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2008 Vol.25(12)

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Yu-Tang LI
2008, 2(12): 1-2.
[Abstract](1062) [PDF 331KB](1530)
Cheng-Guan LIU
2008, 2(12): 3-5.
[Abstract](1092) [PDF 463KB](1523)
Spatiotemporal distribution of moisture content in sand dunes of the unirrigated forestation along the southern marginal zone of Gurbantunggut Desert
2008, 2(12): 6-11.
[Abstract](1389) [PDF 1170KB](761)
Based on the stationed observation from April to November 2006, the spatiotemporal characteristics of moisture content in sand dunes in the southern marginal zone of the Gurbantunggut Desert were studied. The results indicated that the moisture content in different season was different; the highest was in spring, followed by summer and autumn. Spring was the accumulation period while autumn was moisture shortage period. The moisture content in sand dunes in windward was higher than leeward and showed the same trend as the seasonal change. A dry sand layer 10~20 cm was observed on the surface, the moisture content in different places ranked as dune bottom top leeward windward. The study provided scientific reference to water use and unirrigated forestation in arid area.
Plasticity and developing stability contribute to the adaptability differencesin two Elsholtiza species in Tibetan Plateau
2008, 2(12): 12-17.
[Abstract](1607) [PDF 671KB](708)
In order to explore the effect of Plasticity and developing stability on adaptability difference among species, internodes length and node number of Elsholtiza feddei and E.densa in two field density treatments were studied. The result indicated that plastic prolong of internode length was occurred in both density treatments, and species difference was observed. Density treatment had no significant impact on internode number, but it was different brtween the two species, indicating that internode number was a developing stability trait. E.densa had more internode than E. feddei, its internode length had plastic response to density treatments. So the two traits caused higher plant height of E.densa in higher density treatment, this was a adaptive response and meant that E.densa higher fitness in the high density treatment. More internodes in low density treatment indicated an adaptive response. Compared with E.feddei, E.densa had more internode number and indicated a higher adaptability.
Effects of enclosure on the plant species and coverage of degenerated upland meadow in Yunnan Province
2008, 2(12): 18-22.
[Abstract](1515) [PDF 547KB](847)
The effect of enclosing on the improvement of degenerated upland meadow was conducted. The result showed that this measure was very effective to restore plant species richness and coverage on deteriorated upland meadow. After 3 years of enclosure, the number of plant species increased from 27 to 57, 2 times more than before; and reached stable at the 4th year. It was concluded that enclosure was an effective way to inhibit grassland degradation, restore plant species richness and coverage in southern China.
Analysis of vegetation coverage change based on NDVIA case study in Ganzhou area, Zhangye city, Gansu
2008, 2(12): 23-29.
[Abstract](2054) [PDF 1393KB](978)
In order to analyze the dynamic change of vegetation coverage in Ganzhou area from 1987 to 2006, TM images of 1987,2006 and 1∶100 000 topographic maps of Zhangye city were used to extract two levels of vegetation coverage maps, the vegetation coverage changes in this region was analyzed quantitatively by means of vegetation index (NDVI) and quantitative remote sensing model on vegetation fraction. The results showed that the total vegetation coverage declined overall the last 19 years, the areas of poor vegetation conditions such as desertification grassland degraded seriously, vegetation coverage of oasis was stable, some areas even increased.
Discussion on grading index of grassland desertification control base on TM Data A case study of aerial seeding in Xianghuang Banner
2008, 2(12): 30-34.
[Abstract](1239) [PDF 842KB](727)
Studying grading index of grassland desertification control aims to determine the degree of grassland desertification control level, and to provide the indices for scientific desertification control and evaluation, rational utilization and supervision. This paper took Xianghuang Banners aerial seeding project in arid and semiarid region for an example, using vegetation coverage as dominant factor, wind and sand erosion as well as the biological soil crust and soil development as supplementary indexes, set up standard grading of grassland desertification control based on the field investigation and remote sensing image interpreter, providing reference to evaluate grassland desertification control effects and desertification grassland dynamics.
Ecological benefit assessment of grassland restoration projectA case study of Maqu and Anxi County in Gansu province
2008, 2(12): 35-40.
