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2009 Vol.26(11)

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Some critical question for grassland farming in northern China
2009, 3(11): 1-11.
[Abstract](1584) [PDF 1506KB](884)
Abstract:
The central point of grassland farming is animal production by grazing and/or feeding. Animal growth is a natural dynamics, which was affected annually by the quality and quantity of forage and environment. Therefore, annual dynamics in the producing process of animal has great significance in animal and grassland management. Lots of factors should be considered, such as three action factors in grazing: intensity, frequency and timing, and four behavior factors in grazing: physical damage, trampling, unbalanced nutrition and saliva. In the case, optimizing feeding on grassland by grazing and/or by supplement is an active strategy and method for grassland management. As grassland resource has spatial and temporal meaning, and forage quality was associated with seasons, optimizing feeding is to keep the balance of the animal growth and timedependent quality of forage. Important problems in grassland farming in northern China is as follows:1)Grass performance to gazing and/or cutting, which is basis for understanding grassland healthy existence and /or degradation in grazing reaction. 2)Dynamics of net grassland production and nutritional process of forage, which is central factors for determining grazing feeding. 3)Rational grazing, i.e., adaptive intensity and frequency of grazing, which is ensuring for grassland management and for animal production. 4)Optimizing feeding on grassland, which is an active action for grassland management and for animal production.
Environmental gradient analysis and species group division ofherb species distribution in alpine Meadow on Mt.Wutai
2009, 3(11): 12-18.
[Abstract](1546) [PDF 1378KB](767)
Abstract:
With the data of field work on vegetation investigation and habitat conditions survey, as well as solar radiation and soil wetness index simulation based on GIS technique, the relationship between herb species and ecological factors which directly act on species were analyzed by TWINSPAN and CCA ordination. The results showed that: 1) Temperature and solar direct radiation was the key factors that control the distribution of herb species in the study area of Mt.Wutai, where is covered by alpine meadow. 2) According to the distribution pattern of plant species along the habitat gradients, seven types of species can be distinguished, i.e., alpine colddry favoring species, alpine coldhumid favoring species, subalpine typical species, subalpine cooldry favoring species, subalpine coolhumid favoring species, montane warmdry favoring species, montane warmhumid favoring species. Those specie groups can be indicators as the habitat characteristics.3) The TWINSPAN results coincide with CCA ordination about the herb specie groups division.
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2009, 3(11): 19-24.
[Abstract](1499) [PDF 772KB](793)
Abstract:
Quantitative analysis on the impacts of human activities on environment is one of the highlights in the research field of sustainable development. In this paper, the IPAT equation were introduced as well as its expanded models including ImPACT model, STIRPAT model, IPBAT model, ImPACTS model and IES model. A model about the relationship between utilization efficiency of grassland resources and economic growth was analyzed based on three different schemes in the Gannan pastoral areas in Gansu Province. The data reflected that the conditions of economic growth was the drop rate of grassland resources consumption per unit GDP satisfied to the equation ttk (critical value). As t is closed to tk during 1985-2004 in the area (t=2.559%, tk=2.693%), the utilization ways of grassland resources are considered to be sustainable.
Grassland monitoring based on the 3S technology combined ground surveysa case of Huangnan and Hainan regions in Qinghai Province
2009, 3(11): 25-31.
[Abstract](1680) [PDF 1137KB](701)
Abstract:
The technological ways and process of grassland monitoring with the 3S technology combined ground surveys was intensitively analyzed in this paper based on a example in the grassland of Huangnan and Hainan in Qinghai Province. The ground biomass inversion model between observational data and MODISVegetationIndex was established with GPS positioning and grass yield in 2007. After the establishment of the livestock carrying capacity of the byproducts from factory and forestry using the information of crop production of wheat, barley, the forest land area etc, the total livestock carrying capacity and the overloading in the both regions was analyzed. The results showed that the overall carrying capacities were 3 028 200 and 3 862 500 sheep units, which overloading rates were as high as 67.48% and 125.65%, respectively, and the average overloading rates of the both were 96.57%. These indicate that the number of livestock should be reduce, or feeding intensity should be increase in the two areas to reduce the pressure on the local ecological carrying capacity. Furthermore, an opening and interactive website, Grassland Monitoring Website (GMW), should be produced. It is helpful to concern the concept of Greatest Rate of Overloading, and Average Rate of Overloading, to balance the both, and to implement to Grassland Law. It is also necessary to the sustainable development of grass industry, China's grassland ecoconstruction and restoration of grassland.
