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2009 Vol.26(6)

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Role and influence of grass in ancient Chinese poetry
Jia-Han-Beng, LI Jian
2009, 3(6): 1-5.
[Abstract](2255) [PDF 889KB](754)
Abstract:
The description and expression of grasses in the ancient Chinese poetry have a long history and abundant contents. The role of grasses in the ancient Chinese poetry was very prominent and their influence was extremely broad. Of all poetry works on grasses, those describing scenery, expressing emotions and making trope with grasses have the most number. Many poets used grasses to express their vicissitudes of life, reflecting their yearning of relatives, friends and hometowns; some poets also took grasses to express their outlooks on life, world and value in their poems. The role and influence of grasses in the ancient poetry also reflected the ancient Chinese grass culture.
Study on the diversity of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla community in Taihang Mountain of Shanxi Province
Er-Bao NIE, Yu-Qian WANG, Jin-Tun ZHANG
2009, 3(6): 6-10.
[Abstract](1689) [PDF 528KB](727)
Abstract:
The plant species diversity of 13 associations in the Vitex negundo var. heterophylla communities in Taihang Mountain was studied by using richness index (R1), Simpson index (), ShannonWeiner index (H) and evenness index (E4). The results indicate that the quantity of populations and species was obviously uneven among 13 associations, which lead to variation of and H. R1 and H increased and then decline slowly with the increase of elevation and reached the peak value at 760 m while E4 slightly varied. With the disturbing of traveling and grazing, diversity indices decreased with the increase of disturbance degree. Affected by the natural factors and human activities, the dominance of V. negundo var. heterophylla reduced and showed a tendency of negative succession, while those under fewer disturbances of human activities showed xerosere character.
Survey on the grassland conditions and biomass in Nagqu County of Tibetan Autonomous Region
2009, 3(6): 11-17.
[Abstract](1595) [PDF 1363KB](763)
Abstract:
The survey on the grassland condition and 6 typical forages in Nagqu County was conducted during the growing season from May to August in 2007 by measuring the vegetation coverage, aboveground biomass, moisture contents in grasses and soil, rodent damage degree. The results showed that Kobresia tibetica was the best in terms of growth and yield. The soil moisture, proportion of poisonous grasses, rodent damage degree, grassland degradation degree and soil fertility were significantly different among sampling sites. The biomass was positively related to the precipitation, air temperature and soil temperature. The quality of K. pygmaea was better than K. tibetica and Androsace umbellata was the most poorest in terms of the contents of crude protein and crude fat.
Study on interspecific association of springautumn pasture under enclosure and recovering conditions in Yili River valley
2009, 3(6): 18-24.
[Abstract](1811) [PDF 1264KB](712)
Abstract:
The interspecific association in the major population of grazing communities and enclosed communities for 1, 5 and 6 years (springautumn pasture) in Yili River valley were studied and the results showed that the species in the communities enclosed for 5 and 6 years unassociated, and those enclosed for 1 year and unenclosed slightly associated. Along with the vegetation restoration, the species with positive association remarkably increased and those with negative association remarkably reduced. The positive and negative association rate performed a decreasing and then increasing pattern. The distribution of dominant species showed a relatively stable status and neutrally associated with other populations, the other populations were easily affected by environmental factors. The association coefficient reflected the relationships among species and with the environmental factors to a certain degree and it was strongly affected by environmental factors at the beginning of enclosure and the biological affection gradually reduced along with the improvement of habitat.
Contents and relationships of soil organic matter and total nitrogen under different habitats in Jinfo Mountain
2009, 3(6): 25-28.