[Abstract](1953) [PDF 680KB](883)
The ecological benefits of grassland restoration project were discussed from the viewpoint of ecosystem service value changes, using Maqu and Anxi County in Gansu province as examples. In Maqu County, food production service values of forbidden and rest grazing project areas of subalpine meadows increased 44.24 yuan/hm2 and 266.84 yuan/hm2, total value increased 610.5 yuan/hm2 and 3 682.4 yuan/hm2, respectively. In swamp meadow, food production service values of the two areas increased 152.85 yuan/hm2 and 63.13 yuan/hm2; total value increased 2 172.0 yuan/hm2 and 897.1 yuan/hm2, respectively. In Anxi County, food production service values in prohibited grazing region in lowland halophytic meadows and desert grassland increased 16.25 yuan/hm2 and 7.75 yuan/hm2, and total values increased by 176.5 yuan/hm2 and 170.5 yuan/hm2, respectively. Therefore, ecological benefits of overall grazing prohibition and rest grazing in Maqu County would be 0.54109 yuan and 3.14109 yuan, respectively; while in Anxi County it will reach 0.49108 yuan.
Study on allelopathic effects of volatile oil in Artemisia scoparia
2008, 2(12): 41-45.
[Abstract](1632) [PDF 600KB](715)
This paper studied the allelopathy effects and chemical compositions of Artemisia scoparia volatile oil. The results showed that volatile oil has different inhibition effects on seeds germination and seedling growth of radish, Lucerne, Chinese cabbage and maize. In comparison with control, seed germination of radish decreased by 27.3%, while root and seedling of Lucerne growth were reduced by 19.2% and 33.4%, respectively. Chemical analysis of the volatile oil was performed by means of GCMSDS. 38 chemical components was identified .The content of the identified compounds made up 87.53% of the total substances detected, including 12 terpenoids compounds, 45.04% of the total substances detected. The relative contents of chemical components more than 1.5% were identified as: 1) 2,5Etheno[4,2,2]propella3,7,9triene; 2)Spathulenol; 3)Caryophyllene;4)Benzene, 1,2dimethoxy4(2propenyl); 5)Caryophyllene oxide; 6)Capillin; 7)Trans Nerolidol;8)BetaFarnesene; 9) Benzene,1(1,5dimethyl4hexenyl)4methyl; 10) Germacrene.
Development and Utilization of herbaceous energy plants
2008, 2(12): 46-50.
[Abstract](9712) [PDF 704KB](2252)
With the reduction of energy, energy plant as a kind of renewable resource is attracting people's more attention. Development of energy plant as the supplement and substitute of existing energy source can gradually relax energy crisis and accord with the trend of sustainable development because of its low production cost and benefit for environment. Herbaceous plant has great potentialities as the energy plant due to its various species, rapid growth and extensive adaptability. An overview on the current research situation and perspective were presented on producing fuel alcohol and biodiesel by herbaceous energy plants, and utilization of wild, semiwild herbaceous energy plants.
Effects of salt stress on membrane permeability and enzymes system of Kochia prostrata seedling
2008, 2(12): 51-55.
[Abstract](1628) [PDF 1000KB](785)
Membrane permeability, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes in Kochia prostrata seedlings were studied under different concentrations of salt stress. The result showed that the membrane permeability and MDA contents increased with the increasing of salt concentrations. Compared with CK, a significant (P0.01) increase in membrane permeability was observed when salt concentration was higher 150 mmol/L; and a remarkable (P0.05) increase in MDA occurred under 300 mmol/L salt concentration. The activity of SOD decreased at 400 mmol/L salinity concentration, but it showed a single peak curve under other treatments and a significant (P0.05) difference was observed when salinity stress was more than 200 mmol/L. Compared with SOD, there was slight change of POD in K. prostrata seedling; a remarkable (P0.01) change was observed 25 days after the treatment. No significant difference was obtained when salt concentration less than 400 mmol/L. CAT showed a similar change with SOD.
Effects of different spatial distributions on growth pattern of Chenopodium aristatum
2008, 2(12): 56-61.