Quantitative analysis of the Vitex negundo var. heterophylla communities in Taihang Mountain, Shanxi Province
2009, 3(11): 32-36.
[Abstract](1315) [PDF 716KB](687)
Abstract:
The ecological relationship of species, community and environment of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla communities were studied by using TWINSPAN and DCA. The results of TWINSPAN indicates that the communities could be classified into 13 associations. The classification matrix indicates two environmental gradients, light intensity and soil humidity. The gathered groups of plant quadrates in the space of DCA ordination are consistent with the result of TWINSPAN, which revealed a relationship between plant formations and environmental gradients.The first axis of the twodimensional ordination diagram of DCA obviously reflects the trend of aspect. The second axis expresses the gradient changes of slope. It is considered that the major factors that restrict the formation distribution of the mountain are aspect and slope.
Research progress and prospect of remote sensing with passive microwave from snow
2009, 3(11): 37-43.
[Abstract](1500) [PDF 792KB](879)
Abstract:
Research progress of the passive microwave remote sensing for snow cover at home and abroad in recent years was overviewed, and common passive microwave sensors SMMR(Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer), SSM/I(Special Sensor Microwave/Imager), AMSRE (Advanced Microwave Scanning RadiometerEOS) and MWRI(Microwave Radiation Imager)were compared for each other. Some problems were found as follows: 1) The discriminant threshold of dry snow and wet snow is influenced by many factors that do not determined still. 2) The measured value of snow depth can not by reflected by meteorological situation. 3) The resolution is not high enough to used in monitoring the shallow snow zone information. 4) It seems to be overestimated for range and depth of snow and so on. In addition, the accuracy of the inversion results was affected by snow density, particle size, precipitation, cold desert, vegetation, permafrost and other factors. Aim to further study intensively, passive microwave remote sensing of snow cover was prospected as follows: 1) To operational monitoring, visible light and passive microwave data should be integrated; 2) Combination of remote sensing and geographic information systems would improve the accuracy and application breadth; 3) Improvements of the algorithm, higher spatial resolution data of passive microwave AMSRE, and passive microwave radiation imaginer MWRI of our FY3 satellite with the snow model would enhance importance of snow monitoring; 4) Range of snow monitoring is more consistent with passive microwave remote sensing and MODIS visible light.The passive microwave remote sensing can play an alternative role when visible light images can not be obtained satisfactorly due to more clouds; and 5) Passive microwave remote sensing still have more issues in operational snow monitoring, continuous monitoring of ground operations and Algorithm improvement. Its validation is an important guarantee to improve the technology, which need to be verified in snow storms.
Hyperspectral remote sensing estimation models for aboveground fresh biomass in Gannan grassland
2009, 3(11): 44-50.
[Abstract](1484) [PDF 1075KB](809)
Abstract:
In order to promote the application of hyperspectral remote sensing in the dynamic monitoring and yield estimation of grassland, the canopy spectral reflectance and the aboveground fresh biomass corresponding to the spectra of natural grassland were measured in Gannan grassland. This paper analyzed the spectral reflectance characteristics of four main grassland types, the correlation between the aboveground fresh biomass and reflective spectrum, and the correlation between aboveground fresh biomass and the first derivative spectrum. Using characteristic bands and their combination that were strongly correlated to the aboveground fresh biomass, this paper defined hyperspectral parameters as variables. Thus, the hyperspectral remote sensing estimation models of the grass aboveground fresh biomass were established in Gannan prairie. The estimation models were tested by the experiment data. The results showed that estimation model of D723 [y=3.526 lnD723+18.923] was the best, and its RMSE, relative error, and the correlation coefficient between the estimated value and measured value were 0.208 3, 8.8% and 0.896, Therefore, the model could preferably estimate the grass aboveground fresh biomass in Gannan prairie.
Grey correlation analysis on economy growth and population factors in Gannan District
2009, 3(11): 51-56.
