, the total biological output of 6 times mowing was 22 215 kg/hm2, crude protein content was 25.43%. So it could resolve the problem of the lack of highprotein feed in southern. Ramie was excellent high protein forage, and it has great development potential with its high biological yield and high adaptability in the South.
Herbs are usually used for landscape, pasturage, and sports turf. In recent years, with the development of people's living standards, increasing destruction of living environment, energy crisis, science and technology development, more and more herb resources were exhumed, achieved remarkable results both in depth and in breadth. However, China is a country with rich wild herb plant resources in the mountains, the unconventional application of herb plants to mine track recovery, paper making, extraction of essential oils, as well as energy grass was discussed in this paper. The development and utilization of herb plants in these areas will promote valueadded herb products and become an important part in grass industry.
The study took GIMMS NDVI data of the vegetation growth peak season in the early 1980s and the beginning of this century as a data source, by means of the remote sensing techniques, analyzed dynamic changes of natural grassland vegetation of Inner Mongolia. The results showed that dynamic change of natural grassland vegetation was obvious in Inner Mongolia. In the past 20 years, the condition of the vegetation overall presented a deterioration trend, about 61.88% natural grassland deteriorated, 30.17% unchanged, 7.95% became better. The region of high vegetation coverage and biomass began to decrease while the region of low vegetation coverage and biomass was increasing.
The importance of temperate grassland in northern China in carbon cycle researches of grassland ecosystem was discussed. The characteristics and research status of carbon cycle of temperate grassland in northern China was expatiated at three aspects such as carbon fixation, carbon storage and carbon emission, as well as the main factors affecting these 3 aspects. It emphasized the primary productivity of grassland, soil organic carbon, soil respiration and their responses to the environmental factors and the human activities, and provided reference for the study of carbon cycle of temperate grassland in northern China.
Biomass energy instead of traditional energy has become a hot topic of human research. The process of biomass energy was summarized in this paper, and the certain application status home and abroad were introduced, such as producing ethanol, diesel, oil and other fuel production with biomass energy, and generating the power by biomass gasification, medium circulation, crops straw burning. The applying prospect would focus on how to use the native geographical advantage and abundant resources as biomass energy reasonably in China. The development direction of biomass energy should be the trinity with agriculture, forestry and grass, and the combination of grass subject, biological technology and other subjects, so as to create the biomass energy with low cost, environmental protection and saving resources, and it would bring huge economic benefits for society.
Took annual ryegrass (Lolium multifolorum) variety Abundant as material to study the pretreatment technology of ethanol fuel manufacturing transformation. The results suggested that the optimum conditions of pretreatment by H2SO4 were that 1% H2SO4 at 120 ℃ for 2 h, with 20-40 granularities and the liquid/solid ratio of 8∶1. While the optimum conditions of NaOH pretreatment were that 10% NaOH at 100 ℃ for 2 h, with 20-40 granularities and liquid/solid ratio of 6∶1. Both of tests indicated that the temperature was the most important factor. The pretreatment by H2SO4 could remove 91.6% hemicelluloses and purify 60.1% cellulose effectively, while NaOH pretreatment could remove 64.2% lignin, it was basis for further enzymatic hydrolysis process.
Perennial forage had many merits such as reproducible ability, high yield, wild distribution, low price, high cellulose content, etc. Therefore, using perennial forage as feedstock of producing ethanol could solve the contradiction between energy production and food security, but also took ecological benefits such as controlling soil erosion, reducing pesticide and fertilizer pollution, reducing CO2 emission. Compared with grain crops, the use of perennial forage could decrease the ethanol production cost and brought good economic benefit with the development of technology. This paper discussed the status of producing bioethanol by perennial forage, and analyzed its ecological advantage and economic value. Also, some main perennial forage as feedstock of producing ethanol were introduced, and it provided a scientific basis for developing energy grassland industry with perennial forage.