[Abstract](1584) [PDF 988KB](730)
On degraded Inner Mongolia grassland, Chenopodium aristatum was companion species and normally aggregated. In order to explore whether natural spatial distribution type formed after long term evolution affect the existence of C. aristatum, this paper studied the growth pattern of C. aristatum population under regular, aggregate and random spatial distributions. Results showed that the spatial distribution type significantly affected height of individuals, aboveground biomass, belowground biomass and total biomass of C. aristatum population. Height of individuals was the tallest under regular distribution and significant taller than those under both aggregate and random distributions. At the same time, there was no significant difference under aggregate and random distributions. However, biomass indices (aboveground biomass, belowground biomass and total biomass) under aggregate and random distribution were significantly larger than those under regular distribution, but there was no significant difference between biomass indices under aggregate and random distribution. The individual height of C. aristatum aggregate distribution did not show a significant advantage over regular and random distributions, while the three biomass indices of aggregate distribution showed significant advantage over regular distribution but not random distribution. The advantage of aggregate distribution formed after long term evolution was put up only on some indices of growth pattern. The reason was that interspecific interactions and exotic disturbances were excluded artificially under the controlled experiment.
Study on seasonal dynamics of biomass in meadow grassland ofnorth shore of Qinghai Lake
2008, 2(12): 62-66.
[Abstract](1461) [PDF 876KB](765)
Dynamics of the aboveground, underground and total biomass of the alpine meadow grassland in the north shore of Qinghai Lake were studied from May to September, 2007. The result showed that the curve of seasonal dynamic of the aboveground biomass was single apex, the minimum biomass was at the initial growing period and the maximum in middle August, 223.0 g/m2.The distribution pattern of the underground biomass was Inverted Pyramid type. The underground biomass at the depth of 0-10, 10-20, 20-40 cm showed N type from May to September, biomass at the depth of 0-10 cm accounted for to 65% of the total. The turnover value of the underground biomass was 0.45. The underground biomass accumulation were much larger than that of the aboveground in growing season, and the peak value of the underground biomass was earlier than that of the aboveground, the root/shoot ratio of the community showed a decrease first and followed by a increase, the average was 16.1.
Establishing regeneration systems of Gannong No.4 alfalfa
2008, 2(12): 67-70.
[Abstract](1524) [PDF 639KB](786)
Hypocotyls of Gannong No.4 alfalfa were used as explants, MS was used as the basic medium, different concentration of 2,4D and 6BA were added into the medium to induce the callus. The rate of inducement ranged from 86.85% to 99.56%, the treatment of MS+2 mg/L 2,4D + 0.5 mg/L 6BA had the highest inducement rate; yellow and green callus had best differentiation on the medium of MS+0.5 mg/L KT+0.1 mg/L NAA, and the color of plants was tenderly green. The regenerated plants were obtained in the root inducing medium (1/2MS+0.5 mg/L NAA).
Study on the allelopathy effect and allelochemicals content of extracts from different ages of alfalfa on cotton
2008, 2(12): 71-74.
[Abstract](1450) [PDF 426KB](793)
The allelopathy of alfalfa was studied by the method of bioassay of culture plate and filter paper in order to explore how the treatments with three extract concentrations (0.100,0.050,0.025 g/mL) of alfalfa affected the growth and germination of cotton. The results showed that the extract concentrations of alfalfa apparently inhibited the growth of seedling and root of cotton, and the inhibition was stronger with the increase of extract concentrations. Treating cotton seeds with extracts from leaves and stem of 2yearold, 3yearsold and 4yearsold alfalfa, the cottons seed germination were lower than the comparison, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). The strongest inhibition occurred in extract from 3yearold alfalfa leaves and stem. Four phenolic acids content of the alfalfa aqueous extracts were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The four phenolic acids content was the highest in 3yearold alfalfa leaves and stem extract, followed by 4yearold alfalfa leaves and stem extract, 2yearold alfalfa leaves and stem extract, 2yearold alfalfa root, 4yearold alfalfa root, and 3yearold alfalfa root extract, sequentially.
Study on productivity of Medicago sativa with different agronomic measuresin blacksoil region of midtempenate agriculture zone
2008, 2(12): 75-79.
