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Based on a series of field investigation into psammophytic vegetation in Horqin sandy land and laboratory analysis of soil properties, the relationship between biodiversity and soil fertility characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that plant diversity indices were low in Horqin sandy grassland. There was different effect of soil fertility (0～10 cm layer) on species diversity. Soil organic C, total N, total P, available N had significant or very significant positive correlation with ShannonWiener, Simpson, Margalef diversity indices, but no significant relation with Pielou diversity index. Available P and pH had no significant correlation with diversity indices.
This paper compared plants vegetation and soil inside and outside of the fencing in Seriphidium transillense pasture in 2005, and analyzed the effects of fencing on plant vegetation and soil. The result showed that plant height, aboveground biomass and cluster of Seriphidium transillense had an obvious increase after enclosure. The soil quality was improved, the soil bulk density inside fence was less than that of the outside, but soil water content increased, especially in 5～10 cm soil layer. The plant components of the pasture had no obvious change, but the proportion of dainty grasses increased remarkable. In conclusion, enclosure improved plant growth and the quality of pasture.
This paper studied restoration effects of enclosed pasture in pastureland rehabilitation areas in northwestern Sichuan province, which showed that degraded grassland started to restore and improve progressively because of eliminating grazing interference after prohibiting grazing and resting grazing. Plant variety and quantity increased, the species diversity enhanced by resting grazing forbidden grazing control. The aboveground biomass in the fenced plot was increased significantly，50.36%～88.77% higher than control. Also the height of plant community significantly improved by 36.79%～76.98%, and the total coverage was also increased by 11.49%～17.28%. The excellent forage plants started to increase while those poisonous declined. The comprehensive evaluation indicated that restoration effect of enclosed pasture in pastureland rehabilitation areas was quite good.
Soil secondary salinification was caused by unreasonable irrigation and bare soil, it has already become a main obstacle of agricultural sustainable development. The spatial and temporal dynamic changes of soil salt content in bare soil, or soil growing Triticum aestivum, Onobrychis viciaefolia, and T.aestivum / Vicia villosa were studied and the difference among four patterns was compared. The results indicated that during the wheatharvest period, three growing patterns had obvious restraining salt effect in 0～20 cm soil layer, and salt content of topsoil was reduced by 16.4%～30.5%.The difference between growing wheat and O.viciaefolia and T.aestivum / Vicia villosa was significant; however, the difference between growing O.viciaefolia and growing T.aestivum / Vicia villosa was not significant. The soil salt content within 80 cm was increased by 14.2% through sowing spring wheat, but decreased by 19.7% and 23% when sowing T.aestivum / Vicia villosa and O. viciaefolia. The vertical distribution of soil salt content was higher in middlelayer (2060 cm) than in the surface (020 cm) and lower layer (6080 cm) when only growing wheat. When growing O. s viciaefolia or T. aestivum / Vicia villosa, soil salt content was lower in the surface than other layers. After spring wheat was harvested, the soil salt accumulated quickly to the surface of the land, and the salt content of topsoil was higher than that in uncovered land. If T. aestivum / Vicia villosa is implemented, it can not only restrain soil secondary salinization, but also produce more forage by 36 018 kg/hm2.
Soil moisture dynamics of alfallfa pasture at different ecosites in Anjiagou valley was studied. The results showed that the soil moisture changed significantly at different sites. The soil moisture in north hill was lower than in the south, the order southern ladder northern slope southern ladder northern slope. The monthly changing of water content was dramatically different, southern ladder and southern slope were higher than other sites from April to June, and both showed no significant. But southern ladder significantly was higher than other sites after July. At different ecosites, the soil moisture was changing at each layer in alfalfa pasture; it was decreased at all vertical sections, most moisture was at 40100 cm depth.
Alfalfa seeds of Aohan and Longmu 801 were used as materials for seedling cultivation, whose explant was used to induce callus and treated with 200 mg/L NaN3 for mutation. The callus was cultured on medium with and without 8 mmol/L Hyp to select mutants. The mutants contained 2.84 times (Aohan) and 3.17 times (Longmu 801) of praline than the wild types. Meanwhile, their soluble sugar content were 1.56 (Aohan) and 1.76 times (Longmu 801) higher than the CK. POD enzyme activity was also significantly different compared with the wild type. PEG（Aohan）and low temperature（Longmu 801）treatments indicated that the mutants had stronger stress resistance (drought and cold) more adaptable to harsh environments.