[Abstract](1953) [PDF 423KB](902)
Abstract:
The contents of organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN) and C/N ratio of soil under different habitats in Jinfo Mountain were studied and the results showed that the order of OM content in 0 to 10 cm soil layer was west slope(108.088 g/kg)>south slope (92.229 g/kg) >summit(89.727 g/kg)>north slope (80.881 g/kg). The order of TN content was summit(6.482 g/kg)>south slope (5.722 g/kg)>west slope(4.355 g/kg)>north slope (3.928 g/kg). The order of C/N ratio was west slope(24.82)>north slope(20.59)>south slope (16.12)>summit (13.84). While in 10 to 20cm soil layer, the order of OM content was summit(93.895 g/kg)>west slope(70.319 g/kg)>south slope (67.970 g/kg)>north slope (63.255 g/kg). The order of TN content was summit(5.528 g/kg)>west Slope (4.055 g/kg) >south slope (3.867 g/kg)>north slope (3.460 g/kg). The order of C/N ratio was north slope(18.28)>south slope (17.58) >west slope (17.34) >summit (16.99). It could be concluded that the contents of TN and OM were different among different habitats, and TN and OM contents in 0 to 10 cm soil layer were more than that in 10 to 20 cm soil layer. Moreover, the relationship between TN contents and OM contents in different habitats were significantly positive correlated.
Study on the soil properties of desert grassland in the edge of Jingtai oasis
2009, 3(6): 29-34.
[Abstract](1644) [PDF 679KB](697)
Abstract:
In order to properly utilize the desert grassland resources, the vegetation characters and soil nutrition (0 to 150 cm) of desert grassland in the edge of Jingtai oasis were studied. The results showed that the desert grassland in Jingtai could be divided into 3 subtypes, including gravelly soil desert grassland, sandy soil desert grassland and salty soil desert grassland. The soil nutrition (organic matter, total N, total P, total K, available P, available K and soil moisture) was poor. Gravelly desert grassland had thin soil profile, poor construction, lower nutrient and water contents. The dominant communities were Reaumuria songarica, Oxytropis aciphylla var. aciphylla + Caragana opulens, Artemisia desertorum and Potaninia mongolica. The vegetation coverage was less than 30%. As for the sandy desert grassland, its soil profile was thin and the nutrient contents were lower than gravelly and salty desert grassland. And its main communities were Nitraria tangutorum and C. opulens + A. desertorum with 17.5% to 32.6% of coverage. Salty desert grassland has deeper soil profile, higher soil moisture and salt contents. The main communities were Kalidium foliatum + Phragmites australis. The coverage was as high as 55% (normally from 30% to 45%) and this type of grassland was used as winterspring pasture.
Preliminary study on characteristics of plant functional types in deteriorated Heteropappus altaicus grassland
2009, 3(6): 35-40.
[Abstract](1646) [PDF 925KB](778)
Abstract:
The method of spatialtemporal substitution was used to study the characteristics of plant functional types in deteriorated Heteropappus altaicus grassland caused by heavy grazing and its original vegetation community (Stipa krylovii + Agropyron cristatum-Artemisia frigida + H. altaicus) in the upstream of Shiyang River. The results showed that the coverage, density and height of gramineous plants decreased in deteriorated grassland, and their variation ranges were 20.4% to 33.6%, 24.0% to 34.6% and 36.2% to 59.9% respectively, while those of forbs increased and the variation ranges were 18.1% to 63.0%, 26.7% to 82.8% and 6.9% to 80.8% respectively. It meant that the horizontal growth ability of plants in gramineous group decreased compared with those in forbs group and its role in community was weakened. This feature was not related with the deterioration phase. The plants in gramineous group kept their dominant role in original community, but they were replaced by forbs after mid July in deteriorated grassland. The main reasons for plant community deterioration might be the overgrazing and the growth characteristics of the plant functional types because the selective grazing and trampling of livestock reduced the resource occupying ability of gramineous plants and supply more resources to forbs and finally formed the deteriorated grassland.
Study on dynamics succession pattern of secondary forest in Hanquangou valley of Gansu Province
Guang-Wen DA
2009, 3(6): 41-46.