[Abstract](1436) [PDF 655KB](713)
In order to improve the productivity of Medicago sativa in blacksoil region of midtemperature agriculture zone. Experiments were conducted in terms of variety, fertilization and sowing time. Results showed that the yield of M.sativa was 9 826.3-12 191 kg/hm2 under the integration of current techniques. The productivity of M.sativa could be improved if the related techniques were optimized. One of optimized techniques was applying the 15 cm width of ridge that could increase the number of seedlings and the branches of the plants. Another way was to use fast grow and cold tolerant variety such as Longmu 801. Fertilization of P2O5 (138 kg/hm2), K2O (150 kg/hm2) and manure (30 000 kg/hm2) could increase activation of soil and the roots growth. The fourth way was sowing early in summer (July 5th) to improve the productivity.
Studies on improving seed quality of Setaria sphacelata cv.Narok by sealing treatment
2008, 2(12): 80-84.
[Abstract](1433) [PDF 543KB](662)
The experiment studied improving seed quality of Setaria sphacelata cv.Narok with different sealing treatments (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 d). The result indicated that the temperature and relative humidity of sealed seeds increased obviously. The temperature increased rapidly first, then reduced the speed, finally decreased gradually. The trend of relative humidity is similar to that of temperature, but it decreased rapidly in the middle stage. With the increase of sealing time, dehulling rate of sealed seed has increased by 14.04%-52.80% compared to the control. The germination rate of six days sealing treatment was the highest, which contributed to 64% and has increased 10% than the control. The sealing seed treatment could improve the seed quality of S.sphacelata cv.Narok effectively when the temperature was 24.77 ℃, the relative humidity was 93%, and the best time of sealing seed was six to eight days.
Storage, utilization and conservation of forage germplasm in China
2008, 2(12): 85-92.
[Abstract](1473) [PDF 1100KB](850)
Forage play an important role in grassland livestock industry, ecological environment, sustainable development of agriculture as a primary agricultural natural resource. This paper summarized the survey, collection, storage, research and utilization of forage germplasm resource; its current status, existing problems and suggestions about subsequent progress were discussed, including superior and rare germplasm collection, forage genetic diversity research, biotechnology utilization in forage germplasm innovation, duration of germplasm storage, natural evolution speed, storage techniques of shortlife seeds, super gene exploration and function, biological base of species and population conservation.
Research progress in proteomics researches on plant coldstress
2008, 2(12): 93-98.
[Abstract](1238) [PDF 761KB](710)
The coldstress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting the productivity and the geographical distribution of many plants. It can induce the changes in variety and expression of the proteins. Proteomics is an active research field in the postgenomic era. The proteome study was performed in order to analyze the coldstress mechanisms and the coldstress response of plants. Currently, it has been applied to model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, and other herbaceous plants and woody plants. The variety and function of the differential expressed proteins have been identified.
Establishment of singlestrandconformation polymorphism (SSCP) for microbial community Structure in goose intestine
2008, 2(12): 99-103.
[Abstract](1236) [PDF 825KB](653)
PCRSSCP is one of rapid, simple and sensitive analytic technology to examine genome adopting DNA single strand conformation. However, many factors influence the results of SSCP analysis. In order to study microbial community in goose intestine, various controlled conditions such as the gelconcentration, the concentration of crosslinker, the dilution of the PCR products, the electrophoresis temperature, voltage, the presence of glycerol, urea and Lambda exonuclease in gels during electrophoresis were studied. Results showed that while the gelconcentration is 12% (acrylamidebisacrylamide 39∶1), no glycerol, and the voltage is 120 V, with constant temperature during electrophoresis were the best SSCP conditions.
Study on ergot diseases of gramineous grass and characteristics of the fungus
2008, 2(12): 104-110.
[Abstract](1375) [PDF 978KB](772)
Ergot disease could seriously decrease crops yield. Lots of alkaloids in grassfungal parasitism associations were toxic to animals and human. In this study, we investigated gramineous plants in the areas of middle Xinjiang and eastern Qinghai. Ergot disease were detected on 5 genera within 3 subfamily which favored by livestock. Incidence of infection was very high, up to 65%. Ladybugs, flies and ants tend to stay on the infected plants. Eighteen isolates were obtained from 6 species of 5 genera. Characteristics of colony, growth rate, the shape and size of conidia were conducted. The morphological features of the isolates were similarly to Sphacelia sp.. Fungicide sensitivity tests indicated that carbendazim could inhibit the isolates. The wide occurrence of ergot disease in the scenic and pasturing areas should be concerned.