The changes of osmotic regulators and salt tolerance mechanism of NewHy Crested Wheatgrass (NHC) under salt stress were studied aiming at improving the salinealkali soil that mainly contains NaCl in Coastal Industry Quarter of Yingkou city in Liaoning province. Seedlings of NHC were cultivated with 1/2 Hoagland nutrient solution, and treated with NaCl solution after 3 weeks. Results showed that under 100, 200 mmol/L soil salt solution and NaCl solution, all physiological indexes increased evidently, except root K+ / leaf K+ and soluble protein content. All physiological indexes fluctuated evidently under 300 mmol/L of NaCl solution; and plants died after 7 days of 300 mmol/L soil salt solution treatment. In conclusion, NHC enhanced salt tolerance through increasing root Na+/leaf Na+, proline content, soluble sugars and soluble proteins. The maximum permissible salt concentration for NHC was 300 mmol/L NaCl solution or 200 mmol/L of soil salt solution.
Pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of Mo、Co element fertilizers application on alfalfa growth, quality and trace element content. The results showed that combined application of Mo、Co fertilizers could increase Alfalfa height, forage yield and contents of crude protein, crude fat, phosphor, calcium, and contents of Cu, Mo, B, Zn, Co, reduce the contents of crude fiber, crude ash, nitrogenfree extract; The appropriate combination of Mo、Co fertilizers could enhance the contents of Mn and significantly increase alfalfa height, fresh forage yield and the contents of crude protein, phosphor, calcium, Fe, Cu, Mo, Zn, Co, and significantly reduce the contents of crude fiber, crude ash, nitrogenfree extract.
Based on the 2 years (2003 2004) investigation data at Tianshui Agrometeorological Experimental Station and Qingshui Weather Stations, the growth characteristics of alfalfa root system and the relationship between the growth and environment factors have been analyzed. The results showed that the meteorological resources which alfalfa required at each growth period depend on the time of planting. The sunlight and heat which one year old alfalfa required was higher than that of two years from seeding to pod setting period, after that, but the growth speed increased and the growth period shortened for one year old plant, compared to two years old plant. The results also indicated that the growth speed of root system had a close relationship with the growth of stem and leaves, the fastest growth period for root was in winter and autumn when leaves and stem stopped growing or grew slowly; and the slowest root growth period was in branching to reaping period when the stem and leaves grew luxuriantly. The accumulated biomass of root system nonlinearity correlated to ground (10 cm) temperature (0 ℃) , the accumulation speed increased obviously when the accumulated temperature was over 3 500 ℃. The water content was the highest at 1 580～1 815 ℃ and 5 344～5 941 ℃ accumulated ground (10 cm) temperature(0 ℃). Alfalfa made much more use of soil water than other crops, and its 100 cm soil water consumption was 30% higher than in the wheat field. The dry layer trace was deeper by 40 cm and lasted 120 days longer than wheat field.
Studying effect of different ratio of N,K fertilizer of Baiyan No.7 oats on seeds yield (spikes,weight per 1 000 seeds,seeds of each spike weight,grains of each spike)seeds yield,straw yield and quality. The results showed that inputting N and K fertilizer have significant effect on spikes,weight per 1 000 seeds,seeds of each spike weight,grains of each spike,seed yield and straw yield (P＜0.05).They tend to change from increasing to decreasing with inputting fertilizer increasing. There is significant linage regress between inputting N、K and seeds, straw yield(R2=0.862, P＜0.05；R2=0.838, P＜0.05)；At the level of N75K105 seeds,straw yield reach highest,with 4.90103 kg/hm2 and 9.86103 kg/hm2 respectively. The crude protein、crude fat and crude fiber content in oat seeds change regularly with inputting different amount of fertilizer.
