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2008 Vol.25(11)

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article
Yu-Tang LI
2008, 2(11): 1-4.
[Abstract](1013) [PDF 618KB](1451)
Abstract:
Biomass and nutritive components of subalpine meadow on Mt.Xiaowutai
2008, 2(11): 5-12.
[Abstract](1564) [PDF 1175KB](696)
Abstract:
Based on the fieldwork and quantity analysis, the relationships of herbage yield and nutritive value between selected environmental factors in the subalpine meadow of Mt. Xiaowutai were studied. The main results are shown as follows:1) Herbage yield increased with elevation from 2 200 m to 2 600 m and then declined until 2 800 m, which showed high correlation with the species diversity, and the effective temperature and soil nutrition content could partly explain the result; 2) The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggested that the amount of heat and soil organic content, also with soil wetness index inflected the quality of meadow in Mt. Xiaowutai; 3) Most of the plants improved their coldresistance and adaptability to stressful environments by increasing CP, fiber content and caloric value. For grazing, the quality of plants in shady slope was better than that of others, but leguminous plants were inadequate to meet the needs of grazing cattle for growth.
Study on the method of GIS based spatial interpolation of climate factors in China
2008, 2(11): 13-19.
[Abstract](1800) [PDF 1100KB](1007)
Abstract:
Annual average temperature data, annual rainfall and annual accumulated temperature data from 2114 meteorological stations in China and surrounding countries from 1961 to 1990 were interpolated by using inverse distance weighing (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK) and spline with ArcMap. Crossvalidation was applied to evaluate the three interpolation methods. The result indicated that the precision of interpolation results were varied significantly along with the number of selected meteorological stations for interpolating. For the three climate factors, ordinary Kriging shown the best precision. For annual average temperature and annual rainfall, spline shown better result than IDW, but for annual accumulated temperature, IDW was better than spline. The research indicated that the spatial distribution of moisture and temperature in China shown an obvious westeast, southnorth line as same with the HU population line. In the west of this line, the moisture and temperature conditions were poor and in the east of this line, the conditions were good.
EOS/MODISbased drought monitoring models for pasture in spring in Qinghai Province
2008, 2(11): 20-23.
[Abstract](1421) [PDF 567KB](702)
Abstract:
By monitoring soil moisture with ATI and EOS/MODIS satellite data in day and night the linear and logarithmic models of thermal inertia with soil moisture of Qinghai Province were established, and the former was selected as basal model. Two methods, indirectly inversing temperature by radiation and directly inversing temperature, were analyzed and compared. The directly inversing temperature method was brief and practical. Due to the shortage of ATI model, which could only monitor soil moisture of bare land, the revised method through NDVI was utilized. And then, the remote sensing monitoring model for pasture in spring in Qinghai Province was built up. By practical application, it could be concluded that this new method could replace the traditional monitoring method.
Application of community mechanism in grassland resource management in agropastoral areas
2008, 2(11): 24-27.
[Abstract](1413) [PDF 561KB](691)
Abstract:
The problem of grassland degradation in agropastoral areas was extremely serious and the technical approaches could not resolve this problem due to the limitation of traditional grassland management and grassland tenure. The grassland resource management and utilization in Yanchi County of Ningxia were studied in this paper. The limitation of government oriented management and marketoriented management was analyzed, and the necessity, feasibility and difficulty of grassland resource management by community were discussed as well in order to find out a sustainable approach for grassland management and the community mechanism might be an effective way to maintain the sustainable grassland utilization.
Research progress on selection of herbage salttolerant mutant
2008, 2(11): 28-35.
[Abstract](1810) [PDF 863KB](680)
Abstract:
In this paper, the processes and measures of selection of herbage salttolerant mutants obtained in vitro were analyzed. The achievements in regeneration system establishment, selection of materials and variants, origin of variation, identify of variants, salttolerance identification, cell differentiation and plant regeneration were summarized and some unsolved problems were discussed as well.
Effects of planting density of Salicornia bigelovii under seawater irrigation on mineral contents in plants and saline soils
2008, 2(11): 36-39.
