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2009 Vol.26(3)

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Analysis of chemical composition of plants in subalpine meadow on Mt. Xiaowutai
Xiao-Xia HUANG, Jing-Sa HAN, Quan-Ru LIU, JIANG Yuan, Ke-Jian HE
2009, 3(3): 1-8.
[Abstract](1670) [PDF 1628KB](734)
The chemical composition of plants is closely correlated to their taxa and habitat. Based on the field works and quantity analysis, the relationship between 12 minerals content of herbage plants and their taxa and habitats in the subalpine meadow of Mt. Xiaowutai were discussed. The main results are as follows: 1) Sedge and grass with higher K/Ca ratio but lower Ca/P ration compared to forbs, while legume has low ratio scores in K/Ca, K/P, Ca/P and S/P, since the main dominant plants in the meadow with higher Ca/P ratio for grazing, mineral P seems not so adequate to meet the needs of grazing cattle for growth; 2) The TwoWay Indicators Species Analysis of the selected dominant plants can distinguish different plants taxa according to 9 mineral content; 3) ANOVA analysis showed that communities living in sunny aspect with lower P, K content, while in shady slope are reverse, communities that disturbed by grazing, however with high metal composition content; 4) Mineral content such as Al, Fe, Cu decreased along with elevation increasing. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggested that plants with high macroelements content were favor of shady habitats, and plants those with high metal elements content were mainly distributed in the habitats where with high soil moisture but poor soil nutrient.
Effects of managements on soil organic carbon of grassland in China
DAN Feng, Yu-E LI, Qing-Zhu GAO, Yun-Fan MO, Xiao-Bei QIN, JIN Lin, Yun-Tong LIU, Yan-Juan WU
2009, 3(3): 9-15.
[Abstract](2181) [PDF 928KB](960)
Based on the statistic data related to the grassland management and soil organic carbon in China Soil Series,Rangeland Resources of China, China periodical magazine website and database in foreign languages, the changing amount of soil organic carbon in surface layer of grassland under different managements was analyzed. The result indicated that the yearly change of the soil organic carbon in each type of grassland varied under the different grassland managements because of the different soil textures and climatic conditions. The range of variation was the largest under the different management in alpine meadow (-5.62 to 1.26 t/hm2) while the variation was the smallest in temperate desert steppe (-0.85 to 0.68 t/hm2). The variation ranges for other types of grassland were -3.74 to 0.68 t/hm2 in temperate meadow, -3.62 to 0.04 t/hm2 in alpine steppe, -2.4 to 1.07 t/hm2 in temperate steppe and -1.94 to 0.64 t/hm2 in shrubby grassland respectively. Meanwhile the Meta analysis method was used to estimate the yearly changing amount of soil carbon under different management patterns and the result indicated that the order of soil organic carbon amount was overgrazing (-2.34 t/hm2)heavy grazing (-1.52 t/hm2) light grazing (-0.54 t/hm2) medium grazing (-0.49 t/hm2), while the yearly increasing amount of soil organic carbon was the highest in the resowed grassland (0.90 t/hm2), followed by enclosure grassland (0.48 t/hm2) and grazing forbidden grassland (0.19 t/hm2). It could be concluded that the improper managements such as over grazing would negatively influence the accumulation of soil organic carbon while the resowing and enclosure would help the accumulation of soil organic carbon.
Study on the distribution pattern of population and community of national protected Glycine soja in Beijing region
Dong-Li TUN, Jin-Tun ZHANG, Chun-Jue WANG, Gong-Chi XUE
2009, 3(3): 16-21.
[Abstract](1694) [PDF 2265KB](739)
Two belt transects with 128 quadrats each were used to study the distribution pattern of Glycine soja community in the watershed of Beishahe River in Beijing region. The result showed that the distribution patterns of dominant populations were aggregate type in the two transects. The pattern of community was closely correlated with that of main dominant species. Pattern scale of community was consistent with that of G. soja and Artemisia lavandulaefolia in the first transect, and this result indicated that the community distribution pattern was mainly determined by the pattern of two dominant species. However, the pattern scale of community was consistent with that of G. soja and Arthraxon hispidus in the second transect. Pattern scale of the second transect was larger than that of the first transect and the differences of pattern scale of two communities were little because the environmental difference was little.