[Abstract](1520) [PDF 712KB](663)
Abstract:
The relationship between economic growth and population is an important issue in economy development, which should be more suitable in large population countries, especially in China. After analysis using grey correlation method with data collected from Gannan District in fifty years, from 1978 to 2002, a well relationship between economic growth and the population of county practitioner and Tibetan was found. Some suggestion for local economy development has presented in this paper.
Progress in the study of oat glucan
2009, 3(11): 57-63.
[Abstract](1608) [PDF 801KB](960)
Abstract:
Many studies shows that oats have an important role in nutrition and health care in recent years in domestic and abroad since regular consumption can effectively reduce serum cholesterol, triglycerides and serum lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol level. The key substance in oat is soluble dietary fiberglucan. In this case, exploration and utilization of active oat glucan is much valuable. The object of this paper is to summarize the properties, physiological function, analysis methods, factors associated with content of oat glucan, and to viewe research the trend in further.
The comparison of drought resistance of the four Eragrostis species
2009, 3(11): 64-72.
[Abstract](1619) [PDF 1364KB](730)
Abstract:
This study shows that the relative water content of the leaves of four Eragrostis species was obviously decreased under the situation of soil water stress. The order of drought resistance of the four species was: E. songmingensis E. xundianensis E. xundianensis var. E. curvula. The changes of relative water content in the leaves were consistent with the change of chlorophyll content in leaves.
Analysis on the influnce factors to utilizing efficiency of light and water for alfalfa
2009, 3(11): 73-77.
[Abstract](1527) [PDF 673KB](706)
Abstract:
To explore the influence factors of light use efficiency (LUE) and water use efficiency (WUE) of alfalfa, the related physiological ecology indexes (Pn, Tr, Gs, Ci, Ta, Tl, RH and PAR) were measured using portable C340df photosynthesis instrument in the morning of sunny days at early flowering period on 12 fouryearold alfalfa varieties under field conditions. The results showed that: 1) The physiological factors (Ci and Gs) are the key factors that affect the LUE of Alfalfa, while some external enviornmental factors (PAR, Ta and RH) played a role effect on WUE; 2) WUE and LUE of a variety, Medicago sativa cv. Pondus, were significantly (P0.05) higher than others, and with highest dry matter.
Analysis on growth characters and production levels of two species of naked oat (Avena nuda) in Henan Province
2009, 3(11): 78-81.
[Abstract](1529) [PDF 480KB](674)
Abstract:
To found a possibility and necessity of introduce naked oat (Avena nuda) into Hennan Province, growth characters and production levels of 2 species, Neinongda Oatsl and Neinongda Oats2, from Inner Mongolia were studied at yellow river beach in Henan Province. Grain yields were 457.6 g/m2 and 481.7 g/m2, and forage yields (DM) were 1 608.1 g/m2 and 1 472.8 g/m2. These were higher than that in Inner Mongolia. This imply that the two species are adapted to the soil and the climate of the area.
Analysis to nondormancy alfalfa character in breeding selection for excellent individuals
2009, 3(11): 82-85.
[Abstract](1241) [PDF 378KB](668)
Abstract:
Characteristics that affected plant quality of selected nondormancy alfalfa plants were analyzed with data collected during the seed maturing period. The multi-recursion determination coefficient d was 0.846 7. This indicates that alfalfa biological yield is associated with almost main characters, including the number of total branches and the number of branches with seeds, plant height, length of inflorescences, the number of branch knots, the number of total inflorescences with seeds per branch. The multiple regression equation of alfalfa individual weight with the nine characters in the experiment was y (individual weight)=14.324 9+0.077 2x1(plant height)+0.157 3x2(the number of branches) +0.483 4x3 (the number of branches with seeds) +0.011 2x4 (length of inflorescence) +0.068 7x5 (the number of inflorescence with seeds per branch) +0.032 3x6 (the number of inflorescence with seeds) +0.000 6x7 (stem perimeter) +0.170 2x8(the number of branch knots) +0.427 1x9 (seed yield).
Research progress of forage plant breeding in Qinghai
2009, 3(11): 86-92.