The general condition, grassland type, forage resource and its nutriention value in Guizhou Province were discussed. Based on advantages of developing agriculturegrazing combined industry due to its rich water and heat resource, deficiencies of lower quality and scattered grassland as well as steep slope, poor soil layer and serious erosion, the utilization strategy was presented to provide reference for decision making in grassland animal husbandry development.
According to field investigation, the distribution, structure of community and degradation characteristics of Kobresia tibetica grassland in Qinghai were analyzed; the degradation of K. tibetica swamping grassland was caused by both climate warming and humans unreasonable production and operation activities. Basis on the causes of degradation and local actual situations, some measures were suggested that ecological protection engineering should be implemented, purpose and style of grassland utilization should be changed, enclosure should be carried out, rushing gully should be controlled and research should be strengthened in order to protect and recover K. tibetica swamping grassland.
The natural geographical conditions and the current situation and development strategy of grass industry in Tongwei County were investigated and analyzed. It was presented that the first important task for agriculture development in Tongwei County was grass industry development; the key point for agriculture and grass industry was sustainable development. The necessity and sustainability of grass industry developing guideline, discipline and measures taken were analyzed and discussed.
In this experiment, regeneration performance of three strains of Bromus ciliatus was analyzed with different stubble height (0-2,2-4,4-6 cm) during the jointing stage. The results showed that the stubble height and regenerating speed of forage had significant positive correlation(r=0.724 1,P0.05), among which 4-6 cm (stubble height) of 9708 strain had faster regeneration speed and 0-2 cm (stubble height) of 9714 strain had lower regeneration speed. In same cutting treatments, the regeneration tillers of 9708 and 9714 strains had no difference (P0.05), and tillers of 9701 strain were higher significantly than other two strains when the second stubble height was 4-6 cm. With stubble height increasing, total dry grass yield of 9701 and 9708 strains had a progressive increase, and the 9714 strain had a progressive decrease. The suitable stubble height of 9701 and 9708 strains was 4-6 cm and the height of 9714 was 0-2 cm.
This paper selected 8 combined modes of 7 shrub and grass varieties as the materials, took the degradation shrub grassland as control, the survival rate, soil and water conservation function and aboveground biomass of shrubgrass combined modes were studied. The result showed that various biological characteristics of Cajanus cajan, Leucaena leucocephala, and graminaceous Setaria sphacelata cv. Narok and Legum plant as Macroptilum atropurpureum were excellent. On the contrary, Festuca arundinacea,Trifolium repens and T. hybridum were not adapted well to grow in the jinsha river hotarid valley, they could not pass over the hotarid season. By the study of soil and water conservation function and aboveground biomass of various shrubgrass combined modes, the optimal shrubgrass combined mode was selected as C. cajan+S. sphacelata+ F. arundinacea+M. atropurpureum+T. repens+T. hybridum in the hotarid valley.
Soil respiration is a very important aspect in mass circulation and energy flow through ecosystems; it is the main index of evaluating carbon dioxide change in atmospheres and soil biological activity. This paper determined and analyzed the soil respiration of Hobq sand dune in natural conditions of semiarid region, the results indicated that 1) the soil respiration rate was related to soil moisture, but it was unrelated to the soil temperature at small time scales in sand dune of semiarid region. 2) The soil respiration rate was related to bacterial population and azotobacter population, but it was unrelated to the epiphyte population and actinomyces population. 3) The soil respiration rate was related to vegetation biomass, including aboveground and underground biomass. This conclusion could help to realize the soil respiration and its effect factors in sand dune of semiarid region, and understand the material cycle and energy flow in terrestrial ecosystem.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) was an extremely important legume forage variety in the development of agriculture and animal husbandry in the world. This paper took three alfalfa varieties introduced from Kunming and Deqin wild alfalfa as materials, the pollen viability, pollen number and stigma receptivity of varieties were studied. The results showed that there was great difference in pollen viability, pollen number and stigma receptivity of different varieties and different position. Basically, the pollen viability of Acrora was higher than other varieties. The pollen viability of middle and lower inflorescence in one alfalfa was significantly higher than the upper part (P0.05). The pollen number of CW1351 was higher than others. The stigma receptivity of Deqin was significantly higher than other varieties (P0.05).