[Abstract](1463) [PDF 716KB](751)
Abstract:
The effect of planting density (PD) on the growth and nutrient absorption of Salicornia bigelovii was examined under salt (NaCl) treatments. The dry weight of shoot increased in response to PD. The increment in dry matter reached peak value at a certain PD. The dry weight per plant decreased in response to PD owing to individual competition. The electric conductivity (EC) value and the salt content of the soil decreased conspicuously in response to PD. The absorption of sodium (Na) by plant was 261.22 g/m2 under the PD of 56 plants/m2. It increased to 489.99 g/m2 under 336 plants/m2. The mineral contents in plants tended to decrease slightly in response to PD. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content in shoot increased in response to PD.
Effects of zinc, iron, molybdenum fertilizers on the yield and quality of alfalfa
2008, 2(11): 40-44.
[Abstract](1607) [PDF 549KB](731)
Abstract:
In order to meet the microelement requirement of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) for improving the quality of alfalfa, the effects of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and molybdenum (Mo) fertilizers on the yield and quality of alfalfa in very leanness soil were studied by field trial. The results showed that the application of Zn, Fe and Mo could significantly increase the yield, and the effect was the best when only Fe was applied (Fe 15 kg/hm2), or Zn and Mo were applied together (Zn 12 kg/hm2, Mo 0.5 kg/hm2), the yield could be increased by 15.9% and 5.9% respectively. While only Fe or Mo was applied, and Zn and Mo were applied together, the yield of crude protein could be significantly increased. Applying micronutrient fertilizers could significantly reduce the contents of crude fat and Ca; but no affect on contents of crude fiber, crude ash and nitrogen free extract; and increase the content of P.
Evaluation on the agronomic characters of five crested wheatgrasses under rainfed conditionl
2008, 2(11): 45-49.
[Abstract](1433) [PDF 916KB](683)
Abstract:
In order to screen out high quality forage species/cultivar for the grassland construction and improvement in the cold arid and semiarid areas, five crested wheatgrasses from different regions were used to evaluate their agronomic traits under rainfed condition. The results indicated all the tested materials could complete whole growth period. The average growth days reached 119 days to 124 days. The winter survival rates reached as high as 93 %. There were some significant differences of all tested indexes. In terms of fresh weight, hay weight and seed production and other indicators comprehensively, the best one was Agropyron cristatum collected from Hebei, the second was A.trachycaulum from America, the other three materias including A.cristatum var. pectiniforme form Shanxi, A.desertorum from America, A.mongolicum from Gansu did not perform very well.
Dynamic variation of IAA, ABA, CaM and NADase in NewHy Crested Wheatgrass under salt stress
2008, 2(11): 50-53.
[Abstract](1594) [PDF 428KB](689)
Abstract:
The partial salt tolerance mechanism and partial dynamic variation of intercellular and intracellular signals of NewHy Crested Wheatgrass (NHC) were studied for improving the saline-alkali soil that mainly contains NaCl in Panjin City of Liaoning Province. The seedlings of NHC were cultured with Hoagland nutrient solution, and then, the seedlings were treated with soil salt solution and NaCl salt solution after 3 weeks. The content of IAA, ABA and CaM and the activity of NADKase were tested after treatment. The results indicated that only the content of IAA did not significantly change in 100, 200 mmol/L of soil salt solution and NaCl salt solution but it was different with control; while other physiological indexes increased dramatically with the concentration of salt solution. It could be concluded that NHC activates the Ca2+ signal system through the change of ABA and IAA and increases the content of CaM, then activates NADKase, adjusts cells metabolic activity, so that the tolerance to salt stress could be increased. The threshold concentrations for NHC were 300 mmol/L NaCl salt solution or 200 mmol/L of soil salt solution. The damage of soil salt solution on NHC was greater than NaCl solution under the same concentration.
Preliminary study on drought resistance of alfalfa seedling under water stress
2008, 2(11): 54-59.