[Abstract](1612) [PDF 931KB](811)
Abstract:
There are 36,449,400 hm2 rangeland in Qinghai Province, China. These rangeland is not only the major source of local economy, but also the source of three famous rivers-Yangze river, Yellow river and Lanchangjiang river. Nowadays, the rangeland is encountering immense environmental problems and the productivity decreased due to long term effects of climate and human being. In order to solve the shortage of forage, or improve natural rangeland and to establish sown grassland, the local researchers have been collecting and breeding of forage species. Up to now, 14 forage species have been registered after the approval of the National Forage Examination and Approval Committee. This paper reviewed the history and achievements of researchers in the area of the utilization and breeding of forage germplasm resource in Qinghai province. Meanwhile, the situation of forage breeding was introduced. Finally, some suggestions were put forward that is helpful to present work.
The effect of plant communities on main soil nutrition
2009, 3(11): 93-96.
[Abstract](1484) [PDF 485KB](723)
Abstract:
Soil nutrition of a natural grassland and three field cropped sainfoin, wheat and potato was assayed in the hills and dongas area of Loess Plateau in Anding District, Dingxi City. The results showed that soil water content in the natural grassland in the 0-20 cm soil layer increased by 5.6%21.8% than that of the crop lands (P0.05 or P0.01), Total nitrogen content in the two years sainfoin soil was up to 1 367 mg/kg,which was higher than the 1-years sainfoin soil, and other soil (P0.05). Effective phosphor content varied in different soil but difference did not significant. Organic matter and phosphor in each soil varied with the same trend from April to June and August, however, pH changed very little.
The response of photosynthesis and growth of spring wheat to enhanced UVB radiation and soil drought
2009, 3(11): 97-101.
[Abstract](1628) [PDF 876KB](693)
Abstract:
The response pigments contents, photosynthesis, biomass and yield of spring wheat cultivars Dingxi24(Triticum aestivum cv. Dingxi24)to enhanced UVB radiation and soil drought under the field condition of pot cultivation. The radiation or drought, simply or combined, led to the decrease in foliar flavnoid content, but only there is statistically significant under the condition of the combination. The water stress caused the reduction of chlorophyll b, but not the content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids. UVB radiation and the combination all led to significantly the reduction of photosynthetic pigments. Various treatments could inhibit the photosynthesis, and the ordination is controlcombination droughtUVB. The drought played more obvious roles in stomatal resistance. There was higher internal carbon dioxide concentration under the condition of drought and the combination, and lower internal CO2 under the condition of UVB radiation. At harvest, the total biomass were significantly declined comparison to control, the order from high to low was controlcombinationUVBdrought. The composition of spikes and yield were also negatively impacted。The results showed that there were interactive between UVB radiation and soil drought, suggesting that one stress factor might alleviate the inhibitory effect of another stress on spring wheat.
Study on planting model of Cichorium intybus cv.Puna sown in various soil
2009, 3(11): 102-105.
[Abstract](1485) [PDF 550KB](725)
Abstract:
Seeds of Cichorium intybus cv.Puna was sown in sandy soil, clay soil and loam soil with hole seeding, drill seeding, broadcast seeding and transplantation with seedlings, and then recorded the fresh weight and growth rates. The results showed that fresh weight were considerably high in all treatments. However, fresh weights were different within treatments, in the same soil, drill seedinghole seedingtransplantation; and in the same planting ways, loam soil sandy soilclay soil. Therefore, the plant adopted the region but line seeding and hole seeding should be the most suitable planting model.
The effect of different sowing methods on the production of Trifolium pretense cv. Minshan
2009, 3(11): 106-108.
[Abstract](1361) [PDF 360KB](645)
Abstract:
A planting experiment with Trifolium pretense cv. Minshan was conducted at a 2 450 meters altitude place in the southern regions of Min county. Seeds of the plant were sprayed with hands (control), or drill seeding with 20 (treatment-1) or 40 row distance (treatment-2). At the end of the planting year, the fresh weight of the treatment-1 was significantly (P0.01) higher than the control, which was more than 4 987.5 kg/hm2, or was 1.27 times of the control; which was also significantly (P0.05) higher than the treatment-2, was more than 101 kg/hm2. The fresh weight of the treatment-1 in the second year was significantly higher than the control (P0.01) and the treatment-2 (P0.05), in which that was 1.02 times of the control. In conclusion, the threatment-1 was the most suitable planting method in the region.
Analysis of the weight growth dynamic of the grazing sheep in typical grassland
2009, 3(11): 109-112.