[Abstract](1287) [PDF 1029KB](670)
Abstract:
Based on the investigation on the composition of plant species, plant diversity and important value of species in the secondary plant community in Hanquangou valley of Gansu Province, the community was classified by using twoway indicator species analysis, the spatial distribution pattern of plant populations and the succession tendency of tree species was studied. The results showed that 1) the plant community could be classified into 7 types;2) their restoration degrees ranged from PhaseⅠto Phase Ⅶ with similar Simpson dominance index of tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer; as for the ShannonWiener diversity index, it was tree layershrub layerherb layer; as for the Pielou evenness index, it was tree layerherb layershrub layer, and the species richness gradually increased from PhaseⅠto Phase Ⅶ. The species composition and the spatial structure of the community gradually become complication and stable;3) the succession sequence was from aspen, birch to Qinghai spruce.
Preliminary study on ecological characteristics of natural vetiver community in western Guangdong
2009, 3(6): 47-50.
[Abstract](1402) [PDF 583KB](694)
Abstract:
The biological and ecological characteristics of natural vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) community were studied in Wuchuan City, west Guangdong Province. The result showed that there was only one herbaceous layer in the community, and vetiver grass was the highest (1 to 2 m) with 39% of coverage. The coverage of Eremochloa ophiuroides, Desmodium triflorum and the rest plants was 43%, 11% and 7% respectively. The total biomass, average density and total coverage of the community were 176.2 g/m2, 486.2 stems/m2 and 100% respectively. There were 24 species, belonging to 13 families, and the proportions of gramineal species, legumes and compositae were 33.3%, 12.5% and 12.5%.
Effect of ecological restoration project in northwestern Sichuan on the vegetation community of grassland under desertification
2009, 3(6): 51-56.
[Abstract](1651) [PDF 950KB](765)
Abstract:
In the ecological restoration area in northwestern Sichuan, the survey on vegetation community of grassland under desertification which was restored for 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 years was conducted. The results showed that the ecological restoration project increased the number of plant species, biodiversity index, total coverage and aboveground biomass. The community density and height showed a fluctuation without regular pattern. The features of vegetation community under restoration depended on the dominant, subdominant and companion species. The ecological restoration project accelerated the vegetation restoration. To achieve the satisfactory restoration, the grassland should be under enclosure without any grazing activities and the reasonable reseeding, irrigation and fertilization should be applied for promoting the restoration in this area.
Remote sensing based productivity monitoring of sedge and forbs grasslands in Sichuan Province
2009, 3(6): 57-61.
[Abstract](1918) [PDF 718KB](768)
Abstract:
The productivity of sedge and forbs grasslands in Sichuan Province was monitored by using both filed investigation and 3S technologies based on MODISNDVI. The result showed that the correlation coefficient of yield estimating mathematical model was 0.640 3 (P0.05). The estimated total editable fresh yields of sedge and forbs grasslands were 1 886 and 2 038 million tons, the average yields were 3 229.5 kg/hm2 and 3 489.0 kg/hm2, the vegetation coverage were 79.68% and 81.29%, the vegetation height was 7.08 cm and 16.03 cm, the edible proportion of grasses was 76.1% and 75.0% in 2006 and 2007 respectively. The yield in 2007 was 6.1% higher than that in 2006 and the yearly variation of rest parameters was not significant.
Analysis on the potential capacity of exploiting giant reed as an energy forage
2009, 3(6): 62-69.
[Abstract](1620) [PDF 1031KB](828)
Abstract:
Using perennial grasses to develop the reproducible energy resources is a new direction of energy industry in consideration of environment protection and exhaustion of fossil fuel. Based on the introduction to the biological and ecological characters of giant reed (Arundo donax), its economic value and potentiality as energy forage were analyzed and the related cultivation techniques were provided in order to facilitate the future research work.
Study on the production performance of alfalfa varietiesat different fall dormancy classes in Zhengzhou
2009, 3(6): 70-77.