[Abstract](1792) [PDF 723KB](762)
Abstract:
Based on 15 morphological and physiological indexes, 22 different alfalfa cultivars and population from America, Australia, Canada and China were evaluated synthetically under water stress in seedling period through principal component analysis and cluster analysis. 15 drought-resistance indexes were simplified into 5 principal components. Based on these 5 principal components, the 22 cultivars were clustered into 3 groups. Their levels of drought resistance were strong, medium and weak respectively.
Comparison test on the production properties of two fescue cultivars
2008, 2(11): 60-64.
[Abstract](1513) [PDF 580KB](729)
Abstract:
The comparison test on the production properties of two fescue cultivars, Festuca arundinacea cv. Qiancao No.2 and F. arundinacea cv. Fawn, was conducted. The result indicated that the growth velocity of Qiancao No.2 was 2.46 cm/day, faster than that of Fawn and the wild breed. During the whole growth period, the height of Qiancao No.2 (155 cm) was significantly higher than Fawn (110 cm) and the wild breed (120 cm). The dry matter yield of Qiancao No.2 was 21.59 tons/hm2 to 27.78 tons/hm2, which were 50.98% to 65.16% and 14.78% to 26.18% higher than Fawn and the wild breed. The average seed yield of Qiancao No.2 was 1 022.5 kg/hm2, which was 30.77% to 111.11% and 14.80% to 26.26% higher than Fawn and the wild breed. In conclusion, Qiancao No.2 was suitable for establishing the sown grassland in the middle and south parts of Guizhou.
Research and application progress on alfalfa saponin
2008, 2(11): 65-69.
[Abstract](1457) [PDF 809KB](706)
Abstract:
As one of high quality legumes, alfalfa is becoming more and more important. Alfalfa contains many biological active components, which also have medicinal value and feeding value, such as saponin, leaf protein, flavonoid, polysaccharide, natural pigment and dietary fiber. In which, alfalfa saponin, with the functions of reducing cholesterol level, antioxidization, immune improvement, could enhance the growth performance of livestock and poultry. The structure, physical and chemical characters, biological functions, extraction techniques of alfalfa saponin and its application in animal production were discussed, and the current situation and development prospect were analyzed as well.
Analysis on the application of AOSCA seed certification procedures in the forage seed production
Pei-Qing MAO
2008, 2(11): 70-74.
[Abstract](1310) [PDF 936KB](699)
Abstract:
Based on the seed certification procedures, the AOSCA established, this paper aimed to compare the certification procedures of seed collected or produced in wild plants and cultivar seed produced in the cultured plants. It showed that there were different procedures for seed certification to produce seeds of wild or cultivar plants. The certified classes prescribed in the wild and cultivar plant were different according to the utilization in the practice and breeding purpose. The determined labels were matched with each certification class, and were able to ensure the genetic consistency in wild or cultivar plants. The advantage and specialty, revealed on the guarantee of seed genetic stability and variety identity in the seed certification, can provide the instruction to practice and the experience to refer for the collection and utilization of wild plant resource and the production of forage seeds. Once the seed certification would be introduced and brought into effect in China, it could promote the revegetation of grassland ecosystems in large scale and the forage seed production.
Astudy on response of soil moisture of alpine wetland to grazing intensity
2008, 2(11): 75-78.
[Abstract](1707) [PDF 481KB](755)
Abstract:
The impact of different grazing intensity, including enclosure (EN), light grazing (LG), moderate grazing (MG), heavy grazing (HG), free grazing (FG), on soil moisture was studied by using paired T test method in Longbao on Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that the significant level of impact on soil was increased with the increasing of grazing intensity. The difference of soil moisture between EN and LG, EN and MG were not significant in all soil layers; with increasing of depth, differences between HG and LG, HG and MG were decreased; the impacts of FG and HG treatments were the most significant. The order of treatment impact from soil surface to 50 cm was LGGU, MGGU, HGFG, ENFG and ENHG, LGHG. The FG and HG enhanced evapotranspiration, reduced soil moisture, and accelerated the wetland degeneration. Proper grazing management was critical to reduce evapotranspiration and degeneration.
Effect of fencing on reproduction strategies of Imperata cylindrical
2008, 2(11): 79-83.