Traditional Tibetan medicine plant resources of Orchidaceae family inthe Eastern QinghaiTibet Plateau
Gong-Dong GONG, De-Fang XIE, Hai-Cai MA
2009, 3(3): 22-25.
[Abstract](1651) [PDF 438KB](916)
The traditional Tibetan medicine plant resources of Orchidaceae family in the Eastern QinghaiTibet Plateau were investigated and the result showed that there were 11 species belonged to 10 genera. These 11 species could be grouped into 5 distribution types. In which, the type of the North Temperate Zone distribution was the dominant (60%) and this suggested that the flora in the Eastern QinghaiTibet Plateau was temperate.
Study on the sustainable development of sowed grassland in Xinjiang
ZHENG Wei, Jin-Zhong SHU, Ti-Gao HU
2009, 3(3): 26-33.
[Abstract](1606) [PDF 2527KB](712)
Aimed at the sustainable development of prataculture, the current situation, existing problem, industrialization and strategic layout of sowed grassland in Xinjiang were analyzed and studied. The results indicated that 1) the chain of resourceindustryefficiency became the guiding ideology for sowed grassland establishment; 2) the principle of sowed grassland establishment should highlight the environmental protection, and consider adjusting agriculture industrial structure, constructing the settlement of herdsmen and upgrading prataculture industrial; 3) the purpose of sowed grassland strategic layout was to concentrate the resources for the industrial belt establishment; 4) the reasonable system for the sustainable development of sowed grassland in management, production, research and education should be established.
Principles and methods of grassland yield estimation by using remote sensing technology
Hai-Liang LI, DIAO Jun
2009, 3(3): 34-38.
[Abstract](1690) [PDF 607KB](1180)
Based on the introduction of principles and methods for grassland yield estimation through remote sensing, the features and existing problems of different methods for dynamic monitoring of grassland such as RS model and the combination of RS and Geo models were analyzed. With the development of remote sensing technology, the grassland yield estimation technology and methodology will be continuously developed, the grassland yield estimation model which is based on the remote sensing technology and methodology will be more reliable, its application will be extended to more areas such as the monitoring of grassland ecosystem, grassland degradation and grassland vegetation growth.
Difference of water use efficiency and water consumption coefficient of alfalfa different in growing season
Hong-Ren SUN, Tian-Bi GUAN, Jian-Yi SUN, Rui-Xin WU, Pin-Gong LI
2009, 3(3): 39-42.
[Abstract](1820) [PDF 388KB](684)
Difference of water use efficiency (WUE) and water consumption coefficient (WCC) of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) between the first growing season and the second growing season was studied in Beijing plain with microlysimeter. The results showed that the WUE based on biological and economic yields [14.7 and 17.1 kg/(hm2mm)] of the second growing season were significantly (P0.05) higher than that of the first growing season [12.6 and 14.7 kg/(hm2mm)], the WCC based on biological yield and economic yield(679 and 584)of the second growing season were significantly (P0.05) lower than that of the first growing season (793 and 682). This proved that the growing years affected the WUE and WCC.
Study on the relationship between grass growth and meteorological conditions in subalpine meadow
Tao-Yu-Bi, Xiu-Yun ZHANG, Yong-Liang DUAN
2009, 3(3): 43-47.
[Abstract](1514) [PDF 1038KB](732)
By using the observed data related to grass growth and meteorological conditions in the subalpine meadow, the relationship between grass growth and meteorological conditions were analyzed. The results showed that the growth period from regreening to ripeness was 140 to 150 days, the requirement of accumulated temperature above 0 ℃ was about 1 000 to 1 200 ℃, the requirement of precipitation was about 400 to 450 mm, the requirement of sunshine duration was about 1 000 to 1 100 hours. The growth rate of grassed reached the highest on 88th day after regreening and slowed down after 112 days. The effect of temperature on grass yield was positive from regreening to heading and withering stages and it was sensitive in the jointing, heading and ripening stages. The effect of precipitation on grass yield was positive except in ripening stage and it was sensitive in tillering and jointing stages. The effect of sunshine duration on grass yield was positive in tillering, ripening and withering stages and it was sensitive in heading stage.