[Abstract](1412) [PDF 916KB](729)
Abstract:
The study on production performance of 15 introduced alfalfa varieties with fall dormancy (FD) classes ranging from classes 2 to 9 was conducted by measuring the fresh matter yield, plant height, leaf to stem ratio and nutrient content in Zhengzhou in order to evaluate their agronomical traits. The results indicated that 1) the fresh forage yields of varieties from class 3 to class 5 were higher than those from class 6 to class 8, and as for, the fresh matter yield of different cuttings ranked from first to fifth while 5 cuttings were made in one year; 2) in consideration of yield and quality, the most suitable alfalfa varieties grown in Zhengzhou were Alfaking ( FD3), WL-324 and Archer (FD5).
Comparative analysis of the growth among alfalfa varietieswith different fall dormancy rate in Beijing
2009, 3(6): 78-83.
[Abstract](1624) [PDF 553KB](791)
Abstract:
Studies on the dynamic growth of different alfalfa varieties showed that the order of alfalfa varieties with different fall dormancy rates reached a same growth period was as follows: extreme nondormancy type, nondormancy type, halffall dormancy type and fall dormancy type. In a period of fertility, the dynamic change of alfalfa height was fitted to the Logistic model (r0.954 1). The fastgrowth period of different alfalfa varieties were in branching and heading periods, which accounted for more than 50% of total growth. Gray systematical analysis indicated that under the natural conditions, the alfalfa growth was influenced by the air temperature, illuminating intensity, relative humidity and other climatically factors and the order of influence was as follows: air temperature illuminating intensity relative humidity.
Adaptability evaluation of 22 herbaceous forage germplasms
2009, 3(6): 84-89.
[Abstract](1602) [PDF 592KB](822)
Abstract:
The yield, plant height, vigor, survival rate, branching and tillering, germination, disease and pest resistance of 22 herbaceous forage germplasms introduced from Australia were measured to comprehensively evaluate their adaptability by using gray mathematical statistical methods and principal component analysis. The results showed that the yields of Brachiaria decumbens, Setaria anceps, B. humidicola, Panicum maximum cv. Mombassa, B. brizantha, Chloris gayana and Andropogon gayana were higher than the other varieties and the adaptability of P. maximum cv. Mombassa, B. decumbens, Andropogon gayana and S. anceps were better.
Effect of climate change on the forages in natural grassland of Xinghai County in Threeriver headwaters region
2009, 3(6): 90-95.
[Abstract](1822) [PDF 1109KB](733)
Abstract:
Based on the forages and climate data from 1999 to 2007 collected by Xinghai Agricultural Weather Station in Threeriver headwaters region, the relationship between climate and forage growth and the impact of climate change on forage growth period, height and yield were studied. The results indicated that the forage regreening date was as same as the date of the first day of 5 ℃ daily average temperature and the forage withering date fitted with the date of 10 ℃ daily average temperature. The dates of forage regreening and withering were brought forward, and the withering date was brought forward in more extend. The vegetation coverage reduced at a rate of 1.73 percentage units and the forage height increased 1.08 cm per year. Under the global warming background, the temperature in growth season increased and the rainfall in this area increased as well, the forage yield increased because of better matching between water and heat conditions.
Effect of sowing density on the yield and quality of Yucao No.1
2009, 3(6): 96-100.
[Abstract](1470) [PDF 536KB](806)
Abstract:
The effect of sowing density treatments, including 37 500 plants/hm2 (D1), 45 000 plants/hm2 (D2) and 52 500 plants/hm2 (D3), on the yield and quality of Yucao No. 1 was studied and the result indicated that the total fresh matter yields of D2 and D3 were 128 944 kg/hm2 and 133 167 kg/hm2 respectively and no significant difference was found, but they were significantly higher than that of D1 (117 370 kg/hm2). And there was no significant difference on dry matter yield among 3 treatments. The content and yield of crude protein and relative feeding value of D1 was the highest, and it was followed by D2, D3 was the lowest. The neutral detergent fiber content of D1 was the lowest and D3 was highest. As for the tiller number, total stem perimeter and dry matter percentage of D1 were the highest, and D3 was the lowest. It could be concluded that 45 000 plants/hm2 was the best in southern part of China.