Wild soybean（Glysine soja) is the ancestor of soybean(G.max) , its grain, stem and leaf can be used as feedstuffs. The growth, development and dry matter accumulation of three wild soybean ecotypes and two soybean cultivars were compared in order to study the forage production potential of wild soybean. The results showed that wild soybean could potentially produce more forages than soybean cultivars, its main stem was 73 cm longer that cultivated soybean, its leaf and stem yield were 54.3% and 86.1% higher than those of soybean cultivars. But its pod yield was much lower; cultivated soybean had 6.4 times higher pod production than that of the wild. The characteristics of growth, development and dry matter accumulation were significantly differed among wild ecotypes. The leaf, stem and whole plant yields of wild soybean originated from low attitude area were significantly higher than that originated from the high attitude area and local area, while pod production showed a reverse trend.
29 introduced German ryegrass varieties were grown for two years to select adaptable ones in Suchuan compared with Tetragold and wild ryegrass, according to tillering, plants height, fresh biomass, growth characters at booting and maturity stages. The result indicated that variety Taurus, Barfort, Gemini, Fastyl had better comprehensive growth characteristics and could be used and extended in Sichaun. Licarno, Bartissimo and Alamo had fast jointing speed and higher plant height before heading; Tosca, Zarastro, Remy had strong tillering; Lolita showed high fresh biomass; Defo, Prestyl, Pomerol displayed late flowering and maturity, and could be used as parental materials for breeding.
Based on the ample N,P and K fertilizer, fertilizer containing trace element Fe、Cu、Zn、Mn、B and Mo was sprayed on growing ryegrass in order to study the different trace elements and application rates on yield and quality of the ryegrass. The results showed that spraying Fe（0.05%）、Cu（0.07%）、Zn（0.40%）、Mn（0.10%）、B（0.60%）and Mo（0.20%）raised the ryegrass yield significantly(P＜0.05). Suitable Fe、Cu、Mn、B and Mo trace element fertilizers could improve the content of crude protein (by 3.72%～6.67%)、crude fiber(CF) and ash; Nitrogen free extract (NFE) content tended to decline. The trace element fertilizer of ZnSO47H2O reduced the content of CP，while H3BO3 increased EE content. In addition, the content of Fe、Cu、Zn 、Mn、B and Mo in the ryegrass increased with the increasing application rates; significant difference was observed when 0.1% Cu, 1% B, 0.3% Mo, 0.40% Zn, 0.1% Mn, 0.05% Fe were sprayed（P＜0.05).
The changes of soluble carbohydrate, starch, crude protein of Seriphidium transillense under different enclosure models were analyzed in Ashili country in Xinjiang from May to November 2006.The results showed that the change regulation of storage substance was a similar pattern under different enclosure models. Soluble carbohydrate contents in S. transillense root showed a single peak trend, and the highest contents for perennial enclosure, forbidden grazing land and continual grazing land were 53.43 mg/g, 36.77 mg/g, and 32.63 mg/g respectively; the starch contents appeared reverse V . The crude protein contents showed downupdown trend, and the differences existed in the emerging time and duration of the peak. Contents of soluble carbohydrate, starch and crude protein were significantly different among three enclosure models（P＜0.01）, and the order of soluble carbohydrate was perennial enclosure＞forbidden grazing ＞continual grazing; the order of starch was perennial enclosure＞continual grazing＞forbidden grazing; Crude protein was the highest in continual grazing land.
Space breeding is a new way of agricultural breeding with high variation,highyield, goodquality, early maturity and strong stress resistance. Effects of satellite carrying three Medicago sativa varieties were studied. The results showed that the plant height of Zhongmu No.1 at seedling stage was significantly lower than the ground control, but the height increased at branching and initial flowering stages; The height of Longmu 803 at seedling and branching stages had a significant increase, and that of initial flowering stages was not significantly different; The height of Aohan at three plants stages were significantly higher than that of control. In conclusion, different mutagenic effects of space flight differed with plant varieties and growth stages, this may be caused by different sensitivity to mutation from different alfalfa varieties
Characteristics of soil seed bank, such as species composition, density and diversity in semiarid grassland on loess plateau under fencing and grazing conditions were investigated. The main inclusions were: 1) fencing greatly increased plant species and density of soil seed banks, palatable grass and perennial plant increased; 2) with the increasing soil depth, seeds decreased quickly; 3)Slope direction and position had a tremendous effect on soil seed banks. Density followed the order of southern slope northern slope; slope bottom medium top; 4) The results of the study indicated that the Margalef and the ShannonWiener diversity indexes of soil seed banks in fenced area were higher than enclosed grassland, while Pielou evenness indexes were higher in the latter.