Fa-Yi TIAN, Xiao-Zhong LI, Bing-Mei HE
2009, 3(3): 48-52.
[Abstract](1721) [PDF 543KB](840)
Crystalloid loline dihydrogen chloride alkaloids from meadow fescue were purified by a series of extractions and reextractions. 8 kinds of different structural alkaloids with different bioactivities had different insecticidal properties. Concentration of loline in gramineous plants varied in different growth periods and affected the insecticidal activity. Therefore, the content of loline in leave and stem of meadow fescue from New Zealand, which was infected by endophytes with 12 different methods, was measured for selecting endophyte and grass combinations with high yield, longevity and insecticidal properties.
Effect of salt stress on the contents of chlorophyll and betaine and its membrane permeability of Medicago sativa
Yu-Xiang WANG, ZHANG Bo, WANG Chao
2009, 3(3): 53-56.
[Abstract](2292) [PDF 887KB](772)
The contents of chlorophyll and betaine, and the membrane permeability of transgenic alfalfa and Baoding alfalfa under salt stress were studied .The result showed that the contents of chlorophyll and betaine increased with the salt stress, but the membrane permeability reduced. And alfalfa adapted to salt stress and reduced injury through a series of protection mechanism, including higher content of chlorophyll and betaine and the lower membrane permeability. It suggested that the tolerance of transgenic alfalfa to salt stress was strong.
Study on the difference of essential oil extracted from Artemisia annuain Gansu through supercritical CO2 technology
TAO Jian, Bao-Tang DIAO, Dun-Long WANG, Xiao-Fang WANG, Yi-Qian TUN, ZHANG Ji
2009, 3(3): 57-63.
[Abstract](1748) [PDF 1156KB](738)
Essential oil from Artemisia annua was extracted by supercritical fluid CO2 extraction (SFECO2) and water steam distillation (WSD). And the components were analyzed by GCMS. The result indicated that 86 compounds were identified from the essential oil obtained by SFECO2 and the main components were 8,9dehydro9formylcycloisolongifolene (18.22%), (allZ)5,8,11,14,17eicosapentaenoic acid methyl ester (8.39%), etc; 61 compounds were identified from the essential oil obtained by WSD and its main components were 1,3Benzodioxole, 4methoxy6(2propenyl)(24.28%), 2Cyclohexen1ol (17.47%), etc. There were 31 components were same in essential oil through two extraction methods, which accounted for 39.45% and 78.40% of the total integral area while identifying the essential oil. Compared with the traditional steam distillation method, the use of SFECO2 reflected more real and comprehensive chemical components of Artemisia annua.
Effect of adding sorbic acid on the fermentation quality of Italian ryegrass silage
Ceng-Xin ZHANG, SHAO Chao
2009, 3(3): 64-67.
[Abstract](1749) [PDF 418KB](720)
The experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of adding sorbic acid on the fermentation quality and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam) silage, and to determine the proper application rate of sorbic acid. The treatments were designed as follows: control (0), 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% and 0.20% of sorbic acid addition (fresh weight basis of Italian ryegrass). The results showed that decrease the pH value and the contents of ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen (AN/TN) and butyric acid were significantly (P0.05) decreased, and the contents of WSC and dry matter were significantly (P0.05) increased after 30 days fermentation compared with control. However, there were not significantly (P0.05) difference in lactic acid/acetic acid and contents of the lactic acid, acetic acid and total volatile fatty acid (VFAs). It could suggest that 0.10% of sorbic acid was the proper application rate.
Introduction experiment of American smith elytrigia, intermediate wheatgrassand tall wheatgrass in Lanzhou, Gansu
Gen-Zhu CHANG, Zhi-Jiang YANG, Gong-Shan YANG
2009, 3(3): 68-71.