Effect of NaCl stress on the physiological characteristics of Puccinellia tenuiflora cv. Tongde
2009, 3(6): 101-105.
[Abstract](1673) [PDF 1373KB](691)
Abstract:
The salt tolerance of Puccinellia tenuiflora cv.Tongde seedling under different NaCl treatments (0, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, 1.0%, 1.2% and 1.4%) was identified by determining the physiological indices. The results showed that the contents of RWS and MDA decreased with NaCl concentration increasing, and the difference of RWS or MDA contents was significant among treatments. The contents of chlorophyll, soluble protein and proline increased with the increasing of salt concentration and the difference between the lower NaCl treatments and CK was not significant, however, tit was significant between the higher NaCl treatments and CK. This suggested that P. tenuiflora cv. Tongde was salttolerant and could be extended in salinity soil.
Effect crushing treatment on moisture loss of alfalfa
2009, 3(6): 106-109.
[Abstract](1332) [PDF 0KB](442)
Abstract:
The effect of crush treatment on the features of drying time and moisture loss of alfalfa under natural drying condition was studied by measuring the moisture content in different drying time. The results indicated that the moisture loss showed a fast and slow pattern and the speed of moisture loss of crush treatment was more quickly. The weather condition affected the drying speed to a certain degree. The time durations for merging and baling of the control were 25 and 49 hours respectively, while they were reduced to 21 and 29 hours for the crush treatment.
Effect of storage conditions and temperatures on seed germination of 4 plant species from Zygophyllaceae
2009, 3(6): 110-115.
[Abstract](1624) [PDF 0KB](377)
Abstract:
Seed germination of 4 plant species from Zygophyllaceae including Nitraria sphaerocarpa, N. tangutorum, Peganum nigellastrum and Zygophyllum fabago were studied. After the seeds were separately treated with soil burial during winter (SB) and dry storage in laboratory (DSL) for 80 days, the germination rate was measured under 4 constant temperatures (10 ℃, 15 ℃, 20 ℃ and 25 ℃) and one fluctuating temperature regimes (25 ℃/5 ℃). The result showed that the seed germination rates of N. tangutorum, P. nigellastrum and Z. fabago were greatly influenced by temperature and the seed germination rates increased with the increasing temperature. The maximum germination rate of N. tangutorum seeds both in SB and DSL groups reached the highest values from 40% to 50% at 15 ℃ and 20 ℃. As for P. nigellastrum, it was closed to 0 % (SB) and 60% to 70% (DSL) at 5 ℃/25 ℃. And for Z. fabago, it was 90% to 100% (SB) and 60% (DSL) at 5 ℃/25 ℃. The seed germination rates of these three species were less than 10% at low temperature (10 ℃ or 15 ℃). The seed germination rate of N. sphaerocarpa was mainly affected by the storage methods and it was significantly higher in SB group than that in DSL group and the highest germination rate was from 60% to 70% in SB group atat 20 ℃ or 25 ℃.
Study on the salt tolerance of four wild legumes in Tarim River Basin
2009, 3(6): 116-120.
[Abstract](1595) [PDF 0KB](440)
Abstract:
The salt tolerance of 4 wild legumes, including Glycyrrhiza inflata, Alhagi sparsifolia, Sophora alopecuroides and Sphaerophysa salsula from Tarim River basin, were evaluated under 5 levels of salt stress (0, 0.4%, 0.8%, 1.2% and 1.6% of NaCl solution) in seed germination period. The result showed that their salt tolerance was different, in which, G. inflata and A. sparsifolia performed the better salt endurance, and followed by S. salsula and S. alopecuroides. The low concentrate salt solution stimulated the seed germination, growth of embryo and radicle to a certain degree. The germination rate declined and the growth of embryo and radicle were inhibited along with the salt concentration increasing.