Distribution and morphological characters of Neotyphodium endophytes in some grasses
2008, 2(12): 111-116.
[Abstract](1530) [PDF 946KB](741)
Distribution of the Epichloё endophytes and their host plants were surveyed in Shanghai, Jiangsu, Anhui and Shanxi from March to July 2006.In total 1,487 grass plants, 54.3% was detected to be infected by Epichloё endophytes. In Jiangsu and Shanxi, the infection rates were as high as 55.5% and 69.0%, respectively. Neotyphodium endopytes were detected in these grasses grown in various areas, indicating a wide distribution and variable inhabitations of epichloё endophytes in native Chinese grasses. Morphological characteristics of Neotyphodium isolates obtained from Roegneria ciliaris were investigated further. On PDA plate, colonies grow rapidly to 12.5~37.2 mm/21d, phialide discrete, arising solitary from the aerial mycelium, septated at the base or middle, hyaline, smooth, 14.9~23.2 m long, 1.9~3.1 m at base, tapering to less than 1.0 m at tip; conidia hyaline, reniform to elliptical, bulk is (4.6~5.9)m(2.1~3.4)m. These morphological characteristics are significantly different from the welldescribed Neotyphodium species. Their phylogenetic relationship remains further researches.
Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and base on turf quality of creeping bentgrass
2008, 2(12): 117-122.
[Abstract](1831) [PDF 601KB](736)
Simulated greens were established with PVC pipes filled with four base mixutre in greenhouse in order to understand effect on of fertilizer and base on creeping bentgrass turf quality. The seed was sowed in PVC pipes, which was fertilized with Hoagland and Arnon nutrient solution until the stand formed, then half of the pipes were fertilized with watersoluble fertilizer [Co(NH4)2] and the other half were fertilized with controlled released fertilizer (IBDU) at the same rate. Analysis of root depth and organic matter accumulation indicated that the main effect of base mixtures and nitrogen sources were significantly different. As a result, the establishment speeds of greens with four bases ranked as sandy loam soil base fully amended sand partially amended sand pure sand. Organic matter accumulation speed showed the same trend. The surface layer quality of greens with four bases ranked as fully amended sand partially amended sand pure sand sandy loam soil base. During the turf establishment, urea could help to promote growth and establishing speed. The IBDU released N slower than urea, which adapt to the nutrient requirement of creeping bentgrass growth after establishment. In addition, IBDU was insoluble and function slowly, and should be applied together with urea when turf matured.
Effects of super absorbent polymers on moisture application of Tall Fescue under water stress
2008, 2(12): 123-128.
[Abstract](1652) [PDF 820KB](752)
In order to study the effects of different types and application concentrations of super absorbent polymers on soil water content, the growth characteristics of Tall Fescue and water use efficiency(WUE), potted plant experiments with water retention tests were conducted. The results showed that there were significantly differences in the effects of different types and application concentrations of super absorbent polymers on soil water retention, the decline rates of soil water content in the treatments with 90 g/m2 of BASF, 30 g/m2 of AQUASORB and 290 g/m2 of YANLV were smaller than those of others in one day; the treatments with 580 g/m2 of BASF and YANLV, 90 g/m2 of AQUASORB maintained higher leaf water potential and lower decline rate of water potential; The water amounts of evaporation and transpiration in the treatments with 90 g/m2 of BASF, 60 g/m2 of AQUASORB, 870 g/m2 of YANLV were lower than the control, which saved water by 24.3, 17.61,17.32 g/d, respectively; The average growth rate of plant treated with YANLV was the highest in three super absorbent polymers, about 2.71 mm/d. The cutting litter and WUE of Tall Fescue treated with BASF and AQUASORB were both higher than the control, but the values treated with 580 and 870 g/m2 of YANLV were lower than the control.
Application of managing information system to golf course management
2008, 2(12): 129-135.
[Abstract](1528) [PDF 1042KB](886)
Golf Information management was initiated in 1990s; good clubs had developed their own managing information system (MIS) which was helpful for golf operating and management. MIS could help golf clubs to solve fund wasting problem. This paper introduced the definition and roles of MIS. Golf course GIS and integrated turfgrass management system were also addressed. Some suggestions were brought forward based on current status of golf course management, and prospect of MIS application to golf course management was viewed.