[Abstract](1870) [PDF 417KB](683)
American smith elytrigia, intermediate wheatgrass and tall wheatgrass were the xeric forage cultivars introduced from the United States in 2001. The regional test and cultivar comparison test in the semiarid regions from 2002 to 2004 were finished. The results indicated that three cultivars could adapt to the local climate conditions, and performed drought tolerance, cold resistant, high grass yield and low cost management. The fresh grass yield was ranged from 173.4 to 226.7 kg/hm2, which was 13% to 47.8% higher than the control. And the seed yield was ranged from 3.4 to 4.6 kg/hm2, which was 13.2% to 35.8% lower than the control.
Effect of EM agent on alfalfa growth
2009, 3(3): 72-74.
[Abstract](1363) [PDF 475KB](674)
The EM agent was applied through sprinkle irrigation to alfalfa on Rongchang Breeding Farm of Gulang County. The result showed that the EM diluent could cause ahead of the stages of bud and florescence in alfalfa, promote the growth and increase the yield. The height, yield and economic efficiency of alfalfa among different treatment groups were as follows: leaf spraying irrigation control. The economic efficiency of the leaf spraying and irrigation could increased by 825 yuan/hm2 and 300 yuan/hm2 respectively compared to control.
Effect of nitrogen fertilization on the vegetation structure and biomass of degraded meadow and soil fertility
HUANG Jun, Gao-Feng WANG, Sha-Zhou AN, YUAN Jing, LI Hai, Rong-Hua ZHANG
2009, 3(3): 75-78.
[Abstract](1714) [PDF 581KB](729)
Nitrogen fertilizer was applied to the fenced meadow and it was aimed to find out the best way to management of degraded meadow. The results showed that N fertilizer application improved grassland plant population structure significantly, increased the biomass of forage grasses, and improved the soil nutrients content obviously. With the increase of application rate, the difference of vegetation structure and biomass between the treatment and the control was significant and the soil fertility in 0 to 20 cm layer was increased significantly. The height and biomass of vegetation, and the soil fertility were improved with the increase of application rate in treatment group, however, the effect of N fertilizer was not significant while the application rate was more than 225 kg/hm2 and the proper application rate was 225 kg/hm2.
Influences of fencing on vegetation and soil properties in mountain steppe
Yan-Min FAN, Zong-Jiu SUN, Gong-Qi WU, Xiu-Mei LIU
2009, 3(3): 79-82.
[Abstract](1534) [PDF 603KB](800)
The influences of fencing on vegetation and soil properties of typical steppe located on the middle section of northern slope of Tianshan Mountain were studied. The results showed that compared with nnfenced stepped, 1) the aboveground biomass, height and coverage of fenced steppe were obviously increased; 2) the soil physical properties were improved and the soil compaction was increased at 2.5 cm depth, whereas the compaction was decreased within 5 to 10 cm; 3) the contents of soil nutrient contents were increased. The content of soil organic matter was significantly increased by 14.8% and the available phosphorus content was significantly increased by 68.3%. But the contents of available nitrogen and potassium were not significantly increased. So, fencing was the proper way for the restoration of the grassland ecological environment.
A review to the research on the content of soil seed bank
Wei-Zhi LI, Can-Meng ZHANG, LIN Feng
2009, 3(3): 83-90.
[Abstract](1620) [PDF 907KB](785)
Sum of all viable on the surface and in the soil is called soil seed banks,that are important for recovering vegetation and maintaining biological diversity. The research progress on soil seed bank was reviewed in terms of the type, size, dynamics, distribution, relationship with plant communication, role in vegetation recovery, life span and genetic variation. The key issues need to be resolved in the research on soil seed bank were also highlighted.
Allelopathic effect of Steura chamaejasme decomposing in soil on Onobrychis viciifolia
Chu-Qing ZHOU, Jie-Jie HUANG, WANG Hui, Yi-Ling LIU, Hui-Fang HU
2009, 3(3): 91-94.
[Abstract](1491) [PDF 473KB](720)
The allelopathic effect of Steura chamaejasme decomposing in soil on Onobrychis viciifolia was studied in a growth chamber in pot culture. The result showed that the root and stemleaf of Steura chamaejasme inhibited dry weight of stemleaf, leaf area and the height of Onobrychis viciifolia. The inhibiting effect was stronger with the increase of amount of Steura chamaejasme. The inhibiting effect of root was stronger than that of stemleaf, but no significant effect on cell permeability of Onobrychis viciifolia was found.