Effect of growth regulator on seed yield and yield components of alfalfa
2009, 3(6): 121-125.
[Abstract](1368) [PDF 0KB](412)
Abstract:
Effect of growth regulator on seed yield and yield components of alfalfa was studied in Inner Mongolia from March to October 2004 with random block experiment design. The ethephon, paclobutrazol and NAA were used as growth regulators with 4 concentration treatments for each regulator. The results showed that ethephon and NAA increased the number of inflorescence per unit area, number of podsetting inflorescence per unit area and number of pods per inflorescence. NAA increased mean single seed weight. The highest potential seed yield could reach 2 243.68 kg/hm2 and was increased by 72% while the concentration of ethephon was 2.0 kg/hm2. The highest potential seed yield could reach 1 675.71 kg/hm2 and was increased by 28.6% whole the concentration of paclobutrazo was 0.8 kg/hm2. The highest average weight of single seed could reach 2.35 mg while the concentration of NAA was 0.08 kg/hm2.
Effect of procreation endocrine regulation during embryo transfer in sheep
2009, 3(6): 126-131.
[Abstract](1296) [PDF 0KB](544)
Abstract:
Fifteen German Mutton Merino (14 months, female), fifteen Borderdale (14 months, female) and eighteen Poll Dorset (14 months, female) were selected as donor and with CIDR+PMSG+FSH treatment, 124 SmallTailed Han sheep were selected as the recipient and with CIDR + PMSG treatment to study the changes of the progesterone (p4), estradiol (E2), FollicleStimulatingHormone (FSH) and luteinizinghormone (LH). The results showed that the donor sheep and the recipient sheep reached a very ideal estrus synchronization state respectively. The luteal number of German Mutton Merino (7.71) was significantly higher than that of Dorset (5.19, P0.05). The number of eggs (including zygote and nonzygote) got from German Mutton Merino (5.50) was significantly higher than that of Dorset (3.44, P0.05); the rate of embryos effective of German Mutton Merino, Borderdal and Dorset were 70.13%, 55.74% and 78.18% respectively, and Dorset was significantly higher than that of Borderdale (P0.05); German Mutton Merino, Borderdale, Dorset embryo transfer pregnancy rate was 55.26%, 54.17% and 42.31% respectively, German Mutton Merino was significantly higher than that of Dorset (P0.05). During treatment of donor and recipient procreation hormone dynamic variation, for on the 13th day, the recipient reached its serum p4 peak, the SmallTailed Han sheep were higher than those of German Mutton Merino, Borderdale and Dorset. The E2 in serum of Donor reached its peak on the 14th day. The SmallTailed Han sheep reached its peak on the 15th day, The FSH in serum of donor on the 13th day reached its peak and SmallTailed Han sheep reached the peak on the 14th day. The LH in serum of donor reached its peak on the 14 day and Smalltailed Han sheep serum LH reached its peak on the 15th day.
Seasonal variation and supplydemand analysis of manganese in alpine grazing grassland system
2009, 3(6): 132-135.
[Abstract](1308) [PDF 0KB](398)
Abstract:
The content and seasonal changes of Mn in water, soil, edible grass (gained by fistula set on esophagus), wool and other organs such as plasma, liver, skeleton in sheep on Sanjiaocheng Sheep Farm of Qinghai Province from mid June to mid December were studied. The results indicated that Mn content in soil was higher in summer than that in autumn and winter but all were in lower threshold of normal level. In edible grass and sheep organs (except for liver), the order of Mn contents in different seasons was summer autumn winter, and it was insufficient in winter. Generally, in terms of soilforagesheep ecosystem, the Mn supply for sheep was insufficient in winter.
Analysis on the feed nutritive value of hybrid Broussonetia papyrifera leaf
2009, 3(6): 136-139.