Pennisetum purpureum is an important perennial herbaceous plant in tropical and subtropical regions. It has been gained increasing popularity in industry, agriculture and livestock husbandry because of its excellent characteristics of biology and ecology. This article summarized the application of P. purpureum as forage, papermaking, new energy, ecoeffectiveness, etc. It was also noticed that the adjustment of agricultural structure and the work of recovering ecosystem would be accelerated as long as we put much emphasis on dominant traits of P. purpureum combining with proper development and comprehensive utilization according to local conditions in southern China.
The influences of fall cutting and the cutting time on forage yield of the fall cutting, moisture content of forage, ratio of stem and leaf, regrowth height of alfalfa before winter, over wintering rate, yield of the first cutting in the next year of the Zhongmu 1 alfalfa(Medicago sativa) in Beijing plain were investigated. The results showed that before the killing frost, yield of the fall cutting increased gradually with the delay of the fall cutting time（P0.05）,but it decreased after the killing frost. Moisture content of forage kept constant before the first frost, increased gradually after the first frost, while decreased significantly after the killing frost（P0.05）. Ratio of stem and leaf increased significantly after the killing frost（P0.05）, regrowth height of alfalfa before winter decreased gradually with the delay of the cutting time before the killing frost, kept constant after the killing frost. An additional fall cutting and different cutting time had no significant effects on the over wintering rate of Zhongmu 1alfalfa. Yield of the first cutting in the next year increased gradually with the delay of the cutting time before the killing frost（P0.05）,the earliest cutting were significantly lower than control（P0.05）,the others before the killing frost were not significant compared with control. The preliminary conclusion showed that the fall cutting in Beijing plain was feasible, the fall cutting critical period of alfalfa in Beijing plain was the interval time between the last summer cutting and the fall cutting less than 8 weeks(5 ℃ available accumulated temperature 720 ℃), the interval time between the first killing frost and the fall cutting more than 3 weeks (5 ℃ available accumulated temperature90 ℃). The optimum fall cutting period of alfalfa in Beijing plain was 8-11 weeks of the interval time between the last summer cutting and the fall cutting (5 ℃ available accumulated temperature was 760-800 ℃), 0-3 weeks of the interval time between the first killing frost and the fall cutting (5 ℃available accumulated temperature was 0-40 ℃).
The yield of the annual forage and feed crops mixture grassland in agropastoral transitional zone of Yanmenguan region in Shanxi was studied. The results showed that the mixture with 50% common vetch + 50% oat was the best among the different mixtures, the yields of grass and crude protein reached 48 525 kg/hm2 and 1 981 kg/hm2, the suitable row spacing was 30 cm, the crude protein of interlacing sowing significantly was higher than the same row sowing. While the grass yields of mixtures with 50% corn + 50% lablab or 50% sorghum hybrid sudangrass+ 50% labla were higher than the single sown of corn or sorghum hybrid sudangrass. The models could get higher grass yield in flat ground and basin region, and the mixture model of oat and vetch was suitable adopted in mountain and hilly region.
The water requirement (WR) and water requirement rate (WRR) of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were studied in Bashang area of Hebei Province with large scale noweightinglysimeter. The reference crop evapotranspiration(ETo) was calculated by the PenmanMonteith formula, and the crop coefficient（Kc）of alfalfa was determined on the measured WR and calculated ETo in the same period. The results showed that the WR of alfalfa during the first harvest, second harvest, third harvest and whole growth season(1st-3rd harvest) in 2008 were 157.8, 192.0, 199.5 and 549.3 mm, separately. The WR of first harvest was lower than that of the second and third harvest significantly(P＜0.05),and the WR of second and third harvest was not significantly different. The WRR were 2.6, 6.2, 4.2 and 3.9 mm/d, separately. The WRR of second harvest was higher than that of the first and third harvest significantly (P＜0.05), and the WRR of third harvest was higher than that of the first harvest significantly (P＜0.05).The Kc were 0.61, 1.34, 1.30 and 0.99,separately.The Kc of the second and third harvest were higher than that of the first harvest evidently, and they were more than 2 times to the later.