Post harvest stubble management is essential for optimizing grass seed yield in next year. The field experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of cutting time and stubble height on seed yield and seed yield components of Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea). The results indicated that the treatments of cutting time and stubble height significantly affected the number of fertile tillers per square meter and seed yield. The maximums of fertile tillers and seed yield were obtained with the treatments of cutting stubble immediately after harvesting and ground level stubble height. The effects of cutting time and stubble height on spikelets per fertile tiller, florets per spikelet, seeds per spikelet, and 1000seed weight were not significantly different (P0.05). Correlation analysis revealed a consistent positive relationship between the number of fertile tillers per square meter and seed yield under the treatments of stubble height and cutting time.
Yunnan province has abundance of forage germplasm resources because of its complicated natural geography and climate. The natural geography and the abundance ratio, distributing and research status of forage germplasm resources in Yunnan province were introduced in this paper. According to the problems in germplasm resources, suggestions such as extensive collection, effective conservation, intensive research, active innovation and sustainable utilization were put forward. The future research strategies for forage germplasm resources were proposed.
In this study, coding sequence of yak metallothionein (MT-IV) gene was cloned by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the gene specific primers YMT-IVSP1 and YMT-IVSP2, and then 2 pairs specific primers were designed for cloning 2 introns of the yak MT-IV by comparing with the human MT-IV gene. The sequence length of MT-IV gene in yak was 2 099 bp (GenBank Accession No.: EU665491), including 3 exons and 2 introns. The coding regions were composed by 189 nucleotides encoding a 62amino acid protein which contained 20 cysteine residues and no aromatic AA. The length of 2 introns were 1 392 bp and 518 bp, respectively. The MT-IV proteins were highly conserved among yak, cattle, sheep, goat, dog, mouse, human and horse, which had a glutamate insertion at position 5 relative to the classical MTI and MTI1 proteins, and also had the conserved motifs of MTs, such as C－X－C,C－C－X－C－C,C－X－X－C. These results indicated that the yak MT-IV had same molecular characteristics with other mammalian species, but it was necessary to study the expression level of the yak MT-IV in stratified squamous epithe1iat.
The nutrient in vitro digestibility of baled alfalfa silage stored longtime was studied, which included twostage technique for IVDMD and IVCPD, and onestage technique for IVNDFD and IVADFD. The result indicated that the nutrient in vitro digestibility of direct cut baled alfalfa, except for IVCPD, and that of the wilted baled alfalfa silage decreased after ensilaged, there were not significant difference among IVDMD, IVCPD, IVNDFD,IVADFD of baled alfalfa silage with previous fermented juice or formic acid, the IVDMD and IVCPD of baled wilted alfalfa silage were significantly lower than that of direct cut alfalfa（P0.05）.It was concluded that the alfalfa nutrient digestibility decreased after ensilaged, and the wilt treatment decreased alfalfa's DM and CP digestibility.
1530 Bluntnose Black Bream （Megalobrama amblycepnala）（59.900.84 g）were randomly divided into six treatments with three replicates to study the effects of alfalfa meal and fresh alfalfa on its production performance and the digestive enzymes. The control group was fed with the basal diets（0 alfalfa meal）, the other groups were fed with diets containing 8%(group I ), 16%( group II), 24% （group III）and 32%（group IV） alfalfa meal and fresh alfalfa（group V）respectively. The results showed that 1）Comparing with the control group, the average daily gain and relative growth rate of the fishes fed with 8% or 16% alfalfa meal had very significantly increase (P 0.01), group III was higher and group IV was lower than that of control, but no significant difference was observed (P0.05). 2) The activity of digestive enzymes of all experimental groups was higher than the control group. The protease in hindgut of groupⅡ and the amylase in hepatopancreas of group IV were significantly higher than control group (P0.05). 3) Compared with the control, the economic benefits of the group I and Ⅱ were improved. 4) Feeding with fresh alfalfa could increase digestive enzymes activities, improve growing performance and achieve better economic profits.