[Abstract](2676) [PDF 0KB](506)
Abstract:
The contents of nutrients in leaf of hybrid Broussonetia papyrifera, including routine nutrients, trace elements, amino acids were determined. The result showed that the contents of crude protein, Ca and Fe were 26.05%, 3.35% and 247.09 mg/kg respectively. Its CP content was higher than that of alfalfa mill and less than that of soybean meal, and its contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Co and I were higher than alfalfa and soybean meal. The contents of most amino acids were higher than that of alfalfa. So it could be concluded that it was an excellent feed resource and could be used as feed for herbivores.
Brandts voles Impact of Brandts voles on grassland vegetation under simulated conditions 1 Impact on vegetation biomas
2009, 3(6): 140-145.
[Abstract](1302) [PDF 0KB](379)
Abstract:
The impact of Brandts voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) with different densities on aboveground biomass and compensation growth of grassland were studied under simulated conditions in Xuanping Country of Hebei Province from May to October, 2007. The results indicated that 1) the relationship between the vegetation aboveground biomass and vole density showed a parabolic curve, the vegetation biomass increased while the vole density was less than 5 voles/100 m2 and it reached the peak value at the density of 5 voles/100 m2, but it decreased while the density was over 5 voles/100 m2; 2) the relationship between compensation growth and vole density showed one single peak curve and the compensation growth reached the highest while the vole density was 8 voles/100 m2; 3) the vole density that vegetation could stand was 4 voles/100 m2 (or 400 voles/hm2) and the plant growth could be stimulated and the vegetation community structure could be stabilized while the density was less than 4 voles/100 m2.
Review on the grass endophyte research in China 9Seed transmission characteristics and distribution in host plants of Epichloё yangzii
2009, 3(6): 146-151.
[Abstract](1383) [PDF 0KB](635)
Abstract:
Epichloё yangzii is the stromata producing sexual endophyte within Roegneria spp. The stromatadeveloping Roegneria plants grown in Nanjing were collected in 2004 to 2008 to study the distribution of E. yangzii and its ability of seed transmission. The results indicated that the typical fungal hyphae of this endophyte were detected from all tillers in stromatadeveloping Roegneria plants and this meant a systemic infection within aerial parts of the host. Similar fungal hyphae were detected from young seedlings developed from the endophyte infected seeds and meant that this endophyte was seed transmittable. On the plants developed from the infected seeds, the stromata developed on the culms, but not in every year. The hypha of this endophyte was not found from the root systems. The hyphae were different in the morphology depending on the organ of the plants.
Study on the physical properties of different turfbed soil formula for golf green andthe relationships with turf performance of creeping bentgrass
2009, 3(6): 152-158.
[Abstract](1675) [PDF 0KB](440)
Abstract:
Creeping bentgrass performance indexes were simplified with principal component analysis and the relationships between the physical properties of different turfbed soil formula and turf performance of creeping bentgrass were studied with canonical correlation and stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that the influence ability of components in turfbed mixture on physical properties and turf performance were peat middlecoarse sand very fine sand plus silt and clay fine sand. In the turfbed soil, the peat and middlecoarse sand mainly affected the bulk density, total porosity, capillary porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity and all selected turf performance indexes. Very fine sand, silt, clay and peat mainly affected the airfilled porosity. And fine sand had no significant effect on any indexes. The regression equations of turfbed soil components with their physical properties and turf performance of creeping bentgrass were established with stepwise regression analysis.
Effect of drought stress on the quality of grassland used for tourism in Qinghai Province
2009, 3(6): 159-165.
[Abstract](2033) [PDF 0KB](405)
Abstract:
The drought resistance of grassland used for tourism in Qinghai Province was studied with linear gradient irrigation experiment by measuring the chlorophyll content, proline content and relative conductivity. The result indicated that the most suitable soil moisture content ranged from 13.66% to 23.47% and the crucial drought resistance limit was 12.01%. The drought resistance of grassland depended on the dominant species and main companion species (Carex atrofuca, Kobresia humilis,Agropyron cristatum, Poa crymophila, Taraxacum mongolicum, Potentilla anserine) and the impact of small grasses such as Ranunculus tanguticus and Trigonotis peduncularis on the drought resistance of grassland was less. The proper management suggestions were provided accordingly.