[Abstract](1513) [PDF 736KB](1030)
Abstract:
Imperata cylindrical was a dominant plant in the degraded mountain meadow that was in the restoration process by fencing, in Malong of Yunnan Province. The features of asexual organs of I.cylindrica in the meadow were studied. The results showed that three different types of vegetation community were formed at a gradient with three degradation levels under fencing condition. In fenced light degraded area, the rhizomes of I. cylindrical became longer with the fencing time, but the number of tiller branches did not change, and the stem density increased with the fencing time. In fended moderate and heavy degraded areas, the rhizomes of I. cylindrical became shorter and thinner with the fencing time while the change of rhizome number in heavy degraded area was significant (P0.01) and the change in moderate degraded area was significant (P0.05). The growth through asexual reproduction was limited in moderate and heavy degraded areas.
Studies on the nutrition value and feeding effect of several forage cultivars in karst mountainous region
2008, 2(11): 84-87.
[Abstract](1561) [PDF 503KB](675)
Abstract:
The experiment on growing grasses (4 cultivars) and feeding goats were conducted for 3 years and the result indicated that among 4 cultivars, Leucaena leucocephala shown the highest crude protein content, best palatability and regrowth ability. Zenia insignis contained the highest crude fat. Cajanus caua contained relative higher crude protein. These 4 cultivars were suitable to be extended in krast areas as the high quality forages.
Knowledge acquisition and expression in 3Sbased expert system for alfalfa disease diagnose
2008, 2(11): 88-94.
[Abstract](1319) [PDF 2055KB](714)
Abstract:
The knowledge acquisition and expression is the coral step to build up expert system. The semiauto knowledge acquisition method based on 3S (Geography Information System, Remote Sensing, Globe Positioning System) was used, which combined advantages of the manual method and automatic method for knowledge acquisition so that the accuracy of alfalfa disease diagnosis could be improved. Meanwhile, the traditional database and vector data with spatial attribute were associated by 3S technologies, then it generated a new knowledge database with spatial attribute, and this enhanced reliability of alfalfa disease diagnosis, and it was more advantageous to update the knowledge base in time. In the knowledge expression, the traditional If-Then regulation was used, which was natural, simple, and closer to people's thinking and easy for local technicians to understand. And it was helpful for the extension of Alfalfa Disease Diagnosis Expert System and then the development of alfalfa industry.
Effect of herbicide Langdujing on Stellera chamaejasme control and impact on forage grass yield of alpine meadow
2008, 2(11): 95-97.
[Abstract](1467) [PDF 372KB](810)
Abstract:
The rapid spread of Stellera chamaejasme is speeding up the degradation of alpine meadow in recent years. Herbicide Langdujing was used to control S. chamaejasme at three dosages (675 mL/ha, 750 mL/ha and 825 mL/ha). The result showed that the height, coverage, fresh and dry weight of S. chamaejasme were inhibited by spraying Langdujing in the first year, but the control effect was not obvious. In the second year, it was applied at levels of 750 mL/ha and 825 mL/ha, the control effect was significant (94%), meanwhile, the yield of monocotyledon forage grasses was increased by 15.24% and 17.64% respectively, and the yield of dicotyledon forage grass was not changed. It could be concluded that the dosage of 750 mL/ha was proper for practical application.
Studies on traffic tolerance of natural recreational turf in Qinghai Province
2008, 2(11): 98-102.
[Abstract](1266) [PDF 591KB](734)
Abstract:
The traffic tolerance of the natural recreational turf in Qinghai Province was studied through traffic stress experiment. Based on the comprehensive analysis of natural turf with apparent quality, growth performance and chlorophyll content, it could be concluded that the alpine meadow as recreational turf was suitable for light or moderate traffic stress. The resistance of recreational turf to heavy traffic stress was poor. The grasses in the community showed different resistance to traffic stress, in which, Plantago depressa, Agropyron cristatum and Poa crymophila performed stronger traffic tolerance. The dominant species, Potentilla anserin, shown moderate traffic tolerance ability, and the general capacity of traffic resistance of community was decided by this dominant species. Short-term traffic stress had less influence on the soil bulk density and the turf could recover soon. Heavy traffic stress could cause the structure change of the turf community and even the stability of turf ecosystem.