Looking for a new way on green fodder for laying geese in winter of northern China, following the introduction and cultivation of amaranth, the effect of amaranth silage on performance of laying geese was conducted. The results showed that it was feasible to make amaranth silage in winter; the nutrient quality and feeding value were improved. Compared with the control group, the laying rate, breeding egg rate and feed conversion efficiency increased markedly; while abnormal egg rate and broken egg rate decreased. There were no difference in fertilized egg rate, hatchability rate and the rate of breed goose between the control and experimental group. The use of amaranth silage may solve the problem of green fodder shortage in winter, and improve the economic profit of haying geese.
Effects of feeding cows with Italian ryegrass was investigated in this paper. Italian ryegrass was grown in winter fallow paddy field. The 23 days cow feeding experiment (5 days pretest and 18 days formal test) showed that replacing all or part of wild weeds with Italian ryegrass as the green fodder could improve milk production, prolong cresttime of lactation and increase the milk protein content. The experiment also proved Italian ryegrass can increase the rate of milk protein at the peak and the decline of cow-milking. By economic returns estimation, replacing all the wild weeds with Italian ryegrass as green fodder could make a profit of 6 RMB per cow per day. The economic returns are notable.
Based on the investigation and experience, grassland resources and livestock production in France were introduced. References were presented combining current situation in China, including further changing perspective on development concept, paying more attention to the harmony and unification between economic development and ecological environment protection; establishing policy support system as soon as possible; further strengthening familycontract system; encouraging to develop livestock professional associations; putting more efforts on extension and training of practical technique.
The basic research on turfgrass is the foundation and core in the turf grass science and development of turf industry. The turf industry in China has been given increasing attentions in recent years and developed rapidly. However, the corresponding research on turfgrass germplasm resources lagged seriously. Therefore, the research on introduction and domestication of turfgrass should be the focus in turf science currently. The paper summarized researches on the theory, process and evaluation system in turfgrass introduction of China, and analyzed the current situation and main problems. Some suggestions were proposed according to the weak basic research, ill equilibrium between the introduction and breeding, and the disjointing between introduction research and the market demand.
The remaining pear orchards are mainly found in some valleys along the Yellow River in Lanzhou, such as Anning, Shichuan, Qingcheng vallys and so on, where provide the main habitat of the famous Lanzhou pear. Besides of ecological and traveling values, the important of the orchards also shows their great values in providing of germplasm resources, naturehistory cultural heritage in the city. It is found that there is only 2 570 pear trees remained cover with 183 hm2 in Lanzhou. Some survival issues of those trees are discussed, therefore, suggestions for improving protection and development of the remaining pear orchards are proposed in the paper.
Nine years of investigation of converting cropping land to forestry or grassland engineering at Beijishan terraces in Huang Yuan indicated that in terraced fields on top of the mountain, 94% Ulmus pumila and 19.4% Hippophae rhamnoides died; at the waist of the mountain, 93% U.pumila and 18.2% H. rhamnoides died; while at the bottom of the mountain, the death rates for two species reduced to 92.7% and 18.6%, respectively. 100% Caragana korshinskii survived at three levels with poor vigor; Grass dominated by L.secalinus reached 850 g/m2 dry matter. According to the grass growth regulation, three regression equations for the top, waist and bottom of the mountain were y=78.033+102.473 3x, y=67.333+102.253 3x, y=54.244 4+101.92x, respectively.
Growth characteristics, stemleaf ratio, biomass, crude protein and grain yield ten varieties of Avena sativa were studied in Datong County, Qinghai Province. The results indicated that ten varieties have short growing stages and could grow in Datong Region. The panicle length, rings and number of spikelet, and grain number and yield of Qinghai 444, Canada cultivar and LENA were higher than other varieties and were suitable for seed production. The crude protein and biomass of Qinghai sweet, Qingyin No.1 and Qingyin No. 2 were higher than other varieties and good for hay production.
The necessity and solution to alfalfa industrialization development in southern edge of the region was analyzed in this paper. It was presented that alfalfa industrialization was a key to adjust industry structure, develop high quality and profit animal husbandry, as well as a green industry for ecoenvironment construction, ecoagriculture and sustainable development. Alfalfa industrialization could not only bring good economic return for farmers, but also produce great social and ecological profits. So the strategy to alfalfa industrialization in Jingchang included leading industry development, large scale production, reasonable service system, combined grassanimal production development and government function strengthening.