Guo-Feng ZHOU, Nian-Jun BANG, WANG Yun, Hai-Qing MO, You-Lin BANG
2009, 3(3): 95-96.
[Abstract](1854) [PDF 271KB](1496)
Hazards and utilization on toxicity of Oxytropis glabra
LEI Ping, Meng-Chi DIAO, Guo-Dong HAN
2009, 3(3): 97-101.
[Abstract](1738) [PDF 718KB](773)
Oxytropis glabra is one of main poisonous plants in Inner Mongolia. It contains swainsonine that inhibits activities of mannosidase in animal cells and causes chronic poisoning to livestock. The biological characteristics, swainsoninepoisoning mechanisms to livestock and damages caused by Oxytropis glabra were summarized in this paper. The ecological and environmental factors affecting poisoning were also analyzed. It suggested that the poisoning pathogeny was related to the intake, feeding management and ecologic situations of grassland. The utilization of O. glabra through chemical detoxication, vaccine and medicine development and ecological restoration were commented, and the application of swainsonine for cancer treatment was also reviewed.
Effect of nitrogen fertilization on nitrogen metabolism of Festuca arundinacea under heat stress
Hong-Juan JIANG, Jian-Long LI, Liang-Xia LI, WANG Yan
2009, 3(3): 102-107.
[Abstract](2594) [PDF 1466KB](777)
The effects of different nitrogen treatments (NO3-, NH4+ and NH4NO3) on the contents of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen, as well as the activity of main enzymes involving in the process of assimilation and metabolism in leaf of Festuca arundinacea under high temperature (38/30 ℃,day/night) were studied by plot experiment. The results indicated that the nitrate content increased at the beginning and then declined along with the stress treatment time, however, the ammonium nitrogen content showed an increasing trend. The nitrate content was the highest and the lowest was ammonium nitrogen content in the leaf treated by NH4NO3. The ammonium nitrogen content was the highest in the leaf treated by NH4+. The activity of nitrate reductase (NR) showed a decline trend under different treatments. The activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) increased at the beginning and then decreased. In general, the activity of NR, GS and GOGAT in leaf treated by NH4NO3 was the highest. Activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in leaf treated by NH4NO3 and NO3- showed a decline trend, and that of GDH treated by NH4+ showed an increasing trend. It could be concluded that the oxidative stress on F. arundinacea treated by NH4NO3 was the smallest and its heat tolerance was the best.
Study on the method for extracting the leaf protein in turf cutting litter
Wen-Sen HUI, Xiao-Feng MU, Kang-Yang WANG
2009, 3(3): 108-110.
[Abstract](1681) [PDF 349KB](870)
Three treatments, including heating, acid adding, acid adding + heating) were used to extract the leaf protein from turf cutting litter and the results showed that the leaf protein extraction rate was 2.44% through acid adding + heating, which was higher than heating (2.04%) and acid adding (1.88%).
Research progress on application of reclaimed water for irrigating greening plants
WANG Ji, Yi-Fan TAN, Zheng-Jun SHI, Ji-Xiong SUN, Guo-Zhong LUO
2009, 3(3): 111-117.
[Abstract](1885) [PDF 828KB](791)
Reuse of reclaimed water was one of the most efficient means for resolving water shortage of city. The paper summarized the recent research work on the influence of reclaimed water to greening plants, which showed that there were positive and negative influences, and it was correlated with the quality of reclaimed water, irrigation models, plant species, soil type and irrigation time. The results showed that reclaimed water irrigation could affect plant growth characteristics, stress resistance physiology, photosynthesis and nutrition level, but it would not affect the normal growth. At the same times, the irrigation with reclaimed water would not cause the accumulation of contamination ions such as sodium, chlorine, boron, and heavy metals. So, it was feasible to irrigate the greening plants with reclaimed water.
Cultivation techniques and benefit analysis of dualpurpose maizeXixingnuoyu No. 1
He-Chun HUA, Cong-Yang GUO, SHU Hai, Xin-Zhi ZHANG, Yu-Mei WANG
2009, 3(3): 118-121.
[Abstract](1703) [PDF 599KB](676)