Based on grey system theory, the study conducted the gray system analysis on main indexes of 14 introduction alfalfa cultivars in dryhot valley region of Jinsha River, including fresh yield, dry yield, plant height, tiller number, stemleaf ratio and crude protein content. The order of weight of main production indexes in the synthetic evaluation model was that crude protein contentfresh yieldstemleaf ratioplant heightdry yieldtiller number. A comprehensive alfalfa cultivar evaluation model was established according to the weight of main indexes, and comprehensively evaluated the production performance of alfalfa cultivars with model, the results showed that the cultivar Hunterriver（7455）earned the maximum evaluation value, and it had relatively outstanding comprehensive productivity performance, which indicated that it was suitable for both spreading and planting in special ecological condition of dryhot valley region of Jinsha River.
Ten different genotypes of Chamaecrista were cultivated in 90 mg/L concentration of Al3+, and difference in Aluminum tolerance of genotypes was studied by measuring agronomic characteristics, elongation rates of main root, growth rates of plant height, roots conductivity, root activities and proline contents change. The resulted showed that the genotypes of 86134R2, 86134R3, 86134R1 and 2204 had strong Aluminum tolerance, the genotypes of 34721R1, 34721R2, 34721F7 and 34721F4 had medium Aluminum tolerance, the genotypes of 92985R2 and 92985R1 were sensitive.
There were many successes on tissue culture of Medicago spp., and the reports on M.sativa were the most. The paper presented the research progress on tissue culture of Medicago spp.in terms of selection of explants, medium composition, callus and somatic embryos induction, plant regeneration, selection of genotypes. Moreover, the existing problems and development tendency were summarized to provide useful advices on gene and cell engineering in Medicago spp.
The dynamic change of soluble sugar content, total nitrogen, malondialdehyde, free proline and free amino acid in root of three alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties were analyzed to find out their relationships with cold resistance of alfalfa. The results indicated that the content of soluble sugar, total nitrogen, free proline and free amino acid increased from late autumn and early winter, and kept higher level during the entire winter, then decreased in regreen time in the next spring, the content of malondialdehyde increased in autumn and decreased with the falling of temperature in late autumn. Moreover, the integrated determination parameters of all alfalfa varieties suggested that the coldresistance of Algonquin was the best, Gold Empress took the second place, and Gannong No.3 was the worst.
This paper introduced research progress of alfalfa flavonoids. It included the classification of alfalfa flavonoids, its measuring methods such as UV spectrophotometry, colorimetry, highperformance liquid chromatography; the measuring methods of flavonoids such as ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction, and macroporous resin adsorption method; its physiological function and the role of enhancing animal antioxidant, increasing immunity and controlling cancer. Despite of various biological activity and physiological function of alfalfa flavonoids, studies on its classification, measuring methods, extraction and separation processes, usage and safety evaluation technique were not sound and need further study.
Under the laboratory condition, seeds of 7 alfalfa varieties were treated with 0, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9% and 1.2% NaCl with 3 replicates. Salt tolerance of 7 alfalfa varieties during germination was compared by measuring germination rate, germination index, vigor index and relatively descending rate of vigor index. The results showed that low concentration NaCl could promote germination rate and high concentration inhibited germinating characters. Both considered germination rate and the speed and uniformity level of germination, it was concluded the strongest salt tolerance varieties were Giant and Sanditi; WL323, Debao, Huangguan and L90 were medium salt tolerance, the weakest was Goethe.
Lespedeza davurica seeds were soaked in La(NO3)3 solution with concentrations of 100-1 000 g/mL for 48 h to study the seeds vigor, seeds water absorbing rate and membrane permeability. The results showed that the treatment with concentrations of 200-800 g/mL could accelerate germination and improve seeds vigor, relative water intake capacity and membrane permeability of L. davurica. The treatment of 700-800 g/mL La(NO3)3 was the best and beyond 900 g/mL concentrations treatment would inhibit the germination.