[Abstract](1555) [PDF 582KB](697)
Abstract:
According to the weight of the grazing sheep in 1987-2007, the minimum value appeared in April, and the maximum in October. The average gained weight was 0.086 3 kg/d during warmseason, but lost 0.049 6 kg/d during coolseason. The analysis with grey correlation suggested that the temperature and wind speed contributed to the change of sheep weight.
Study on trace mineral intake of grazing sheep in different seasons
2009, 3(11): 113-117.
[Abstract](1525) [PDF 806KB](750)
Abstract:
The daily trace mineral intake of grazing sheep was measured by gauze mask and mixed sample of edible forage which was made following the grazed ewes. Comparing with nutrition/nutrient requirements of sheep, daily intake of Fe, Mn, Co could meet the need of ewes and Zn was serious deficient (lacking up to 16%-82%) in grazed sheep except pregnancy in July and August, especially during the early lactation ewes only could get 17.8% from pasture. Daily intake by sheep could not get to a sufficient number of Cu and Se, the lack of Cu reached 55%-59% during the late pregnancy and early lactation, and the lack of Se reached 6%-52% during the whole year.
Correlations among shearing force and feed characteristics of ginger stems
2009, 3(11): 118-124.
[Abstract](1459) [PDF 1115KB](749)
Abstract:
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of morphological characteristic on shearing force, the relationship between shearing force and chemical compositions, and the relationship between shearing force and in situ digestibility of ginger stems. Ginger stems were harvested and all leaves were removed from the main stems. Each stem was cut into two segments. Shearing force was measured with a C-LM3 meat shear. Meanwhile, long axis, minor axis, and chemical composition were measured. Three Xiao Wei sheep were used to determine in situ digestibility of DM and NDF in 48 h for ginger stems. The results showed that long axis was more important than chemical composition in affecting shearing force of ginger stem. There was positive relationship between lignin content and shearing force ginger stems. Correlations were also found between shearing force and other chemical components, such as ADF, cellulose and hemicelluloses in ginger stems. Negative correlations were found between shearing force and DM digestibility, NDF digestibility in ginger stem. These indicats that the variance in stem shearing force was related to chemical composition and morphological characteristics. In situ digestibility of ginger stems had a negative relationship with shearing force. Shearing force was easy to measure and it can be used as an indicator of forage nutritive value.
Study on compound sausages with alfalfa
2009, 3(11): 125-129.
[Abstract](1424) [PDF 687KB](688)
Abstract:
Effects of soy protein, alfalfa and modified starch on yield and texture characteristics of compound alfalfa sausage were studied, and the content of the three materials were optimized using RSM (Response Surface Methodology). Percentage of sausage yield were 97%-121%. Sausage adhesiveness was affected by alfalfa (P0.05), soy protein and modified starch (P0.01), in which there were interaction between alfalfa and soy protein (P0.01), or between modified starch and soy protein (P0.05). Therefore, the optimal content of sausage was composed of 8% alfalfa, 3% soy protein and 2% modified starch.
The characteristic analysis on the relative aluminum tolerance fornine varieties of Gramineae and Compositae
2009, 3(11): 130-137.
[Abstract](1546) [PDF 1363KB](653)
Abstract:
In order to control aluminum (Al) toxicity in acid soil area with biotechnological methods efficiently to, provide good living basis for crop production, nine plants of Gramineae and Compositae were tested for their reactions to Al toxicity by smallpot soil culture method. By comparing the relative tolerance index values through tested the Biomass, leaf area, ratio of root to top and specific leaf area (SLA) of different plants under two Al treatments, Alresistant plants were screened. The results showed that the plant of Gramineae was more Alresistant than the plant of Compositae after Al treatment of 0.2 g/kg. The relative fresh weight of roots, shoots and leaves, relative dry weight of root, shoot and leave and relative rootshoot ratio in Eleusine indica and Digitaria ciliaris of Gramineae were higher than others. Eclipta prostrate of Compositae was sensitive to Al, the values was the lowest one. There was significant correlation in relative fresh weight of root and leave and relative dry weight of root of Gramineae. The result of principal component analysis showed that relative fresh weight of roots could be used as screening index of Al tolerance in Gramineae and Compositae.
Effects of alfalfa meal contained Selenium and Cobalt in diet on digestibility and production performance of Wistar rats
2009, 3(11): 138-142.