Studies on traffic tolerance of natural recreational turf in Qinghai Province
2008, 2(11): 103-110.
[Abstract](1519) [PDF 1377KB](729)
Abstract:
The traffic tolerance of the natural recreational turf in Qinghai Province was studied through traffic stress experiment. Based on the comprehensive analysis of natural turf with apparent quality, growth performance and chlorophyll content, it could be concluded that the alpine meadow as recreational turf was suitable for light or moderate traffic stress. The resistance of recreational turf to heavy traffic stress was poor. The grasses in the community showed different resistance to traffic stress, in which, Plantago depressa, Agropyron cristatum and Poa crymophila performed stronger traffic tolerance. The dominant species, Potentilla anserin, shown moderate traffic tolerance ability, and the general capacity of traffic resistance of community was decided by this dominant species. Short-term traffic stress had less influence on the soil bulk density and the turf could recover soon. Heavy traffic stress could cause the structure change of the turf community and even the stability of turf ecosystem.
Determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in soil and water of golf course
2008, 2(11): 111-116.
[Abstract](1910) [PDF 735KB](810)
Abstract:
The method for determining the content of organphosphorus pesticide residues in soil and water of golf course was studied and then it was used to investigate pollution influence to the soil and surface water of golf course, which was caused by the organphosphorus pesticides, such as trichlorphon, dichlorvos and chlorpyrifos. The result showed that only chlorpyrifos was found in soil at a few sampling sites. Trichlorphon, dichlorvos and chlorpyrifos were not founded in the surface water. According to the standards both from China and overseas, the investigation results indicated that the inner lake and surface water of this golf course were not obviously polluted by these pesticides at present. The determination of pesticide residues in golf course and surrounding environment should be strengthened and the research on the decompose pattern of pesticide should be enhanced so that a friendly relation of a golf course and the surrounding environment could be set up.
Effect of PP333 on the growth of two turfgrasses
2008, 2(11): 117-119.
[Abstract](1679) [PDF 355KB](817)
Abstract:
The effect of PP333 with different concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400, 500 mg/L) on the growth of two cold season turf grasses (Poa pratensis and Festuca arundinacea) was studied through spraying the chemical solution on the leaf of the grasses which were planted in pots. The results showed that the height, length and contents of chlorophyll and MDA in leaf were decreased, while the activity of CAT was increased. The effect of PP333 performed an increasing trend with the treatment concentration. And it could be concluded that the resistance of the turf grasses could be improved by spraying PP333.
Preliminary study on drought resistance and watersaving irrigation of 7 warmseason turfgrasses in south China
2008, 2(11): 120-124.
[Abstract](1723) [PDF 965KB](825)
Abstract:
Seven warmseason turfgrasses (cultivated or domesticated) were used to test their drought resistance and irrigation interval in south China. The turf quality, drought resistance of turfgrasses and its relationship with the performance of water saving irrigation were assayed. The result indicated that 7 turfgrasses could be classified into 3 grades based on the drought resistance and the length of irrigation interval. Cynodon dactylon No. 5, C.dactylon No. 1 and C.dactylon No. 1 were in Grade A; Zoysia japonica cv. Lanyin 3, Z. tenuifolia and Eremochloa ophiuroides were in Grade B; Axonopus compressus was in Grade C. Turfgrasses in Grade A saved two third of irrigating water compared with those in Grade C; Those in Grade A saved one half of irrigating water compared with Grade B and same result was found between Grade B and Grade C.
Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae on chafer grub control in golf course
2008, 2(11): 125-128.
[Abstract](1520) [PDF 384KB](779)
Abstract:
The chafer grub (Anomala cupripes) is underground pest in the golf course and severly affect the turf quality and the sport fitness. The chafer grub occurs mainly in late spring and late autumn in Shenzhen. Metarhizium anisopliae was used to control chafer grub in plot test and 5 golf courses, and the result indicated that the fatality rate was 67.6% in plot test and the suitable application rate is 2 g/m2. And the average fatality rate in golf course was 59.8%.