Space mutation breeding has been considered as a new breeding method both at home and abroad. The summary introduced the definition and characteristic of plant space mutation breeding. Plant generated genetic mutation under compound effects of space mutation factors such as the strong radiation, microgravity and high vacuum. Screening and identification of useful characters could lead to a new variety. The summary discussed selfadvantages of space mutation breeding of grass and great potential of space mutation breeding in forage breeding. Finally, the research progress and problems of grass space mutation breeding in China were summarized
The climatic resources utilization characteristic, yield and quality advantage as well as market demand of multiple cropping silage corn were analyzed. Four key planting techniques were presented. The results of field experiment showed that Zhengdan958 and Gaoyou4515 fit for multiple cropping in Liaoning, their sowing date should not be later than July 19. Under the soil condition with more than middle level organic matter, middle nitrogen content, and lack phosphorus and potassium, appropriate fertilization amount of nitrogen (N) was 250 kg/hm2, phosphorous(P2O5) was 100 kg/hm2. Bunch planting technique (two plants per hole) could improve yield effectively, and the most appropriate density was 100 000 plants per hectare.
The paper analyzed the status, problems and development potential of grassland resources in Fujian, and discussed the strategic position and opportunities of hilly grass industry development. With its development situation, four kinds of main production and operation models of grassland agriculture were established and exampled, including the grassland animal husbandry, farmland rotation, intercropping of orchard (tea)grass and intercropping of trees and grass. Finally, some recommendations about the future development of grassland science were put forward.
Field investigation, analysis and evaluation of natural conditions, production situation and socioeconomic status in the Anjiagou river basin of Gansu province were conducted, through comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the structure, composition, function, inputoutput performance, formation background of typical agroforestry ecosystem models in basin, then selected the appropriate agroforestry ecosystem models to adapt to different site conditions. According to every models inputoutput performance costeffective and combining the main ecological function, five typical optimized combination of agroforestry models were selected as follows: model of water and soil conservation forest at steep sloping land, model of returning farmland to forest or grassland at gentle sloping land, model of agroforestry ecosystem at terraces land, model of rainwater collection around courtyard, model of water and soil conservation forest at gully erosion land. The optimized model in Anjiagou river basin would provide the way and reference for crops, trees, grass mixedtype and reasonable combination, selection of optimized compound model in arid and semiarid regions.
The soils and communities of Leymus chinensis + forbs meadow steppe in typical steppe region changed due to grazing intensities were studied. The results indicated that the intensity of the topsoil increased significantly and the topsoil water content did not change with increasing of grazing pressures. The standing biomass of high grazing pressure was higher than that of the moderate grazing intensity, but it was lower than that of low grazing pressure. There was a significant difference between the standing biomass of low grazing pressure and that of either moderate grazing pressure or high grazing pressure. Their successions were L. chinensis + forbsL. chinensis + Cleistogenes squarrosa + Carex duriusculaC. squarrosa + Stipa grandis + Agropyrom michnoiC. squarrosa + Potentilla acaulis + Artemisia frigida. So the plant composition in degradation grasslands was influenced by the way and intensity of the utilization, and restricted by the habitat conditions. The succession series of the L. chinensis + forbs meadow steppe in typical steppe region was between the typical steppe and meadow steppe.
The third secession of the 17th conference of the CPC issued a landmark policy that allowed farmers to transfer their land use reasonably, which provided new idea and space for the development of grassland husbandry. The meaning, form and some advices of grassland resources circulation were analyzed according to the status of transferring land use in Nan Nigou Village, Zhua Xixiulong Township, Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu Province. The main types of grassland circulation in Nan Nigou village were grassland rent, transference of contracted responsible land, union operation, agent grazing, change grassland, etc. The grassland resources circulation became slow because of herders quality, environment and policy. Some suggestions were provided at aspects of establishing ecological compensation mechanism, widening employment channel, accelerating improved variety breeding and veterinary service system construction, establishing the support system of difficult families in pastoral area, and supporting leading grassland enterprises.