Study on the cover technology for the overwintering of highquality orchard grasses in Beijing
2009, 3(6): 166-171.
[Abstract](1706) [PDF 0KB](408)
Abstract:
In order to resolve the overwintering problem of the several highquality orchard grasses, such as Trifolium repens, T. hybridum, Lotus corniculatus and Dactylis glomerata, the cover techniques were studied in the suburbs of Beijing by using three cover treatments (mulching, straw cover, shallow soil cover). The results showed that three treatments were effective for the orchard grass regreening and significantly increased the overwintering percentage. The turning green period of orchard grasses under mulching treatment was 13 and 20 days earlier than shallow soil cover treatment and the control respectively and the average overwintering percentage was increased by 21.8% and 60.8%, and the vegetation coverage on 1st April was increased by 41% and 51.3% respectively. The regreening period of grasses under straw covering was 4 and 8 days earlier than shallow soil cover treatment and the control respectively and the average overwintering percentage was increased by 16% and 45.3% respectively, meanwhile, the coverage on 1st April was increased by 14% and 22.7% respectively. Mulching treatment was the best for overwintering, but the straw cover treatment (535 g/m2, 5 cm layer) was better in terms of environmental protection, cost and practice.
Cultivation of Callisia repens and application in urban landscape
2009, 3(6): 172-176.
[Abstract](6815) [PDF 0KB](410)
Abstract:
The growth features of Callisia repens under different sunlight and soil conditions were studied and the result indicated that the proper temperature was 18 ℃ to 22 ℃ in daytime and 12 ℃ in night. It performed well in deciduous broadleaved forest while the intensity of illumination in summer was below 10 000 lx at noon and over 30 000 lx in the morning and evening. Callisia repens could normally grow in different soils and no special requirements for soil fertility as long as the water supply was enough. The techniques for cultivation and management for its application in the greening projects were summarized as well.
Breeding of Cynodon dactylon cv. Xinnong No. 2
2009, 3(6): 177-179.
[Abstract](1837) [PDF 0KB](430)
Abstract:
Cynodon dactylon cv. Xinnong No. 2 was bred by Xinjiang Agricultural University with the systematic screening methods and registered by the National Committee for Grass Cultivar Examination and Approval. It was a new turfgrass variety with strong resistance and high turfusing characteristics. The breeding background, morphological and biological characteristics, cultivation techniques were summarized in the paper.
Research progress on traffic tolerance of sport turf with different turfgrass species and turfbeds
2009, 3(6): 180-186.
[Abstract](1599) [PDF 0KB](401)
Abstract:
Traffic tolerance is the key of quality and service life of sport turf and one of the important evaluation parameters. Traffic tolerance of turf is affected by multiple factors and a comprehensive performance conducted by abrasion resistance, compact soil resistance and recovery capability. This paper reviewed the research progress on traffic tolerance comparison of sport turf with different turfgrasses, influence of turfbed substrate to traffic tolerance, trampling manners and evaluation methods. Some existing problems in present research work were explored and the relative solutions were suggested as well.
Advantages and strategies for developing herbivorous animal husbandry in Zhaotong City
2009, 3(6): 187-190.
[Abstract](1584) [PDF 0KB](406)
Abstract:
Developing herbivorous animal husbandry is an important task of establishing an ecological agriculture system and an important way that can improve the efficiency of animal husbandry, optimize the structure of livestock industry and instantly increase farmers' income. Grassland is the strategic resource for developing herbivorous livestock production and it is the advantage in Zhaotong. Beside the market-oriented precondition, the strategies including the grassland improvement, returning the farmland to grassland, establishing high-quality seeded grassland, setting up the proper agricultural structure according to local conditions, improving animal breeds, changing the traditional feeding manners, developing market of livestock products, improving animal husbandry system, strengthening the function of government, expanding the investments should be conducted.