[Abstract](1325) [PDF 587KB](699)
Abstract:
The effects of high content of SeCo in alfalfa meal mixed with diets on intake, digestibility, daily gain and feed conversion rate of Wistar rats were studied. Compared with control, alfalfa meal contained SeCo increased pepsin activities, intake and feed conversion efficiency, and decrease gastric remains rate of feed. No any harmful effects were found thorough the experiment when the diets contained 4%-6% of the alfalfa. As the content of the alfalfa increase from 4% to 6% in diet, pepsin activities increased by from 18.1% (P0.01) to 19.8% (P0.01), gastric remains rate of feed decrease by from 7.1% (P0.05) to 9.8% (P0.05), propulsive proportion of small intestine increased by 1.9% (P0.05) to 9.9% (P0.05).
Effects of pesticide application in insect pest control on alfalfa seed yield
2009, 3(11): 143-147.
[Abstract](1555) [PDF 759KB](865)
Abstract:
Proper application of pesticide in insect pest control is essential for optimizing alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seed yield. This field experiment was designed to test the effects of pesticide application on alfalfa seed yield, yield components and insect pest. The results indicated that the treatment of applying pesticide at the budding stage and podding stage increased seed yield by 134%, and also significantly increased racemes per stem, pods per raceme, and seeds per pod, compared with CK (no pesticide application). And only applying pesticide at the budding stage decreased the negative effects of insect pest on seed yield, and led to higher seed yield than that of only applying pesticide at the podding stage. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between racemes per stem and seed yield as well as between pods per raceme and seed yield under the treatments of pesticide application in insect pest control (P<0.05).
Causes and Prevention Ways in top rot of corn
2009, 3(11): 148-151.
[Abstract](1298) [PDF 560KB](721)
Abstract:
Top rot of corn is a systemic infectious diseases. Seeds, soil and plant debris are the primary infection sources. Varieties lack resistance and poor tillage managements are the main causes. Secondary infection occurs in the young leaves of susceptible varieties before or after heading, but it will not affect plant growth and yield. Varieties with high resistance, improvement of cultivation technology and application of chemical pesticides seem to prevent the prevalence or control the damage of this disease.
The influence of enclosure and removement on poisonous plant Aconitum leucostonum
2009, 3(11): 152-156.
[Abstract](1386) [PDF 728KB](740)
Abstract:
To control Aconitum leucostomum with ecological method, a experiment was carried out with tree treatments: the pastures were grazed naturally, or were enclosed without grazing, or were enclosed and the poisonous plants were removed artificially. After 2 years of treatments, height, cover degree, aboveground biomass, individual pant in a bunch and growth season of the plant were record in May 2008. The results indicated that the plant was efficiently controlled with the enclosure of pastures. However, the treatment of enclosure plus remove was the best.
The occurrence and control situation of grassland locusts in Gansu Province
2009, 3(11): 157-160.
[Abstract](1489) [PDF 538KB](729)
Abstract:
The occurrence and control situation of grassland locusts in Gansu Province were analyzed with the documents of several year's reports of Gansu Grassland Technology and Extension Station, and control strategies were summarized. There are 152 species of locusts, and the damaging area was more than 50% in whole nation. Therefore, grassland in Gansu is the key area in the locust's controlling. According to the intensity of the damage by locusts in Gansu, grassland in Gansu can be divided into four area: Qilian Mountain, Ganjia Mountain, Mazongshan Mountain and Longshoushan Mountain. Drought and decline of grassland enhance their lives, reproduction and damage. Since there are many locust' species, and damaging times are different for different species, controlling locusts become the most important work within the all pest control in grassland. Attempt to found some new mechanism to control locusts, and integrate common methods into special methods that used at emergency, grassland locusts would be finally controlled.
The technique research on stemleaf separation for Trifolium pretense cv. Minshan
2009, 3(11): 161-162.
[Abstract](1539) [PDF 259KB](661)
Abstract:
The technique of separation for stemleaf of Trifolium pretense cv. Minshan was studied. The results shows that the traditional methods, such as cutting the whole plants with knives artificially, was laborious, timeconsuming, high cost, and helpful to decrease waste of seeds. In contrast, this technique not only improve the disadvantage as above, but also increase the efficiency of drying and baling, and remove old stems in forage bundles.