Application prospects of locust control by new biological technology such as Nosema locustae, Metarhizium anisopliae, Azadirachtin were introduced in this paper. N.locustae is a kind of single cell eukaryotic protozoan which parasitizes on locust or other orthoptera insects. After 45days of the application, the infection rate was 50.6%, decreasing rate of locust was 73.4%. M.anisopliae is a kind of pathogenic fungi, its control effect on locust was 66.5% after 7days of application; and reached 76.7% after 12days. Azadirachtin is a bioactive substance extracted from A.indica seeds, 2days after applied 0.3% Azadirachtin, the effectiveness on locust was 95%. Application of biological technology such as N. locustae, M.anisopliae, Azadirachtin on locust control not only achieve high control effect, but also safe for human beings and livestock, no pollution to environment, therefore, protect ecological environment and reduce loss from pest.
MongoliaXinjiang Region, a vast territory from east to west, is the important base of animal husbandry in China. The pasture resources of MongoliaXinjiang Region suffer insect pests every year. Due to small size and and rarely move, Tingidae is hard to discover; but its harm to the grassland vegetation is serious. In this paper, Tingidae parasitic conditions of 43 genus belonging to 14 families were reported from MongoliaXinjiang Region, including 40 species belonging to 13 genera of Tingidae. The result showed that the Tingidae parasitic plants species were widely distributed in MongoliaXinjiang Region, some plants were parasitized by various Tingidae.
Golf industry was consisted of golf course design, construction and management. The construction and management industries had became localized, but native golf course design industry developed slowly, only took 30 percent market share, and there were a few native professional golf course architects. This article discussed golf course design industry development of China in terms of industry organization, policy, academic research, approbation, market competition, golf competitive, golf athletics style and green keeping. The healthy development of native golf course design industry should rely on market research, intellectual property rights protection, cooperation and communication, propagandizing and education; meanwhile should pay attention to the combination with Chinese traditional culture.
Golf has been introduced to China for over 20 years. With the double stimulation of fast development of economy and the increasing of golf amateur, the golf courses built increasingly day by day in China. The primary industrial scale was formed. Along with the increase of golf courses in China, the public opinion which to the development of golf in China was also getting more and more, and many views were impractical. Based on all sorts of reasons, government policy to the golf also changed from support at the beginning to the subsequent control presently. The development of Chinese golf club was facing many questions. The paper analyzed that the development of domestic golf course nowadays pursued the models such as high specification, high scale and big area, and contrasted the Chinese golf course structure with the golf development mature country (the US).It proposed that the civilian population played more important role in the healthy development of golf in China. Moreover it predicted that China golf course would be developed with structure more rationally, and in favor of the popular golf course and practice course in future.
By using frequency analysis of keywords, this paper analyzed all periodicals in agricultural field based on Tsinghua Tongfangs Chinese Journal FullText Database from 1980 to 2008. The research status of Chinas desertification study in temperate grassland was analyzed from research field, research focus and main research units to draw an outline of the main field and development tendency in Chinas temperate grassland desertification study. For grassland workers, the constant research focus still is the grassland desertification and grassland animal husbandry; climate change, desertification control, sandstorm and overloading and overgrazing have become new hot spots in this field.
Grassland industry is one of the burgeoning industries in our country and has gradually integrated management of production, processing and marketing, playing an important role in livestock husbandry. This article elaborated and analyzed some problems in the process of improving grassland production managerial technical system, technological extension and service system, which included impercipient of grassland industry, imperfect system, shortage of funds, lacking of technician, backward training mode, single and boring content. Meanwhile, some suggestions and solutions such as scientific integrity training mode, increasing fund, promoting personnel of technical popularization and management quality, determining training mode, promoting the ways of extension, increasing training object, expanding training content and so on accordingly.